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En relación con la propuesta de resolución provisional de 6 de noviembre de 2008, recibida el 19 de noviembre, sobre la ayuda solicitada para el proyecto con número de expediente iap-59000-2008-44, y en virtud del derecho de alegación que se menciona en

Electrically Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries

Call information
Public-Private Partnership "Green Cars":
Cross-Thematic cooperation between NMP,
ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT (including Climate Change), TRANSPORT (including
Call title: Sustainable automotive electrochemical storage
Date of publication: 30 July 2009
Deadline: 14 January 2010 at 17.00.00 (Brussels local time)

Summary of proposal

1. Objetives

To develop and test new concepts for batteries with very high specific energy (>300 Wh/kg),
and fast charging (>5C), based on electrically rechargeable metal-air batteries.
2. Background

Metal-air batteries are unique because the cell cathode active material, oxygen, is not stored in
the battery. This provides a battery with an inexhaustible cathode reactant and, depending on
the selected metal, high energy density.
Source: For instance, see the theoretical energy densities in the next list (including oxygen mass in the cell) [Sandhu et al. Journal of Power Sources 170 (2007) 196–209]:  Li-air: There have been also some attempts to fabricate electrically rechargeable metal-air batteries, but many problems have been identified in such rechargeable devices that can reduce the cycle life:  Aqueous electrolytes can not be used because charging potentials are too high and water electrolysis is the preferential reaction. In the case of lithium, it is not stable in the presence of water.  The air electrode shows high overpotentials in charge and discharge, therefore catalysts are required particularly during oxygen production during charging.  Oxidation of the air electrode, both catalyst and support, during battery charging. It is particularly sensitive to charging when catalysts and supports are oxidized.  Dendritic growth of metal during charging, that may end up in cell short circuiting.  Shortening of cell lifetime due to oxygen diffusion through the electrode that eventually reacts chemically with the metal in the negative electrode.  Ohmic losses due to low ion conductivity in the electrolyte.
 Instability of the electrolyte in charge and discharge cycles.
3. Strategy

We propose a gradual medium to high risk evolution by moving from aluminium to lithium as
negative electrode.
The approach in this project will be comprehensive, paying attention to:
 The three main cell components that could affect and improve cycle life: (1) the positive
(air) electrode, (2) the electrolyte and (3) the negative (metal) electrode.  In addition to this, the design of the module in terms of efficient packaging of cells, rational integration of components, simplicity of manufacturing and easy dismantling for further recycling will be a major issue in this project.  Moreover, the final cost of the battery will be an important parameter to assess. For this reason, a cycle life analysis will be carried out with the aim to control the net consumption of those battery components with higher cost.
4. Consortium structure
IMDEA Energy (Spain). Coordinator. Expertise in production of porous metal oxides at
nanoscale and making deposits and thin films on carbon or metal substrates, as well as ion-selective ceramic membranes. To be involved in the development of the positive electrode and ion-selective membranes for the electrolyte and to protect the anode.
Primary Li-air battery maker. Expertise in production and protection of lithium metal.
To be involved in the development of the negative electrode and in integration. Preferred type of partner: SME.
Electrolyte developer. Expertise in (a) polymer electrolytes or (b) ionic liquids,
preferably for primary Lithium batteries or for Li-ion batteries. To be involved in the development of the electrolyte. Preferred type of partner: Technology centre, SME or large Company.
Automotive systems supplier. Expertise in design and manufacturing of automotive
systems. To be involved mostly in integration and manufacturing. Preferred type of partner: SME or large Company.  Life cycle analysis. Expertise in life cycle analysis, preferably applied to batteries or
other electrochemical devices. Experience in environmental impact assessments would be of interest. Preferred type of partner: Research Centre or University.  Recycling. Expertise in recycling of battery components. Additional experience in
ecodesign to facilitate recycling will be welcome. Preferred type of partner: Research Centre or University.
6. Deadline and e-mail for responses to partner search
Deadline: 24-11-2009


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Appendix 4

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