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Basf.34738.kc 9804.pmd

BASF Fine Chemicals. Know-how and quality for the feed industry
Keeping Current
Vitamins in pet foods
1. Introduction
Major Vitamin function and deficiencies in pets
Nutrient
Major Function
Major Deficiency
Xerophthalmia, ataxia, tissue keratinization, polyneuritis, hind legs paralysis, elevatedcerebro-spinal fluid pressure, depressedimmune system, reduced fertility status, skin edema, steatitis jaundice,liver necrosis, anemia, erythrocytehemolysis, muscular dystrophy, fetal death,reduced fertility Prolonged blood clotting, low prothrombin,intramuscular bleeding, anemia, hemorrhage Loss appetite, polyneuritis, skin edema, fatty liver, fatty heart, convulsions, cyanosis,gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea Major Vitamin function and deficiencies (cont.)
Nutrient
Major Function
Major Deficiency
Poor growth, shortened bones, fused ribs, dermatitis, poor hair coat, seborrhea, photophobia, cataracts, anemia, stiff crooked legs,fetal death, reduced fertility, collapsedovarian follicles, diarrhea, anal mucosainflammation, ulcerative colitis goose stepping, demyelinization of spinal cord, depressed immune system, decreasedmilk production, embryo detachment, diar-rhea, GI ulceration, fatty liver Bowed legs, diarrhea, general dermatitis, dermatitis of feet and mouth, anorexia, hind Dermatitis around the eyes, fatty liver, ataxia,convulsions, diarrhea, vomiting, Poor growth, fatty liver, perosis, enlarged spleen, abnormal gait, demyelinization ofperipheral nerves, depressed immunesystem, puppy spraddle legs, reducedfertility, kidney damage Anemia, anemia, poor growth, poor hair coat fatty kidney, kidney damage, ataxia, uncoordinated hind legs, impaired thyroid, diarrhea Poor growth, anemia, poor skin condition, reactions involving methyl donorssuch as methionine and choline,immunity mouth and eyes, perosis, fertility, poor hair coat, spasms in hind legs, stiff gait,reduced fertility 2. Physico-chemical properties
tration decreases as it gains water.
2.1. Flowability
feed additive. The flowability of aproduct is very much influenced Flowability
2.2 Hygroscopicity Test
2.3 Lumping Test
In some cases acid/base reactionsmight occur that form salt-like 2.5. Static Chargeability of
Powders - Charge to Mass Ratio
Volts/10g
Chargeability
weather. Products of this typemust be kept in air-conditioned cylinder corresponds roughly tothe weight of four 20 kg bags on 2.4 Compression Test
Physico-chemical properties of fat soluble vitamins (22C, 50%RH)
Hygroscopicity
Flowability
Electrostaticity
Bulk Density
Compression
Volts/10g
Physico-chemical properties of fat soluble vitamins (32C, 85% RH)
Hygroscopicity
Flowability
Electrostaticity
Bulk Density
Compression
Volts/10g
3. Vitamin stability in premixes
and feeds: a practical approach
3.1. Vitamin Intrinsic Factors
95%. BASF, 1986, compared thestability of crystalline ascorbic acid 3.2. Vitamin Formulation
Processes
sprayed in a tower and dried withcold air. Usually, it contains starch 3.3.2. Straight Vitamin Stress
vitamin E and choline chloride.
Ethylcellulose coating was devel- 3.3.3. Premix Stress Factors
3.3. Stress Factors
3.3.1. Vitamin Stress Factors
crystals to a smaller particle size.
3.3.4. Extrusion Stress Factors
3.3.7. Methods of Correcting for
Vitamin Losses Caused by
Processing
3.3.5. Drying/Enrobing
3.3.8. Economics of Vitamin
Stability
3.3.6. Practical Applications
Cost/Retained unit = Price/ Kg/ (% active X % retained) Level of vitamin stress in different feed processes
Choline/
Straight
Trace Mineral
Vitamins
Premixes
Extrusion
Average industry vitamin stability in vitamin straights (unopened container)
Vitamin Retention %
Loss/Month
Average industry vitamin stability in vitamin (w/o choline) premixes (blends)
Vitamin Retention %
Loss/Month
Effect of trace element source on average industry vitamin stability in premixes
Vitamin Retention %
Loss/Month
emperature
Vitamin Retention %
Extrusion T
xtrusion
y vitamin stability thr
industr
e
g

emperature
T

VIitamin Retention %
ying and enr
y vitamin stability thr
industr
e

Table 10. Average industry vitamin stability in extruded petfood
Vitamin Retention %
Avg. Loss/Month (%)
A beadlet Non-S.Cong. non-XL 95 90 73 58 44 37 30 25 20 15 Table 11. Petfood vitamin stability
Extrusion Temperature Drying/Enrobing Petfood Storage
(Table 6)
(Table 8)
(Table 9)
(Table 10)
Retention
4. Natural-derived Antioxidants
Table 12. Efficacy of single and composite natural-derived antioxidants in mixed fat
Mixed tocopherols + Rosemary+ Lecithin + Citric Mixed tocopherols + Rosemary + Lecithin + Ascorbic Mixed tocopherols + Rosemary + Lecithin + Citric + Ascorbic + EDTA 1 Applied at recommended or otherwise commonly used levels 4.1. Stability of natural-derived
antioxidants

Table 13. Antioxidant stability through petfood extrusion and storage
Cumulative Retention, %
Antioxidant
Extrusion
Storage1
4.2. Activity of natural-derived
antioxidants

Table 14. Activity of several synthetic and natural-derived antioxidants in mixed fat
Equivalence
Without stressful
Antioxidant
processing
Post-extrusion
BHA + EDTA + Phosphoric + Mono-,di-glicerides Mixed tocopherols + rosemary + lecithin +citric + ascorbic + EDTA Mixed tocopherols + rosemary + citric +lecithin 4.3. Why Should One Care About
Antioxidant Activity in Foods?

Table 15. Effect of food antioxidants on vitamin stability in dry petfoods
Vitamin Retention (%) After 3-Months
Antioxidant1
carotene
BHA + EDTA + Phosphoric +Mono-, di-glicerides Mixed tocopherols + citric +ascorbic + Lecithin + EDTA 1 Applied at recommended or otherwise commonly used levels.
2 Crystalline ascorbic acid.
3 Not analyzed because of interference between vitamin and antioxidant.
4.4. Oxidation Catalysts
Table 16. Reactivity of trace mineral forms
Beta-carotene half-life (min)
Table 17. Effect of trace mineral level on petfood oxidative stability
Trace minerals, ppm
Beta-carotene
half-life (min)
Therefore, it is crucial not only to stabilize the fat with an adequate antioxidant, but also control all otherpotential catalysts of oxidation (Table 18).
Table 18. Recommendations for controlling specific types of oxidation
Type of oxidation
Recommendation
Reduce level of trace minerals or change source tochelated forms 5. Tissue oxidation by free
radicals
5.1. Free Radical Production
5.2. Free radical defense
5.5. Beta-carotene
5.6. Enzyme Systems
5.3. Vitamin E
5.7. Antioxidant vitamin
supplementation in relation to
vitamin requirement
5.4. Vitamin C
5.9. Special senses
5.8. Immune system
5.10. Cardiovascular
5.11. Cancer
5.13. Recommended antioxidant
vitamin supplementation
5.12. Ischemia / Reprofusion
vitamin E toxicity in other species.
Table 19. Recommended antioxidant vitamin daily supplementation for pets
Size (kg)
Size (kg)
Table 20. Recommended antioxidant vitamin supplementation of petfoodsa
Units/kg
a Based on an average consumption of 2% of body weight/day of dry petfood containing 3300 kcal ME/kg Senior/Low Calorie
Performance
Adult Maintenance
Growth/Reproduction/Lactation
Lowest, average and highest vitamin label guaranteed analysis per kilogram of dogfood*
UNITS/kg Petfood
Senior/Low Calorie
Performance
Adult Maintenance
Growth/Reproduction/Lactation
Lowest, average and highest vitamin label guaranteed analysis per 1000 kcal ME of dogfood*
UNITS/kg Petfood
Semi-moist
Performance
Maintenance
lactation
reproduction
Recommended vitamin supplementation levels for petfood
Vitamins
References
Adams, C.R., 1982. Folic acid,
acid content of the diet upon therequirement for vitamin E. Amer. J.
Symposium on “Antioxidants,Immune Response and Animal Nutrition,” Mark Morris Associates,Topeka, Kansas.
Schneider, J., 1986. Synthesis;formulation and stability of vita- Important: While the information and datacontained in this bulletin are presented ingood faith and believed to be reliable, theydo not constitute a part of our terms andconditions of sales unless specificallyincorporated in our Order Acknowledge-ment. NOTHING HEREIN SHALL BEDEEMED TO CONSTITUTE A WARRANTY,EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, THAT SAIDINFORMATION OR DATA ARE CORRECTOR THAT THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBEDARE MERCHANTABLE OR FIT FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT SAIDINFORMATION, DATA OR PRODUCTS CANBE USED WITHOUT INFRINGING PATENTSOF THIRD PARTIES.

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