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Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet

RESEARCH
Research and Practice Innovations
Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and aPractical Guide to Their Reduction in the DietJAIME URIBARRI, MD; SANDRA WOODRUFF, RD; SUSAN GOODMAN, RD; WEIJING CAI, MD; XUE CHEN, MD; RENATA PYZIK, MA, MS;ANGIE YONG, MPH; GARY E. STRIKER, MD; HELEN VLASSARA, MD estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to ABSTRACT
Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:911-916. contain high levels of advanced glycation end products(AGEs).
(dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidantstress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent Advancedglycationendproducts(AGEs),alsoknown
as glycotoxins, are a diverse group of highly oxidant epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This compounds with pathogenic significance in diabetes report significantly expands the available dAGE data- and in several other chronic diseases AGEs are base, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares created through a nonenzymatic reaction between reduc- cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE ing sugars and free amino groups of proteins, lipids, or formation, and introduces practical approaches for reduc- nucleic acids. This reaction is also known as the Maillard ing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the find- or browning reaction The formation of AGEs is a part ings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by Ͼ10- to of normal metabolism, but if excessively high levels of 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories.
AGEs are reached in tissues and the circulation they can Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are become pathogenic The pathologic effects of AGEs are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation related to their ability to promote oxidative stress andinflammation by binding with cell surface receptors or during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such cross-linking with body proteins, altering their structure as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain rel- and function Among the better-studied AGEs are atively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of the stable and relatively inert N␧-carboxymethyl-lysine new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE (CML) and the highly reactive derivatives of methyl- inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly glyoxal (MG). Both these AGEs can be derived from pro- reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cook- ing times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of In addition to AGEs that form within the body, AGEs acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The also exist in foods. AGEs are naturally present in un- new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for cooked animal-derived foods, and cooking results in theformation of new AGEs within these foods. In particular,grilling, broiling, roasting, searing, and frying propagateand accelerate new AGE formation A wide varietyof foods in modern diets are exposed to cooking or thermal J. Uribarri is a professor of medicine, G. E. Striker is a processing for reasons of safety and convenience as well professor, Division of Nephrology, and H. Vlassara is a as to enhance flavor, color, and appearance. The fact that professor and director, Division of Experimental Diabe- the modern diet is a large source of AGEs is now well- tes and Aging, Department of Medicine, S. Goodman documented Because it had previously been as- is a study dietitian, W. Cai is a senior scientist, X. Chen sumed that dietary AGEs (dAGEs) are poorly absorbed, is a research coordinator, R. Pyzik is a senior research their potential role in human health and disease was coordinator, and A. Yong is a senior clinical research largely ignored. However, recent studies with the oral coordinator, Department of Geriatrics, Mount Sinai administration of a single AGE-rich meal to human be- School of Medicine, New York, NY. S. Woodruff is a die- ings as well as labeled single protein-AGEs or diets en- titian consultant, Nutrition Options, Inc, Tallahassee,FL. riched with specific AGEs such as MG to mice clearly Address correspondence to: Helen Vlassara, MD, Divi- show that dAGEs are absorbed and contribute signifi- sion of Experimental Diabetes and Aging, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1640, One Gustav Levy Place, Consumption of AGE-rich diets by mice is associated with elevated circulating and tissue AGEs and conditions such as atherosclerosis and kidney disease On Manuscript accepted: October 23, 2009. the other hand, restriction of dAGEs prevents vascular Copyright 2010 by the American Dietetic and kidney dysfunction diabetes type 1 or type 2 improves insulin sensitivity and accelerates wound healing Low dAGE intake has also been shown to lengthen lifespan to the same extent as does 2010 by the American Dietetic Association Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION energy restriction in mice Studies in healthy human AGE Inhibitory Agents
beings show that dAGEs directly correlate with circulat- Because a low or acidic pH arrests AGE development, ing AGEs, such as CML and MG, as well as with markers new AGE formation in cooked meat was tested following of oxidative stress Moreover, restriction of dAGEs in exposure to acidic solutions (marinades) of lemon juice patients with diabetes or kidney disease as and vinegar. Samples from lean beef were marinated in well as in healthy subjects also reduces markers of acidic solutions of either lemon or vinegar for 1 hour oxidative stress and inflammation. Together, the findings before cooking (see the In addition, the effect of a from animal and human studies suggest that avoidance prototypic AGE inhibitor (aminoguanidine, 200 ␮mol/L) of dAGEs in food helps delay chronic diseases and aging was compared to that of a lipid antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], 100 ␮mol/L) on new AGE forma- From a practical perspective, aside from a few reports, tion during heating by assessing CML content in oil (ex- which include an initial dAGE database on 249 foods tra virgin olive oil, Colavita, Linden, NJ) samples, heated this area is void of relevant information and guidance for professionals. The purpose of this report is to expand theexisting dAGE database by more than twofold, validate Statistical Analysis
the methods used to test AGEs in food, examine differentprocedures and reagents on new dAGE formed, and in- troduce practical methods to reduce the consumption of and the Figure are presented as meanϮstandard error of the mean. Differences of mean values between groups were tested by unpaired Student t test oranalysis of variance (followed by Bonferroni correction formultiple comparisons), depending on the number of groups. For nonparametric values, the Mann-Whitney U AGE Content of Foods
unpaired test or the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of ranks was The AGE content of food samples was analyzed during used, depending on the number of groups. Correlation the period 2003-2008. Foods were selected on the basis of analyses were evaluated by Pearson’s correlation coef- their frequency on 3-day food records collected from ficient. Significant differences were defined as a P va- healthy subjects in a catchment population in the Upper lue Ͻ0.05 and are based on two-sided tests. Data were East Side and East Harlem in Manhattan, New York, analyzed using the SPSS statistical program (version NY. Therefore, these foods represent foods and culinary 15.0 for Windows, 2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). For data techniques typical of a Northeastern American multieth- presentation, food groups were based on the American nic urban population. Foods were obtained from the caf- Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Associa- eteria of The Mount Sinai Hospital, from local restau- rants or supermarkets, or were prepared in the GeneralClinical Research Center at the Mount Sinai School of RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Medicine. Foods were subjected to standard cookingmethods such as boiling (100°C), broiling (225°C), deep- AGE Content of Foods as Determined by CML Levels
frying (180°C), oven-frying (230°C), and roasting (177°C), The AGE content in 549 foods, based on CML, is pre- unless otherwise stated in the database (see cooking varied as described in the database. Test proce- The new database contains more than twice the num- dures such as marinating, application of differing heating ber of food items than the previously reported database conditions, or cooking foods in differing fats or oils are and shows that, based on standard serving sizes, the meat group contained the highest levels of AGEs. Al-
Preparation of food samples for AGE measurement was though fats tend to contain more dAGE per gram ofweight, meats will likely contribute more to overall dAGE performed as previously described Briefly, food sam- intake because meats are served in larger portions than ples were homogenized and dissolved in phosphate buffer are fats. When items in the meat category prepared by saline and the supernatants tested for AGEs with en- similar methods were compared, the highest dAGE levels zyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a monoclo- were observed in beef and cheeses followed by poultry, nal anti-CML antibody (4G9) The AGE content of pork, fish, and eggs. Lamb ranked relatively low in each food item was based on the mean value of at least dAGEs compared to other meats available online three measurements per sample and expressed as AGE red meats and poultry contain high levels of dAGEs when Selected items from different food categories were cooked under dry heat. This is attributable to the fact tested by a second enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that among the intracellular components of lean muscle for content of MG-derivatives using an anti-MG monoclo- there exist highly reactive amino-lipids, as well as reduc- nal antibody (3D11 mAb) and the results were ex- ing sugars, such as fructose or glucose-6-phosphate, the pressed as nmol/100 g or nmol/100 mL food. The test combination of which in the presence of heat rapidly sensitivity for CML and MG was 0.1 U/mL and 0.004 nmol/mL, respectively; the intra-assay variation was Higher-fat and aged cheeses, such as full-fat American Ϯ2.6% (CML) and Ϯ2.8% (MG) and the inter-assay vari- and Parmesan, contained more dAGEs than lower-fat ation was Ϯ4.1% (CML) and Ϯ5.2% (MG).
cheeses, such as reduced-fat mozzarella, 2% milk ched- Table 2. Database of combined methylyglyoxal (MG) and carboxymetyllysine (CML) content of selected foods
Advanced Glycation End Product Content
Food item
Total MG nmol/100 g
Total CML kU/100 g
Solid foods (per 100 g food)
Bread, white
Crackers, Pepperidge Farms Goldfish (Campbell Soup Co, Camden, NJ) Margarine, Smart Balance (CFA Brands, Heart Beat Foods, Paramus, NJ) Total MG nmol/100 mL
Total CML kU/100 mL
Liquids (per 100 mL food)
Ice cream, vanilla
Olive oil, heated at 100°C for 5 min (Colavita, Linden, NJ) Olive oil, heated at 100°C for 5 min ϩ butylated hydroxytoluene (Colavita, Linden, NJ) Olive oil, heated at 100°C for 5 min ϩ aminoguanidine (Colavita, Linden, NJ) Coke, Diet Plus (Coca-Cola Co, Atlanta, GA) Coca Cola Classic (Coca-Cola Co, Atlanta, GA) Pepsi, diet, caffeine free (PepsiCo, Purchase, NY) SoBe Adrenaline Rush (South Beach Beverage Co, Norwalk, CT) SoBe NO FEAR Super Energy (South Beach Beverage Co, Norwalk, CT) dar, and cottage cheese. Whereas cooking is known to garine, and mayonnaise, were also among the foods high- drive the generation of new AGEs in foods, it is interest- est in dAGEs, followed by oils and nuts. As with certain ing to note that even uncooked, animal-derived foods such cheeses, butter and different types of oils are AGE-rich, as cheeses can contain large amounts of dAGEs. This is even in their uncooked forms. This may be due to various likely due to pasteurization and/or holding times at am- extraction and purification procedures involving heat, in bient room temperatures (eg, as in curing or aging pro- combination with air and dry conditions, however mild cesses) Glycation-oxidation reactions, although at a slower rate, continue to occur over time even at cool Of note, with heat kept constant, the type of cooking fat temperatures, resulting in large accumulation of dAGEs used led to different amounts of dAGEs. For instance, scrambled eggs prepared with a cooking spray, marga- High-fat spreads, including butter, cream cheese, mar- rine, or oil had ϳ50% to 75% less dAGEs than if cooked June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION In comparison to the meat and fat groups, the carbo- hydrate group generally contained lower amounts ofAGEs available online at This may be due to the often higher water content orhigher level of antioxidants and vitamins in these foods,which may diminish new AGE formation. Furthermore,in this food category, most polysaccharides consist of non-reducing sugars, less likely to give rise to AGEs. Thehighest dAGE level per gram of food in this category wasfound in dry-heat processed foods such as crackers, chips, Figure. Effect of acidic environment on the advanced glycation end
and cookies. This is likely due to the addition of ingredients product (AGE) content of beef. Beef (25 g) was roasted for 15 minutes such as butter, oil, cheese, eggs, and nuts, which during at 150°C with or without premarinating in 10 mL vinegar (A) or lemon dry-heat processing substantially accelerate dAGE genera- juice (B) for 1 hour. Samples were homogenized and AGE (N␧-carboxy- tion. Although AGEs in these snack types of food remain far methyl-lysine) content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent below those present in meats, they may represent an im- assay as described in the Methods section. Data are shown as % portant health hazard for people who consume multiple change from raw state. White bars represent raw state, hatched bars roasted without marinating and black bars marinated samples. *Sig- Grains, legumes, breads, vegetables, fruits, and milk nificant changes compared to the raw state (PϽ0.05). #Significant were among the lowest items in dAGE, unless prepared changes compared to cooked without marinating samples. 1ϭraw with added fats. For instance, biscuits had more than 10 beef. 2ϭroasted beef with no vinegar or lemon. 3ϭroasted beef after times the amount of dAGEs found in low-fat breads, rolls, marinating with either vinegar or lemon for 1 hour.
Nonfat milk had significantly lower dAGEs than whole milk. Whereas heating increased the dAGE content ofmilk, the values were modest and remained low relative of food as compared to foods prepared at lower tempera- tures or with more moisture. Thus, frying, broiling, grill- ing, and roasting yielded more dAGEs compared to boil- high moisture index such as yogurt, pudding, and ice ing, poaching, stewing, and steaming. Microwaving did cream were also relatively low in AGEs. However, hot not raise dAGE content to the same extent as other dry cocoa made from a dehydrated concentrate contained sig- heat cooking methods for the relatively short cooking times (6 minutes or less) that were tested.
Effect of AGE Inhibitors on New AGE Formation in Foods
AGE Content of Foods as Determined by MG Levels
The heat-induced new AGE formation in olive oil was Selected common foods were simultaneously analyzed for completely prevented in the presence of the AGE inhibi- MG derivatives to determine whether food AGEs other tor, aminoguanidine, but only partly blocked by the anti- than CML followed the same pattern A highly significant linear correlation (rϭ0.8, Pϭ0.0001) was ob- formation by the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine com- served between the CML and MG content of foods pre- pared to the anti-oxidant BHT suggests that the process pared by different cooking techniques. As with CML, seems to be driven by glycation rather than oxidation.
foods high in protein and fat contained higher amounts of New AGE formation in cooked meat was also inhibited MG than did carbohydrate-rich foods. Noncooked butter following exposure to acidic solutions (marinades) of and oil contained low amounts of MG, but in dry-heated lemon juice and vinegar. Beef that was marinated for 1 fat, as in french fries, MG content was significantly hour in these solutions formed less than half the amount higher The highly significant internal correla- of AGEs during cooking than the untreated samples tion between two chemically distinct AGEs (CML and MG) in a variety of foods prepared by different methodsvalidates the methodology applied and supports thechoice of CML levels as a useful marker of dAGE content.
Implications for Practice
Currently, there are limited data on dAGE intakes in the
general population. The average dAGE intake in a cohort
Effect of Cooking Procedures on AGE Formation in Foods
of healthy adults from the New York City area was re- Preparation of common foods under varying conditions of cently found to be 14,700Ϯ680 AGE kU/day These water and heat had a different effect on dAGE content.
data could tentatively be used to define a high- or low- For example, scrambled eggs prepared in an open pan AGE diet, depending on whether the estimated daily over medium-low heat had about one half the dAGEs of AGE intake is significantly greater or less than 15,000 eggs prepared in the same way but over high heat.
kU AGE. From the data presented in (available Poached or steamed chicken had less than one fourth the dAGEs of roasted or broiled chicken. In all food catego- ple who consume a diet rich in grilled or roasted meats, ries, exposure to higher temperatures and lower moisture fats, and highly processed foods could achieve a dAGE levels coincided with higher dAGE levels for equal weight intake in excess of 20,000 kU/day. Conversely, people who regularly consume lower-meat meals prepared with moist throughout the world to create palatable, easily prepared heat (such as soups and stews) as part of a diet rich in plant foods could realistically consume half the daily in- The new database may have limitations, including the take seen in this cohort. A safe and optimal dAGE intake fact that foods were selected from diets common in a for the purposes of disease prevention has yet to be es- northeastern metropolitan US area, and may thus not tablished. However, in animal studies, a reduction of represent the national average. Another limitation is that dAGE by 50% of usual intake is associated with reduced only two of many AGEs have been measured. However, levels of oxidative stress, less deterioration of insulin the fact that both are associated with markers of disease sensitivity and kidney function with age, and longer life in healthy subjects and are elevated in patients with diabetes and kidney disease lends credibility to their role Reducing dAGE may be especially important for people as pathogens in foods consumed by the general public and with diabetes, who generate more endogenous AGEs than persons with certain chronic diseases.
those without diabetes and for those with renal dis- Ongoing studies are needed to further expand the ease, who have impaired AGE clearance from the body dAGE database and investigate additional methods for Recently there has been heightened interest in ther- reducing AGE generation during home cooking and food apeutic diets that are higher in protein and fat and lower processing. Future studies should continue to investigate in carbohydrate for weight loss, diabetes, and cardiovas- the health effects of AGEs and refine recommendations cular disease This type of dietary pattern may for safe dietary intakes. However, current data support substantially raise dAGE intake and thus contribute to the need for a paradigm shift that acknowledges that how we prepare and process food may be equally important asnutrient composition.
CONCLUSIONS
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: AGEs in the diet represent pathogenic compounds that No potential conflict of interest was reported by the au- have been linked to the induction and progression of many chronic diseases. This report reinforces previous FUNDING/SUPPORT: This work was supported by the observations that high temperature and low moisture National Institute on Aging (MERIT AG-23188 and AG- consistently and strongly drive AGE formation in foods, 09453) and by the National Institute of Research Re- whereas comparatively brief heating time, low tempera- sources, MO1-RR-00071, awarded to the General Clinical tures, high moisture, and/or pre-exposure to an acidified Research Center at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
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Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content
AGE Content
Food item
AGEa kU/100g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Fats
Almonds, blanched slivered (Bazzini’s Nut Club, Bronx, NY)
Butter, sweet cream, unsalted, whipped (Land O’Lakes, St Paul, MN) Chestnut, roasted, in toaster oven 350°F for 27 min Cream cheese, Philadelphia soft, (Kraft, Northfield, IL) Cream cheese, Philadelphia original (Kraft) Margarine, tub, I Can’t Believe it’s Not Butter (Unilever, Rotterdam, The Margarine, tub, Smart Balance (CFA Brands, Heart Beat Foods, Paramus, NJ) Margarine, tub, Take Control (Unilever Best Foods) Mayonnaise, imitation (Diet Source, Novartis Nutriton Group, East Hanover, Mayonnaise, low fat (Hellman’s, Unilever Best Foods) Peanuts, dry roasted, unsalted (Planters, Kraft) Peanuts, roasted in shell, salted (Frito-Lay, Plano, TX) Pine nuts (pignolias), raw (Bazzini’s Nut Club) Pumpkin seeds, raw, hulled (House of Bazzini, Bronx, NY) Soybeans, roasted and salted (House of Bazzini) Sunflower seeds, raw, hulled (House of Bazzini) Sunflower seeds, roasted and salted (House of Bazzini) AGE kU/100 mL
Serving size (mL)
AGE kU/serving
Fat, liquid
Cream, heavy, ultra-pasteurized (Farmland Dairies, Fairlawn, NJ)
Oil, cottonseed (The B Manischewitz Company, Cincinnati, OH) Oil, diaglycerol, Enova (ADM Kao LLC, Decatur, IL) Oil, olive, extra virgin, first cold pressed (Colavita, Linden, NJ) Oil, safflower (The Hain Celestial Group, Inc, Melville, NY) Oil, sunflower (The Hain Celestial Group, Inc) Salad dressing, French (H. J. Heinz Co, Pittsburgh, PA) Salad dressing, French, lite, (Diet Source, Novartis Nutr Corp) Salad dressing, Italian, lite (Diet Source, Novartis Nutr Corp) June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Meats and meat substitutes
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Beef
Beef, bologna
Beef, corned brisket, deli meat (Boar’s Head, Sarasota, FL) Beef, frankfurter, boiled in water, 212° F, 7 min Beef, ground, boiled, marinated 10 min w/lemon juice Beef, ground, pan browned, marinated 10 min w/lemon juice Beef, hamburger (McDonald’s Corpd, Oak Brook, IL) Beef, hamburger patty, olive oil 180°F, 6 min Beef, meatball, potted (cooked in liquid), 1 hc Beef, salami, kosher (Hebrew National, ConAgra Foods, Omaha, NE) Beef, steak, grilled 4 min, George Foreman grill (Salton Inc, Lake Beef, steak, strips, stir fried with 1 T canola oil, 15 min Beef, steak, strips, stir fried without oil, 7 min Poultry
Chicken, back or thigh, roasted then BBQb
Chicken, breast, skinless, roasted with BBQ saucec Chicken, breast, skinless, breaded, reheated 1 minb Chicken, breast, breaded, deep fried, 20 min Chicken, breast, breaded, oven fried, 25 min, with skinc Chicken, breast, grilled/George Foreman grill (Salton Inc) Chicken, breast, pan fried, 13 min, highc Chicken, breast, pan fried, 13 min high/microwave 12.5 secc Chicken, breast, poached, 7 min, medium heatc Chicken, breast, potted (cooked in liquid), 10 min medium heatc Chicken, breast, roasted, 45 min with skinc Chicken, breast, skinless, microwave, 5 min Chicken, breast, skinless, poached, 15 min Chicken, breast, steamed in foil, 15 min, medium heatc Chicken, breast, strips, stir fried with canola oil, 7 min Chicken, breast, strips, stir fried without oil, 7 min Chicken, breast, with skin, 450°F, 45 minc Chicken, breast, skinless, broiled, 450°F, 15 min Chicken, curry, cube skinless breast, panfry10 min, broiled 12 minc Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Meats and meat substitutes
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Chicken, curry, cube skinless breast, steam 10 min, broiled 12 Chicken, dark meat, broiled, inside, 450°F, 15 min Chicken, ground, dark meat with skin, rawc Chicken, ground, dark w/skin, pan fried, w/canola oil, 2.5 min, high Chicken, ground, white meat, pan fried, no added fat, 5 min, high Chicken, ground, white meat, pan fried, with oil Chicken, kebab, cubed skinless breast, pan fried, 15 minc Chicken, meat ball, potted (cooked in liquid), 1 h Chicken, nuggets, fast food (McDonald’sd) Chicken, potted (cooked in liquid) with onion and water Chicken, skin, back or thigh, roasted then BBQb Turkey, burger, pan fried with cooking spray, 5 min, high heatc Turkey, burger, pan fried with cooking spray, 5 min, high heat, Turkey, burger, pan fried with 5 mL canola oil, 3.5 min, high heatc Turkey, breast, steak, skinless, marinated w/orange juice, broiledc Pork
Bacon, fried 5 min no added oil
Pork, chop, marinated w/balsamic vinegar, BBQb Pork, chop, raw, marinated w/balsamic vinegarb Lamb
Lamb, leg, boiled, 30 min
June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Meats and meat substitutes
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Veal
Veal, stewed
Fish/seafood
Crabmeat, fried, breaded (take out)
Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, microwaved, 1 min, high heatc Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, poached, 7 min, medium Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, steamed, 10 min, medium Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, steamed in foil, 8 min, Salmon, canned pink (Rubenstein, Trident Seafoods, Seattle, WA) Salmon, fillet, boiled, submerged, 18 min Tuna, patty, chunk light, broiled, 450°F, 30 min Tuna, loaf (chunk light in recipe), baked 40 min Cheese
Cheese, American, low fat (Kraft)
Cheese, cheddar, extra sharp, made with 2% milk (Cracker Barrel, Cheese, cottage, 1% fat (Light & Lively, Kraft) Cheese, Swiss, reduced fat (Alpine Lace, Alpine Lace Brands, Inc, Soy
Bacon bits, imitation, Bacos (Betty Crocker, General Mills,
Meatless jerky, Primal Strips (Primal Spirit Inc, Moundsville, WV) Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Meats and meat substitutes
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Soy burger, Boca Burger, 400°F, 8 min-4 each sidec (BOCA Foods Soy burger, Boca Burger, microwaved, 1.5 minc (BOCA Foods Co) Soy burger, Boca Burger, skillet, cook spray, 5 minc (BOCA Soy burger, Boca Burger, skillet, w/1 tsp olive oil, 5 minc (BOCA Soy burger, Boca Burger (BOCA Foods Co) (mean) Tofu, soft, boiled 5 min, ϩ2 min to return to boilc Tofu, soft, boiled 5 min, ϩ2 min,ϩ soy sauce, sesame oilc Eggs
Egg, fried, one large
Egg white powder (Deb-El Products, Elizabeth, NJ) Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, cooking spray, 11 minc Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, corn oil, 12 minc Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, margarine, 8 minc Egg, omelet, pan, low, olive oil, 12 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, high, butter, 45 secc Egg, scrambled, pan, high, cooking spray, 1 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, high, corn oil, 1 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, high, margarine, 1 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, high, olive oil, 1minc Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, butter, 2 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, cooking spray, 2 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, corn oil, 1.5 minc Egg, scrambled pan, med-low, margarine, 2 minc Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, olive oil, 2 minc AGE Content
Carbohydrates
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Bread
Bagel, small, Lender’sb
Biscuit, refrigerator, baked-oven, 350°F, 17 min (Pillsbury Grands, Biscuit, refrigerator, uncooked (Pillsbury Grands, General Mills) Bread, 100% whole wheat, center, toasted (Wonder, Interstate Bread, 100% whole wheat, top crust (Wonder) Bread, 100% whole wheat, top crust, toasted (Wonder) June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Carbohydrates
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Bread, white, Italian, center (Freihoffer’s, Bimbo Bakeries, Horsham, Bread, white, Italian, center, toasted (Freihoffer’s) Bread, white, Italian, crust (Freihoffer’s) Bread, white, Italian, top crust, toasted (Freihoffer’s) Bread, white, slice (Rockland Bakery, Nanuet, NY) Bread, white, slice, toasted (Rockland Bakery) Bread, whole wheat, slice (Rockland Bakery) Bread, whole wheat, slice, toasted, slice, (Rockland Bakery) Croissant, butter (Starbucks, Seattle, WA) Breakfast cereals
Bran flakes, from raisin bran (Post, Kellogg Co, Battle Creak, MI)
Cream of Wheat, instant, prepared (Nabisco, East Hanover, NJ) Cream of Wheat, instant, prepared with honey (Nabisco) Granola, Organic Oats & Honey (Cascadian Farms, Small Planet Puffed Corn Cereal (Arrowhead Mills, The Hain Celestial Group, Inc) Total, Wheat and Brown Rice (General Mills) Oatmeal, instant, prepared with honey (Quaker Oats) Breakfast foods
French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen, microwaved 1 min (Pinnacle
French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen,10 min @ 400°F (Pinnacle French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen, not heated (Pinnacle Foods French toast, Aunt Jemima frozen, toaster medium-1 cycle Grains/legumes
Beans, red kidney, raw
Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Carbohydrates
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Rice, Uncle Ben’s white, cooked, 35 min (Mars, Inc, Houston, TX) Rice, white, pan toasted 10 min, cooked 30 min Starchy vegetables
Corn, canned
Potato, white, roasted 45 min, with 5 mL oil/servingc Potato, white, french fries (McDonald’sd) Potato, white, french fries, in corn oil, held under heat lampb Potato, white, hash browns (McDonald’sd) Crackers/snacks
Breadsticks, Stella D’oro hard (Brynwood Partners, Greenwich, CT)
Cheez Doodles, crunchy (Wise Foods Inc, Berwick, PA) Chex mix, traditonal (General Mills, Inc) Chips, corn, Harvest Cheddar Sun Chips (Frito-Lay) Chips, Platanitos, plantain (Plantain Products Co, Tampa, FL) Chips, potato, baked original potato crisps (Frito Lay) Combos, nacho cheese pretzel (M & M Mars, McLean, VA) Cracker, chocolate Teddy graham (Nabisco) Cracker, Pepperidge Farms Goldfish, cheddar (Campbell Soup Co, Cracker, Keebler honey graham (Kellogg Co) Cracker, Old London melba toast (Nonni’s Food Co, Tulsa, OK) Cracker, Keebler sandwich, clubϩcheddar, (Kellogg Co) Cracker, KA-ME rice crunch, plain (Liberty Richter, Bloomfield, NJ) Popcorn, Pop Secret microwaved, fat free, no added fat (General Pretzel, minis (Snyder’s of Hanover, Hanover, NJ) Veggie Booty (Robert’s American Gourmet, Seacliff, NY) Cookies, cakes, pies, pastries
Bar, granola, chocolate chunk, soft (Quaker)
Bar, Nutrigrain, apple cinnamon (Kellogg’s) Bar,Granola, peanut butter & choc chunk, hard (Quaker) Cake, angel food, Danish Kitchen (Sam’s Club, Bentonville, AR) Cookie, biscotti, vanilla almond (Starbucks) June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Carbohydrates
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Cookie, chocolate chip, Chips Ahoy (Nabisco) Cookie, Golden Bowl fortune (Wonton Food, Inc, Brooklyn, NY) Cookie, Keebler oatmeal raisin (Kellogg Co) Croissant, chocolate (Au Bon Pain, Boston, MA) Donut, glazed devil’s food cake (Krispy Kreme, Winston-Salem, NC) Donut, chocolate iced, crème filled (Krispy Kreme) Fruit pop, frozen (Dole, Westlake Village, CA) Fruit roll up, sizzlin’ red (General Mills) Gelatin, Dole strawberry (Nestle, Minneapolis, MN) Gelatin, Dole strawberry, sugar free (Nestle) Ice cream cone, cake (Haagen Dazs, Oakland, CA) Pie, apple, individual, baked (McDonald’sd) Pie, crust, frozen, baked per pkg, mean Mrs. Smith’s Dutch Apple Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish , apple filling Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, crumbs (Kellogg Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, crust (Kellogg Co) Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, pie (Kellogg Co) Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, Pop tart, microwave-3 sec high power (Kellogg Co) Pop tart, microwave-6 se medium high power (Kellogg’s) Pop tart, toaster-low, 1 cycle (Kellogg Co) Sorbet, Edy’s strawberry (Dryer’s, Oakland, CA) Sweet roll, cinnamon swirl roll (Starbucks) Fruits
Apple, baked
Coconut cream, Coco Goya cream of coconut (Goya, Secaucus, NJ) Coconut, Baker’s Angel Flake, sweetened (Kraft) Dates, Sun-Maid California chopped (Sun-Maid, Kingsburg, CA) Plums, Sun-Maid dried pitted prunes (Sun-Maid) Raisin, from Post Raisin Bran (Kellogg Co) Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Carbohydrates
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Vegetables (raw unless specified otherwise)
Carrots, canned
Eggplant, grilled, marinated with balsamic vinegarb Eggplant, raw, marinated with balsamic vinegarb Portabella mushroom, raw, marinated with balsamic vinegarb Tomato sauce (Del Monte Foods, San Francisco, CA) Vegetables, grilled (broccoli, carrots, celery) Other carbohydrates
Sugar, white
Sugar substitute, aspartame as Canderel (Merisant, Chicago, IL) AGE Content
AGE kU/100 mL
Serving size (mL)
AGE kU/serving
Milk and milk products
Cocoa packet, Swiss Miss, prepared (ConAgra Foods)
Cocoa packet, Swiss Miss sugar-free, prepared (ConAgra Ice cream, America’s Choice vanilla (The Great Atlantic and Milk, Lactaid fat free (McNeil Nutritionals, Fort Washington, Milk, fat free (Tuscan Dairy Farms, Burlington, NJ) Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved,1 min) Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved, 2 min) Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved, 3 min) Milk, soy (Imagine Foods, The Hain Celestial Group) Pudding, instant chocolate, fat-free, sugar-free, prepared Pudding, Hunt Wesson snack pack, chocolate (ConAgra Foods) Pudding, Hunt Wesson snack pack, vanilla (ConAgra Foods) Yogurt, cherry, (Dannon, White Plains, NY) Fruit juice
Juice, apple
Vegetable juice
Vegetable juice, V8 (Campbell Soup Co)
Other carbohydrate liquids
Fruit pop, frozen (Dole)
June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
AGE kU/100 mL
Serving size (mL)
AGE kU/serving
AGE Content
Combination foods and solid condiments
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Combination foods
Bacon Egg Cheese Biscuit (McDonald’sd)
Bacon, Egg and Cheese McGriddles (McDonald’sd) Corned beef hash, canned, microwaved 2 min, high power (Broadcast) Corned beef hash, canned, stove top, medium heat, 12 min Corned beef hash, canned, unheated (Broadcast) Double Quarter Pounder With Cheese (McDonald’sd) Gnocchi, potato/flour/Parmesan cheese, 3 min Gnocchi, potato/flour/Parmesan cheese, 4.5 min Hot Pocket, bacon, egg, cheese, oven, 350°F, 20 min (Nestle) Hot Pocket-bacon, egg, cheese, microwaved 1 min (Nestle) Hot Pocket-bacon, egg, cheese, frozen-not heated (Nestle) Veggie burger, California burger, 400°F, 8 min-4 each side (Amy’s Veggie burger, California burger, skillet, with spray, 5 min (Amy’s) Veggie burger, California burger, skillet, with 1 tsp olive oil, 5 min Veggie burger, California burger, microwave, 1 min (Amy’s) Condiments
Ginger, crystallized
Candy, Hershey Special Dark Chocolate (The Hershey Co, Hershey, PA) Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Combination foods and solid condiments
AGE kU/100 g
Serving size (g)
AGE kU/serving
Candy, M & M’s, milk chocolate (Mars) Candy, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup (The Hershey Co) AGE Content
Soups, liquid condiments, and miscellaneous liquids
AGE kU/100 mL
Serving size (mL)
AGE kU/serving
Soups
Soup, beef bouillon
Soup, College Inn chicken broth, (Del Monte) Soup, chicken noodle, (Campbell Soup Company) Soup, couscous and lentil (Fantastic World Foods, Edison, NJ) Condiments
Ketchup
Miscellaneous
SoBe Adrenaline Rush (South Beach Beverage Co, Norwalk, CT)
Budwiser Beer (Anheuser-Busch, St Louis, MO) Coca Cola, classic (The Coca-Cola Co, Atlanta, GA) Coffee, Taster’s Choice instant (Nestle) Coffee, instant, decaf (mean Sanka [Kraft] and Taster’s Choice) Enfamil, old (Mead Johnson Nutritonal, Glenview, IL) Gelatin, Dole strawberry, sugar free (Nestle) Glucerna (Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH) NOFEAR Super Energy Supplement (Pepsico, Purchase, NY) Rum, Bacardi Superior, 80 proof (Miami, FL) June 2010 ● Journal of the AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Table 1. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of 549 foods, based on carboxymethyllysine content (continued)
AGE Content
Soups, liquid condiments, and miscellaneous liquids
AGE kU/100 mL
Serving size (mL)
AGE kU/serving
Tea, apple (RC Bigelow, Inc, Fairfield, CT) Vodka, Smirnoff, 80 proof (Diageo, London, UK) Whiskey, Dewar’s White Label (Dewar’s, Perthsire, UK) Wine, pinot grigio (Cavit Collection, Port Washington, NY) aAGEs were assessed as carboxymethyllysine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
bMSCϭMount Sinai Hospital cafeteria.
cCRCϭMount Sinai Hospital Clinical Research Center.
dAll McDonald’s products were purchased in New York, NY, before July 2008.

Source: http://www.allesroh.at/presse/AGE-Reduction.pdf

55_balkenhol__genetic_041111_k3.indd

Genetic structure of a racoon population in Müritz National Park – a result . Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildforschung, Bd. 36 (2011) 531–537NIKO BALKENHOL, Berlin; BERIT A. KÖHNEMANN, Tharandt; SUSANNE GRAMLICH, Landau;FRANK-UWE MICHLER, Tharandt Genetic structure of a raccoon population ( Procyon lotor ) in Müritz National Park – a result of landscape resistance or space-use behavi

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PARROT MINIKIT Smart TM Parrot MINIKIT Smart Get more out of your Smartphone The Parrot MINIKIT Smart is a Bluetooth hands-free kit featuring a Smartphone holder. It can be attached to the windshield or dashboard, enabling you to access the navigation and Smartphone features while keeping your hands on the wheel at all times. You can use the MINIKIT Smart

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