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Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (pet) bottles: a source of controversy reviewed
Chemical compounds and toxicological assessmentsof drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)bottles: A source of controversy reviewed
Cristina Bach Xavier Dauchy Marie-Christine Chagnon Serge Etienne
a ANSES, Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology, Water Chemistry Department, 40 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, Franceb Institute Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Department SI2M, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Nancy-University, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234,54042 Nancy, Francec Derttech “Packtox”, University of Burgundy, 1 Esplanade Erasme, AgroSupDijon Nord, 21000 Dijon, France
A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to
ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation estab-
lished a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some
compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological
data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances
(NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives.
Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical
mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects.
Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to
extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested
that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative
or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to
combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments.
Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET
into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpectedsubstances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly estab-lished (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processingsteps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.).
Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds
that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-
List of abbreviations: AA, acetaldehyde; APEOs, polyethoxylated nonylphenols; BBP, benzylbutyl phthalate; BHET, bis(hydroxyethyl)
terephthalate; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; BPA, bisphenol A; DBP, dibutyl phthalate; DiBP, di-iso-butyl phthalate; DEG, diethyleneglycol; DEHP, di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate; DEHA, bis-2-ethylhexyl adipate; DEP, diethyl phthalate; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; DMT,dimethylterephthalate; DOP, di-n-octyl phthalate; EEC, European economic community; EEQs, estradiol equivalents; GCeMS, gaschromatographyemass spectrometry; HDPE, high density polyethylene; HULYs, human blood lymphocytes; IPA, isophthalic acid; LDH,lactate dehydrogenase; MEG, ethylene glycol; NIAS, non-intentionally added substances; NP, 4-nonylphenol; OP, octylphenol; PA,polyamide; PC, polycarbonate; PhA, phthalic acid; PVC, polyvinylchloride; RPE, relative proliferative effects; Sb2O3, antimony trioxide;SECeHPLC, size exclusion chromatographyehigh performance liquid chromatography; SML, specific migration limits; SPE, solid-phaseextraction; SPME, solid-phase micro-extraction; SODIS, solar water disinfection; TPA, terephthalic acid; TDI, tolerable daily intake; TNPP,tris(nonylphenyl) phosphite; TOC, total organic carbon; YES, yeast estrogen screen.
* Corresponding author. ANSES, Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology, Water Chemistry Department, 40 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy, France.
Tel.: þ33 383 38 87 29; fax: þ33 383 38 87 20.
0043-1354/$ e see front matter ª 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ADVISORY Workplace Health and Public Safety Programme Health Canada Interim Occupational Health Advice May 1, 2009 SUBJECT: H1N1 FLU VIRUS (HUMAN SWINE INFLUENZA)/SEVERE RESPIRATORY INFECTION This guidance document is being provided by Health Canada in response to the recent outbreak of H1N1 Flu Virus (Human Swine Influenza) in North America. T