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Spectroscopy- Basic principles, nature of electromagnetic radiation,
Types of spectra- absorbance, emission and fluorescence. Types of spectroscopy- principle, instrumentation and applications of atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV Visible Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Flame Photometry, 15 Fluorimetry and Mass Spectroscopy- Principles, method and applications
Microscopy-Basic principles, instrumentation, sample preparation for 8 optical,
fluorescence, confocal & electron microscopes (SEM &TEM) & their applications.
X- rays- production and properties of X-ray. X-ray Absorption and 6 diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, detection and applications Neutron diffraction & Electron diffraction – principle and applications
radioactivity-, Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes in biological research.
Chromatography- Principles, methodology and applications of 6 chromatography using paper, thin layer, column (gel filtration, ion exchange, affinity), gas and types of HPLC
Electrophoresis- Principles and types of electrophoresis and their 6 applications for proteins, nucleic acids, including gradient gel and pulse-filed gel electrophoresis; Agarose gel electrophoresis, PAGE, 2D-PAGE, Capillary electrophoresis and Immunoelectrophoresis
Circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion, Polarography and 6 Manometry- theory and applications. Biosensors- Concepts and applications
Centrifugation techniques- principles, types and applications. 6 Ultracentrifugation- types, optical methods used and applications of preparative and analytical ultracentrifuges.
NanoBiotechnology- Introduction to Nanoworld, Nanoscience and 6 Nanotechnology
nanostructures and their applications- Biosensors, separation of cells and cell organelles, drug delivery, gene therapy etc.
1. Allen, J.P. (2008), Biophysical Chemistry, 1st Edition, Markono Print media limited,
2. Challenges and Opportunities in Nanotechnology, (2007) Edi Parthasarathy, B. K., Isha
3. Charles, R., Cantor,I. and Schimmel, P.R., (2004) Biophysical chemistry, Part II,
4. Daniel, M., (2007) Basic Biophysics for Biologist, Agrobios, India.
5. Kaur,H., (2001), Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, Pragati Prakashan
6. Nanotechnology Risk, Ethics and Law, (2007) Edi Hunt, G and Mehta, M., Earthscan,
7. Nolting,B (2006), Methods in Modern Biophysics, 2nd Edition, Springer Publications,
8. Roshan, J. K., (2008) Advanced Biophysics, Ammol Publications Pvt, Ltd, New Delhi.
9. Sharma, P. K., (2008) Origin and Development of Nanotechnology, Vista International
10. Sheehan.D, (2009) Physical Biochemistry-Principles and Applications, 2nd Edition, John
11. Serdyuk, I.N., Zaccai, N.R. and Zaccai.J., (2007), Methods in Molecular Biophysics-
structure, dynamics and function, Cambridge University Press, India.
12. Upadhay, A., Upadhay, K, and Nath, N., (2002) Biophysical Chemistry Principles and
techniques, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai,
13. Wilson.K and Walker. J, (2006), Practical Biochemistry – Principles and techniques of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, sixth Edition, Cambridge University Press, India
Properties of water-its effect on dissolved molecules-weak
interactions- ionization of water-weak acids and weak bases-chemical bonds-physical interactions- viscosity, diffusion, osmotic pressure, surface tension, pH, concepts of bioenergetics, thermodynamics in biological system
homoglycans and heteroglycans. Glycosaminoglycans-chemistry, structure and functions- O - linked and N - linked oligosaccharides - structure and metabolism
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain and oxidative
phosphorylation, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway- CO2 fixation – C3 and C4 pathways- chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides
Protein chemistry- structure of aminoacids- levels of protein
structure- domains, motifs, folds – conformation of proteins –Ramachandran plot - chemical synthesis of oligopeptides
Protein metabolism: catabolism- urea cycle. Metabolism of one
carbon compound, deamination, decarboxylation, transamination, transmethylation, conversion of aminoacids to specialized products. Interleukin, interferon and porphyrin metabolism detoxification- phase I and phase II, metabolism of xenobiotics.
Lipids: classification and chemistry of lipids, structure and
metabolism of fatty acids. Fatty acid interconversion. Outline of triacylglycerol and lipoprotein metabolism. Cholesterol metabolism and
prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes
The architecture of lipid membranes, membrane lipids and proteins
– Ramachandran plot - and principles of membrane organization and functions. Transport into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
metabolism. Hormonal regulation – Extra cellular chemical signals.
Nucleic acids: structure and functions of DNA and RNA.
Biosynthesis of nucleotides and related molecules. Catabolism of purines and pyrimidines
Chemistry of vitamins and coenzymes- NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD,
CoASH, TPP, PLP, Biotin, Tetrahydrofolate and coenzyme B12. Nonenzymic antioxidants, antimetabolites.
1. Berg, J., Tymoezko, J.L and Stryer,L. (2008), Biochemistry, 6th Edition, W.H.Freeman
2. Mathews, C.K., Van Holde, K.E, and Ahem,K.G., (2000), Biochemistry- The molecular
Basis of Life, 3rd Ed, Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., Inc., U.K.
3. Mckee, T. and Mckee, J.M. (2003), Biochemistry – The Molecular Basis of Life, 3rd ed,
4. Murray, R.K, Granner, D.K, Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, D.W. (2009) Harper’s illustrated
Biochemistry, 27th Edition, Appleton & Lange Stamford, Connecticut.
5. Nelson,D.L & Cox, M,M.(2008), Lehningers, Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition,
6. Vanholde,M., Kelvin and Kevin (1999), Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, Prentive Hall.
7. Voet,D., Voet,J.G. & Prot, C.W.(2008), Fundamentals of Biochemistry, Life at the
Molecular Level, 3rd Edition, Voiley Publishers.
8. Zubay, G. (1999), Biochemistry, 3rd Ed, Addison Weskey Publication Company, London.
Introduction to the study of cell biology- cell theory. From molecules to
the first cell- cell as a unit of structure and function. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organization. Cell division – cell differentiation-cell senescence and death- cellular response to environmental signals in plants and animals- mechanism of signal transduction - Oncogenesis and tumor suppressor genes.
Membrane structure and function: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
envelopes- plasma membrane- lipid bilayer- membrane proteins- movement proteins –movement of substrates across cell membrane (pinocytosis, phagocytosis, autophagy, permeability of water and salts, salt antagonism, counter transport and active transport). The structure and function of peroxisomes. Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structure, relationship between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex.
Lysosomes- occurrence and characteristics in different cell types-
ultrastructure and composition of lysosomes- role of lysosomes. Mitochondria-ultrastructure, electron transport, mechanism of energy transformation and semiautonomy. Ribosomes- ultrastructure-protein synthesis and reconstitution. The nucleus-nuclear envelope, chromatin- nucleolus. Specialized cells- blood cells, nerve cells, liver cells, sensory cells, muscle cells and lymphocytes.
Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis and oogenesis- fertilization- artificial
insemination-in vitro fertilization-types of egg and pattern of cleavage-Blastulation, Gastrulation, Fate of germ layer-microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis, pollen development-Amphimixis and parthenocarpy. Organogenesis
Introduction to microbiology- scope, relevance, discovery and origin of
microbial world. Biogenesis Vs Abiogenesis molecular taxonomy. Culture methods of bacteria, algae, protozoa and viruses.
Biology of E.coli, Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas Sp.,
Staphylococcus aureus, Neurospora crassa, Bacteriophages and Archaebacteria
Microbial nutrition- autotrophs, heterotrophs- uptake of nutrients,
membrane transport, culture techniques-culture media. Microbial growth, kinetics of growth, batch culture, continuous culture, synchronous culture-effect of temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, hydrostatic pressure and radiation on microbial growth
Dairy and Food microbiology – Food spoilage and food preservation –
beverage technology and alternative sweeteners – impact of biotechnology on food industries – food additive synthesis – food acidulants, flavours, thickeners and gelling agents- regulatory aspects of
the use of modern biotechnological methods in food industry.
Microbiology of soil- microbial flora of soil, interactions among soil
microorganisms. Biogeochemical cycles- carbon cycle, sulphur cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, oxygen cycle. Gnotobiosis
Parasitology- Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Plasmodium
Sp., Trypanosoma, Ascaris, Wuchereria, Schistosoma and Leshmania, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis, Taenia Sp., Trichuris trichuiria
1. Casida., J.R.,(2006) Industrial Microbiology, Fourth Edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd,
2. Cooper, G.M and Robert (2007), The Cell: a Molecular Approach,4th edition, ASM Pres
3. Gupta, P.K. (2005), Cell and Molecular biology, 1st edition. Rastogi publications,Meerut.
4. Karp,G (2002), Cell & Molecular biology Concepts & experiments, 3rd edition, Garland
5. Lodish, H., David Baltimore, Arnold Berk, Lawrence Zipursky, Pawl Matsudaira, James
. Molecular cell biology, Scientific American
books, W.H.Freeman and company, New York.
6. Pelczar .M. J. Chan.E C. and Krieg. N.R., (2006) Microbiology, sixth Edition,TATA
McG raw Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi.
7. Prescott (2008), Microbiology, 7th edition, McGraw Hill International Edition, New
8. Talaro, K.P and Talaro.A (2008) Foundations in Microbiology, Mc Graw Hill
9. Gupta,P.K (2006), Biotechnology and Genomics, 1st Edition, Rastogi Publication,
Basis of Heredity and Basic principles of inheritance: prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell- cell cycle: Mitosis and Meiosis- Mendel’s study of heredity- Population genetics
Chromosomal basis of Mendalism and chromosomal variation in number
and structure: Nondisjunction as proof of the chromosome theory- Sex chromosomes – Sex linked genes – Sex determination – Dosage compensation of X-linked genes, Cytological techniques- polyploidy and Aneuploidy – Rearrangements of chromosome structure
Linkage, crossing over and chromosome mapping in eukaryotes.
Transformation, transduction and conjugation – gene mapping – genetic recombination in bacteria- generalized and site specific recombination, gene conversion, tetrad analysis
Nature of the genetic material –Structure of DNA and RNA –
Organization of viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes – Cot curves, repetitive and unique sequences, kinetic and sequence complexities, satellite DNA, DNA melting, Buoyant density. Basic features of DNA replication, unique aspects of eukaryotic chromosome replication
Transcription and RNA processing: Transcription in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes- Post transcriptional processes in eukaryotes
Genetic code and translation: The salient features of Genetic code-
Deciphering of the codon – Protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- Post translational modifications-Protein targeting
Mutation, DNA repair and Recombination: Classification of mutation and
mutagens – molecular mechanism of mutation – Expression of mutagenesis-gene mutation, Chromosome alteration and sister chromatid exchanges, lethals, transformation. Detection of DNA damage at molecular level, Ames test, assays using cytogenetic analysis in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo, host – mediated assay – DNA repair and recombination mechanisms.
Transposable genetic elements and extra chromosomal inheritance:
transposable elements in bacteria and eukaryotes- Mechanism of transposition. The genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts
Regulation of Gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Positive
and negative control of gene expression in prokaryotes – Operon models. Spatial and temporal regulation of eukaryotic genes –Ways of regulating eukaryotic gene expression – Gene expression and chromosome organization –Activation and inactivation of whole chromosomes.
The genetic control of animal development and behavior
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2. David. N.L (2008), Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, W. H Freeman
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J.H (2007), Introduction to Genetic analysis, 8th edition, W. H Freeman and Company, New York.
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Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi and Pearson Education, New York.
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edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
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Molecular Biology of the gene, 5th edition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi and Pearson Education
ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, CELL BIOLOGY AND
Spectrophotometry- Preparation of standard curves- linear
regression – assessment of ranges and reliability
Chromatography techniques – Paper, thin layer, ion-exchange,
Electrophoretic techniques – agar, starch, polyacrylamide
pH determination – use of pH meters and preparation of buffers in
Radioactive labeling and measurement of radioactivity- calculation
of Half-life, average life and decay constant of radioactive isotopes
Potentiometry – redox potential of Fe2+ and Fe3+
Use of simple, compound and phase- contrast microscope
Cytological preparations: Fixation, dehydration and staining-
Cell counting methods- use of hemocytometer- micrometry-
calibration of the ocular micrometer and measurement of average cell size and chromosome length
Separation of cell organelles: methods of lysis- osmotic/chemical/
enzymatic lysis of the cells followed by ultracentrifugation- monitoring cell lysis by observing release of cellular material and change in light scattering-mechanical rupture of cells- ultrasonic vibrations
Extraction of cellular materials: Extraction into saline buffers,
Observation of mitotic chromosomes in root tips and meiotic
Preparation and use of glassware cleaning solution
Sterilization – physical methods (dry heat, moist heat, incineration,
radiation) – chemical methods (phenol, alcohol, formaldehyde, hypochlorite)
Preparation and selection of simple culture media
Identification and enumeration of microorganism from air, water,
Isolation of pure and axenic cultures – serial dilution, pour plate,
spread plate, streak plate methods and stab culture techniques for long time storage
Staining techniques – Gram, simple, acid fast, flagella, capsule and
Microscopy of different organisms- bacteria, cyanobacteria,
Estimation of microbial growth by turbidimetry
Identification of unknown bacteria by biochemical tests
Extracellular enzyme activity of microbes- immobilization of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and alcohol production
Organization of a statistical survey – planning and execution of the
survey – sources of data – primary and secondary – tools of data collection – observation, interviews, enquiry forms, questionnaires
Definition of a statistical sample – properties of an ideal sample –
Classification and tabulation of collected data – graphical representation
of data – bar graph, histogram, pie chart, ogives, frequency polygons, pictogram and cartogram
Measures of central tendency – arithmetic mean and weighted mean,
median, mode, geometric and harmonic mean – quartiles, deciles and percentiles
Measures of variation – range, quartile deviation and standard deviation
Correlation and regression analysis – meaning, classification of
correlation, methods of studying correlation, scatter diagram, Karl Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation, rank method – regression analysis
Probability – definition, concepts, theorems and calculation of
Theoretical distributions – Binomial – meaning, obtaining co-efficient,
properties, binomial constant, fitting and importance of the binomial distribution Poisson distribution – constants and fitting the Poisson distribution Normal distribution – importance, properties, conditions and constants of the distribution, area under the normal curve, fitting a normal curve, method of areas Basic concepts of skewness and kurtosis
Testing of hypothesis – parameters and procedure in hypothesis testing –
errors in hypothesis testing – standard errors and sampling distribution – sampling of variable (large samples and small samples) – degrees of freedom Student’s t test and its applications – one-tailed and two-tailed tests Chi-square test and goodness of fit Analysis of variance – one-way and two-way classification Non-parametric tests – Mann-Whitney and Wilconxin’s rank tests
Design of experiment – completely randomized design and randomized
1. Banerjee, P.K. (2004), Introduction to Biostatistics, S.Chand and Company, New Delhi
2. Gupta .S.P (2005) Statistical methods – thirty fourth edition, Sultan Chand & Sons, New
3. Gurumani. N. (2004), An Introduction to Biostatistics, MJP Publishers, Chennai
4. Jerrold. H.Z. (1984), Biostatistical Analysis, second edition, Prentice Hall International
5. Kothari. C.R. (2004), Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques, second edition,
New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
6. Mahajan. B.K. (1991) Methods in Biostatistics, Jaypee brothers, New Delhi.
7. Prasad. S. (2005), Elements of Biostatistics, Rastogi Publications, Meerut
8. Rajammal P.D and Kulandaivel .K. (1976), Handbook of methodology of Research, Sri
Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya Press, Coimbatore
9. Visweswara Rao (1996), Biostatistics, Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi
Introduction to bioinformatics – biological databases – features and layout –
sequence databases, structure databases, specialized databases – primary and secondary databases – structural classification of proteins (SCOP, CATH and other classifications) – data warehouses – data marts – data mining – definition and methods
Sequence analysis – need and importance – pairwise alignment – dot plot,
dynamic programming – global (Needleman-Wunsch) and local (Smith-Waterman) alignment algorithms – scoring matrices – gap penalties – substitution matrices – need, types – PAM and BLOSUM
Bioinformatic tools for data retrieval and comparison – database searching tools
– Entrez, SRS, DBGET – pairwise alignment tools – BLAST, FASTA – variations of BLAST – PSI-BLAST and PHI-BLAST, bl2seq – multiple alignment – Clustal – NJ plot – phylogenetic trees – parts, types – construction and analysis of phylogenetic trees – PHYLIP
Bioinformatic tools to analyze nucleotide sequences – detecting ORFs, finding
genes, constructing restriction maps, designing primers and probes, calculating Tm, theoretical translation of coding region Secondary structure prediction of RNA Bioinformatic tools to analyze protein sequences – finding protein parameters – tools for peptide cleavage and mapping – secondary structure prediction of proteins
Genomics – structural, functional and comparative genomics – DNA
microarrays – present status and future prospects – modifications of DNA microarrays – methods to analyze microarrays – image processing, normalization, clustering methods – applications of artificial neural networks in the analysis of microarrays – transcriptomics
Proteomics – traditional proteomics vs modern proteomics – 2-D gel
electrophoresis, mass spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF and other methods of analysis, yeast two-hybrid assay, phage display, antibody screening, protein microarrays – present status and future prospects
3-D structural analysis of biomolecules – molecular visualization tools –
RasMol, Chime, WebLab Viewer, Deep View, ISIS Draw, Chem Draw, MolMol, etc. – homology modeling of proteins – other methods of molecular modeling – prediction of ligand binding – design of best-fitting ligands
Computer-aided drug design – steps involved – lead compound identification,
optimization, energy minimization, ADME studies, combinatorial chemistry and other approaches – QSAR – high throughput screening
Simulation studies and virtual reality – simulation of ES complex – interaction
and stereodynamic concepts – introduction to systems biology and its applications – virtual cellular environment – an introduction to E-cell, V-cell and M-cell
An introduction to scripting languages – PERL and BioPERL – variables –
scalar, array, hash with examples – regular expression – modules in PERL – utilities in BioPERL An introduction to HTML programming – tags in HTML – construction of a basic HTML document – adding special effects – tables and frames in HTML
1. Attwood, T. and Parry, D. (2002), Introduction to Bioinformatics - Pearson Education Asia
2. Claverie, J.M and Notredame, C. (2003) Instant notes in Bioinformatics, Wiley Publishing
3. Claverie, J-M and Notredame,C. – 2003, Bioinformatics – A Beginner’s guide, First edition –
4. Gibas, C. and Jambeck, P, (2001) Developing bioinformatics computer skills–Schroff
5. Krane,D.L(2006), Fundamental concept of Bioinformatics., Pearson Publication,Asia.
6. Lesk. (2007), Introduction to Bioinformatics, Oxford University press
7. Mount,D (2006), Bioinformatics – Sequence and Genome Analysis, CBS
8. Richard, J.Simpson (2003) Protein & Proteomics, Cold Spray Harbour, Newyork.
9. Tisdall, J. (2003), Beginning Perl for Bioinformatics –– Schroff Publishers & Distributors
10. Werner Dubitzky (2007), Fundamentals of Data mining in Genomics and proteomics,
General introduction to concepts of genetic engineering. Isolation, identification 8 and characterization of DNA fragments, Genomic DNA isolation and purification, cDNA synthesis, Chemical synthesis of DNA, sequencing.
Basic techniques involved in creating a genetically modified organism – Cutting 8 and joining of DNA, DNA manipulative enzymes and their applications; transformation, selection and screening strategies-Blotting, probe preparation, hybridization and autoradiography, immunological screening.
Vectors in gene cloning – Multipurpose cloning Vectors,Broad host range 8 vectors (plasmids, Bacteriophages, cosmids); expression vectors (Lambda gt 11, LambdaZAP, EMBL); plant transformation vectors(Ti plasmids); Vectors for cloning large fragments(YAC, BAC).
Vector construction, isolation and characterization of gene, ligation, Restriction 8 digestion, Screening
Case study: Development of Golden rice – step by step process
Libraries – Genomic, cDNA, subtractive and EST library construction. 6 Identification and characterization of insert DNA fragments.
Genome projects – microbial, plant (rice) and animal (human) mapping of the 8 genome, sequencing approaches, annotation and applications. Ethical, legal and social issues of Genome projects.
Application of genetic engineering technology for human welfare –Gene therapy 13
(ex vivo and in vivo)-Gene delivery systems (Viral and non- viral)-Produg activation therapy –nucleic acid and oligonucleotide therapeutic agents.
Impact of genetic engineering technology in agriculture – golden rice, flavor 8 savor tomato, omega-3- fatty acids, Edible vaccines, Bt cotton, Bt maize.
Use of genetic engineering in environmental management. Biodegradation, 7 bioremediation, biodiesel production
Biosafety regulation, norms of releasing genetically engineered organisms.
Intellectual Propety Rights and types, Patenting
1. Brown, T.A., (2006) Gene cloning- An Introduction, 5th Edition, Blackwell Publishing
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6th edition, Blackwell Scientific Publication, USA.
4. Primrose, S.A, Twymann,R.M.,(2006), Principles of Gene Manipulation and
Genomics,7th edition, Blackwell Scientific Publication, USA
5. Watson, J.D. (2007), Recombinant DNA Genes and Genomes –a short course, CHSL
6. Wilson and Walker. (2006), Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular
Biology, 6th Edition, Cambridge University Press,India.
7. Winnacker,E.L., (2003), From Genes to Clones, First Indian reprint Panima publishing
rDNA TECHNOLOGY, ANIMAL CELL CULTURE AND BIOINFORMATICS
Isolation and estimation of DNA, RNA and protein
Isolation and purification of plasmid DNA
Preparation and transformation of competent E.coli
Restriction enzyme analysis-restriction mapping
Agarose gel electrophoresis and PAGE of DNA and RNA –
Gene cloning-cloning a DNA fragment in Blue script vector. Blue
i. Complementation ii. Insertional inactivation iii. Screening by hybridization.
-Isolation, estimation and restriction analysis of phage DNA. Preparation of helper phage and its titration. UV survival curve Dark repair of UV mutation.
Extraction, Purification and analysis of RNA
i Isolation of total RNA ii. Isolation of cytoplasmic RNA iii. Electrophoresis of RNA on denaturing gels
DNA sequencing, mutagenesis and engineering genes
Maintenance of aseptic conditions- sterilization techniques-
preparation of media- filter sterilization, sterility tests- media
storage- serum inactivation- primary culture of cells, organ
culture- maintenance of cell lines- establishment of lymphocyte
cultures- growth studies- cell count- protein estimation- mitotic
index- staining of cell lines- staining of cell cultures and
Basics of Internet browsing- browsing for data, images,
animations- incorporation into presentation material
Use of searching tools- Entrez, BLAST and FASTA
Pairwise alignment of sequences- near and far relative sequence
Multiple alignment – clustal – NJ plot- Phylip- construction of
Molecular visualization- downloading atom coordinates from
pdb- using the co-ordinate file to view the molecules using molecular visualization tools- RasMol, WebLab Viewer, ChemDraw, ISIS Draw, Deep View
Molecular mechanics, energetics, free energy calculations
Introduction to the use of software packages for statistical
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Antigens - Types of antigens and their features. Factors affecting antigenicity. Epitope. Cross reactivity. Haptens - Types of haptens and their properties. Antibodies - Basic structure of immunoglobulin (IgG). Types of immunoglobulins, their structure, properties and functions. Immunoglobulin superfamily.
Cells – Cells of the Lymphoid lineage (T-cells & subpopulations, B- cells & NK cells) and Myeloid lineage (RBCs, platelets, monocytes, PMN cells, macrophages mast cells, dendritic cells, APCs) - structure and functions. Organs - Structure and functions of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus, bursa of fabricius, fetal liver) and secondary lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, CALT). Differentiation and generation of T-cells & B-cells from bone marrow. BCRs & TCRs Stem cells - Sources, properties, types & applications of stem cells.
Components of the complement system. Mechanism of Classical complement pathway, Alternative complement pathway and Lectin pathway. Biological consequences of the complement cascades and their fragments. Diseases associated with complement
Immunity-Innate immunity and acquired immunity-characteristic features and types. Immune response - Humoral immune response - Role of antibodies, plasma cells and memory cells. Primary and secondary immune responses. Growth curve for antibody production. Effector functions of antibodies. Cell-mediated immune response - Effector functions of T-cells, cytokines, interleukins, interferons and other molecules. Immunological memory, immune tolerance, inflammation, fever, phagocytosis, NK activity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, cell lysis. Regulation of immune response.
IMMUNE RESPONSE TO INFECTIONS AND IMMUNODEFICIENCY
DISEASES Immune response to infections - Evasion of host defense mechanisms and role of antibody-mediated and cell- mediated immune responses in bacterial, viral, fungal and other infections. Immunodeficiency diseases Primary immunodeficiencies – B-cell deficiencies, T- cell deficiencies, combined deficiencies and other immune deficiencies. Secondary immunodeficiencies - including AIDS
Hypersensitivity - Classification of Hypersensitivity. Causes, mechanism, clinical
manifestations and treatment of Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV hypersensitivities.
Autoimmunity - Induction of autoimmunity. Spectrum of autoimmune diseases.
Overlap of autoimmune diseases. Pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Antibody diversity - Theories of antibody formation. Organization of immunoglobulin genes, recombination and expression of immunoglobulin genes, class switching. Major Histocompatibility Complex - General organization and distribution of MHC and HLA genes. MHC restriction. Structure of Class I and Class II MHC molecules. Antigen processing by MHC molecules and role of APCs & T-cells.
Types of grafts. Mechanism of transplantation with examples. Immunological basis of graft rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy. Tissue typing.
HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGY AND VACCINE PRODUCTION
Polyclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody production and their applications Vaccine production - Types of vaccines. Principles of vaccine production. Production of conventional and modern vaccines with examples. New vaccine strategies and vaccines under development. Adjuvants- Types and properties. Vaccination procedures, immunization schedules, primary and booster doses.
Features of antigen-antibody interactions. Precipitation reactions -immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis. Agglutination reactions -blood grouping haemeagglutination, Tagged assays - RIA, ELISA, Immunofluorescence., Immunoblotting. Immuno electron microscopy. Isolation of pure antibodies. Assays for complement. FACS, Flow cytometry.
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Essential Immunology, 11th edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.
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9. Rao, C.V. (2006), An Introduction to Immunology,2nd Edition, Narosa Publishing House,
10. Roitt, I., Brostoff, J. and Male, D. (2002), Essential Immunology, 8th edition, English
11. Sawhney,S.K. and Singh,R. (2005), Introductory Practical Biochemistry.
12. Talaro,K.P. and Talaro, A. (2008), Foundations in Microbiology, 6th edition, McGraw
Enzymes- introduction, classification and nomenclature- enzyme
kinetics: effect of pH, temperature and enzyme concentration on the rate of enzymatic reaction, kinetics of single substrate and multisubstrate enzyme- catalyzed reaction- Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver Burk plot, Eadies- Hofstee plot and direct linear plots
Enzyme inhibitors: competitive - noncompetitive and uncompetitive
inhibition- Allosteric enzymes - Mechanism of allosteric control of enzymes, reversibility of allosteric control, regulation of enzyme activity by reversible covalent modification, isoenzymes
Enzyme specificity- investigations of active site structure-evidence of
ES complex, nucleophilic and electrophilic attack. Mechanisms of enzyme catalysis- acid-base, electrostatic and covalent catalysis- Mechanisms of enzyme action- lysozyme, chymotrypsin. Role of metal ions in the activation of enzymes
Measurement of enzymatic reactions- titrimetric, colorimetric,
spectrophotometric and enzyme coupled reactions - Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) of enzymes. Applications of enzymes analytical and therapeutic enzymes
Extraction and purification of enzymes: Extraction of soluble enzymes
and membrane bound enzymes. Purification and characterization of enzymes from natural sources. Criteria of purity of enzymes- Biotechnological applications of enzymes- synthesis of artificial enzymes – immobilized enzymes- preparation, properties and applications- recombinant DNA technology in enzyme production- fusion proteins containing enzymes and their application- enzymes in bioconversions.
Basic principles in Bioprocess- Fermentations- Growth kinetics-Batch,
Fed-batch and Continous culture. Screening of industrially important microbes-Isolation, preservation and improvement of strains for increased yield-primary metabolite and secondary metabolite. Advantages of bioprocess over chemical process. Production of antibiotics- penicillin, streptomycin.
Media formulation, sterilization-thermal death kinetics, batch and
continuous sterilization systems, Bioreactors: dynamics and stability- ideal bioreactors, types of reactors: CSTR, Tower, Jet Loop, Air Lift, PFR, Bubble column, Packed bed
Transport process: Aeration and Agitation-transport in cells, Transfer
resistances and mass transfer coefficients-rate of oxygen transfer. Determination of oxygen transfers coefficients, heat transfer coefficients.
Bioprocess control and monitoring variables such as temperature
agitation, pressure, and pH. Online measurement. ON/OFF control, PID control- computers in bioprocess control systems.
Downstream processing: introduction, removal of microbial cells and
solid matter. Foam preparation, precipitation, filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions, liquid-liquid extraction, chromatography, membrane process, drying and crystallization
1. Palmer, T. (2004). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Understanding enzymes,
2. Paulline M.Doran, (2005), Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Elsevier Publication,USA.
3. Pandey, Webb, Soccol and Larroche (2005), Enzyme Technology, Asia Tech Publication
4. El-mansi, E.M.T., Bryce, C.F.A., Demain, A.L., Allman, A.R (2007), Fermentation
Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2nd edition, Taylor and Fracis.
5. Mukopadhay,S.N. (2004), Process Biotechnology Fundamentals, 2nd edition, viva books
6. Shuler.M.L. & Kargi. F (2002), Bioprocess Engineering, Basic Concepts,2nd edition,
Plant genome organization – Gene families in plants, Organisation of chloroplast
genome, mitochondrial genome, RNA editing, Cytoplasmic male sterility, transposable elements-organization and function.
Light harvesting complexes, mechanism of electron chain, CO2 fixation –C3 and C4
pathway, CAM, Regulation of photosynthesis, photorespiration
Polysaccharides - sucrose, raffinose, sugar alcohols, fructan, starch, cellulose,
glycerolipids - triacyl glycerol, polar glycerolipids, lipo-oxyenase in the synthesis of aromatic defense and signal substances; Phloem transport; Nitrogen fixation – basic concepts, nif genes and their regulation, potential scope in crop improvement nitrate and ammonia assimilation: aminoacid biosynthesis
Plant storage proteins – classification and function
Plant hormones – biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport, physiological effects and mechanism of action. Phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototrophins.
Biochemical changes and regulation of gene expression in plant development with
specific reference to floral, seed development and germination. Molecular biology of plant stress response – biotic and abiotic stresses
Gene mapping – concept of physical and genetic maps, restriction maps, molecular
markers (RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, SSCP, SCAR, QTL, SNP, STS, VNTR) and linkage maps, DNA fingerprinting, FISH, chromosome walking, chromosome jumping and map based cloning. Tagging (types – marker assisted and transposon), mapping and cloning of plant genes.
Genetic engineering in plants, plant transformation vectors, Ti plasmids, viral
vectors, selectable markers, reporter genes and promoters used in plant vectors. Direct transformation by physical methods. Transformation in rice and Arabidopsis, Marker free transformation. Chloroplast transformation – advantages, success with tobacco and potato
Virus resistance, pest resistance, herbicide tolerance, delayed fruit ripening, resistance to fungi and bacteria. Plantibodies, viral antigen and peptide hormones in plants Bt genes, Non Bt like proteins and protein inhibitors. Gene silencing in Transgenic plants. Management aspects of genetic engineering.
In vitro culture of plants. Concept of totipotency, types of in vitro culture – meristem
culture, organ culture, protoplast culture and protoplast fusion, embryo culture and
embryo rescue. Initiation and maintenance of in vitro cultures (callus and organ
cultures). Embryogenesis and organogenesis.
Applications of in vitro cultures: Practical applications of tissue and organ culture,
Haploid and polyploid production, artificial seeds, use of Micropropagation in commercial tissue culture, floriculture, olericulture, tree species, medicinal and ornamental plants. Production of secondary metabolites using cell cultures, Biotransformations Cryopreservation and ex situ conservation of germplasm
1. Balbas.P & Lorence.A (2007), 2nd Edition, Methods in Molecular Biology, Recombinant
Gene Expression, Reviews & Protocols, Human Press, New Jersey.
2. Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem,W. and Jones, R.L.,(2002), 1st Edition, Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology of Plants, American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockwille.
3. Gautam,N.C.(2006), Plant Biotechnology, Shree Publishers.
4. Heldt HW, (2005), 3rd Edition, Plant Biochemistry, Elserveir Academic Press
5. Jeyanthi, G.P (2009), Molecular Biology, MJP Publishers, Chennai
6. Lea, P.J.and Leegood, R.C., (1999), 2nd Edition, Plant Biochemistry and Molecular
7. Pareek, L.K, (2006), Trends in Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, Agios bio,India.
8. Razdan, M.K. (2007), Introduction to Plant Tissue culture, II edition, Oxford and IBA
9. Srivastava, H.S.(2006), Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Rastogi
ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Animal cell and tissue culture – history and scope, laboratory facilities,
substrates, qualitative and quantitative requirements, serum – role and importance of growth factors, types of culture media – natural and artificial media. Initiation of cell cultures – types – primary culture, cell lines, maintenance of cultures, preservation and authentication, large-scale culture of cell lines.
Scaling up of animal cell cultures, growth kinetics, embryo and organ culture;
genetic modification – transfection of animal cells and markers to select transformants. Cellular senescence – types of cell death, apoptosis, measurement of cell death, cytotoxicity and viability assays
Stem cell culture- Origin, types - adult, embryonic culture and applications,
three dimensional culture; tissue engineering – stages, support materials, cell
sources, applications; cell fusion; tissue culture as screening system –
Mass production of biologically important compounds – insulin, growth
hormone, interferon, tissue plasminogen activator, Factor VIII, regulatory proteins, blood proteins, cell culture vaccines.
Genetic engineering of animal cells – Embryo technology, Gene knockout
technologies and mice model for human genetic disorder. Pest management using juvenile hormone analogs, biocontrol agents, Pheremones, Biotechnology of silkworms, aquaculture, insect cell culture and its products.
Concept of Ecology and Ecosystem; Environmental pollution-water, soil, air,
noise and thermal; Biogeochemical cycles; Wastewater treatment- physical, chemical and biological wastewater treatment - primary, secondary and tertiary treatment; Solid waste management.
Biomass and Bio-fuels- Plant biomass (Cellulose, starch, pectin, gum
materials), Animal biomass (chitin, milk whey, Slaughter house wastes), Microbial biomass (algal blooms -in fresh and sea waters, Fungal- Mushrooms, yeasts and bacterial fermentation biomass wastes)-Concepts of single cell proteins, probiotics and their applications-Biomass feed stocks to fermentations- Microbial production of fuels: alcohols, hydrogen and methane- Microbial production of polymers (xanthan gums) Renewable and non-renewable energy sources- Biofuels, biogas, bioethanol.
Biodegradation of Xenobiotic compounds- organisms involved in degradation
of chlorinated hydrocarbons, substituted simple aromatic compounds, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, surfactants and microbial treatment of
Concepts of bioremediation (in-situ and ex-situ), Bioremediation of toxic
metal ions – biosorption and bioaccumulation principles. Concepts of phytoremediation . Biomining - extraction and recovery of metals from ores and solutions using microbes; Biofertilizers
1. Freshney,R.I (2005), Culture of Animal Cells – A Manual of Basic Techniques, 5th
2. Gupta,P.K (2006), Biotechnology and Genomics, 1st Edition, Rastogi Publication, Merut.
3. Masters, R.W. (2000), Animal cell culture- A practical approach, 3rd Edition, University
4. Purohit, S.S (2006), Biotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, Agriobios, India.
5. Sathyanarayana, U (2005), Biotechnology 2nd Edition, Books and allied limited, Calcutta.
6. Davis, J.M (Edi) (2005) Basic Cell Culture, Second Ed., A Practical Approach, Oxford
7. Probnee, R (2007), Animal Cell Biotechnology, Methods and Protocols, Second Ed.,
8. Butler, M (2004), Animal Cell Culture technology – Basics, First Ed., Academic Press,
9. Ranga, M.M, (2006). Animal Biotechnology, Second Ed., Agrobios, India.
BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY, IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY AND PLANT
Parts and design of bioreactor- Batch fermentations. Production of
biomass. Lab scale fermentation of antibiotics.
Immobilization of enzymes, isolation of starch degrading microorganisms.
Production of amylase, protease and assay of their activities
Preparation and purification of antigens: Preparation of soluble,
particulate, synthetic antigens- fractionation and purification
Production, purification and characterization of antibodies- immunization
procedures, bleeding procedures, collection of serum. Purification by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and chromatographic techniques. Characterization of T and B lymphocytes, lymphocyte subset identification and enumeration
Antigen – antibody reactions: hemagglutination, hemolysis, precipitin ring
test, immuno diffusion- single, radial, double radial, immuno electrophoresis- counter current, rocket, complement fixation test, ELISA, plaque forming cell assay
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies: - production, purification and
characterization of monoclonal antibodies- Immuno blotting
Media preparation, Surface sterilization, Micropropagation, callus culture, organogenesis, Embryo culture
Isolation and purification of protoplasts Viability test for protoplasts Protoplast culture
Direct transformation of protoplasts by electroporation.
Tumor induction in plants by Agrobacterium, introduction of binary
vectors into Agrobacterium by triparental mating, leaf disc transformation using Agrobacterium.
Direct transformation of plant tissues by micro projectile bombardment.
GUS expression in transformed tissues, extraction of DNA from
transformed plants, Southern hybridization to analyze gene expression.
Fundamental concepts and classification of crude extracts
Macroscopical evaluation of leaf extracts – flower – bark – seed – roots and rhizome, wood and fruit extracts – chemical – pharmacological – serotaxonomy – chemotaxonomy and taxonomy.
General principles of solvent extraction – continuous extraction (Soxhlet) – extract fractionation – principles and techniques of simple distillation – fractional distillation – steam distillation – reduced pressure distillation – rotary evaporation.
Experimental aspects - Simple crystallization – separation using chemical reagents – chromatographic techniques – principles of column chromatography, TLC, HPLC, HPTLC and electrophoresis.
Special methods employed – alkaloids, pigment, polyphenols, glycosides,flavonoids, steroid, steroid aglycones, tannins, phenols, lactones, terpenoids, saponins and anthocyanins.
Preliminary methods of identification of extracts- physicochemical aspects – color tests – TLC and fluorescent characteristics, ash value and extractive value, spectral methods of identification – visual and ultra violet spectroscopy – use of Schiff reagents, infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy – basic concepts and applications.
Techniques for assaying chemical constituents in drugs
Chemical assay – chemo microscopy – vein islet number and
termination number, stomatal index and stomatal number, palisade ratio, microscopic measurements, determination of length or width or diameter of tissue, fibers, viltae tubes, oil glands.
The study of common herbs – their effects and importance plants with – hepatoprotective – anticancer – antimalarial – antidiabetic – antifungal – antiviral – antihelminthetic – anticholinergic activitites.
Secondary metabolites: Alkaloids – conine, nicotine, cocaine, quinine, morphine, and caffeine. Isoprenoids – isoprene, pinene, linalool, capsidiol, gibberellin, phorbol, casbene, sitosterol, prenylated protein, ubiquinone, chlorophyll, carotenoids, dolichols, rubber. Phenyl propanoids – flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins – their formation and functions Mechanism of action, metabolism and excretion- side effects and clinical usage of allopathic drugs – oral hypoglycemic agents – sulfonyl ureas, biguanides, trogiltazone, metformin, tolbutamide – oral chemotherapeutic agents – chlorothiazieline, vincristine, vinblastine, etaposide, taxol and others – oral drugs for treating hepatic diseases – silymarin – ribaferin – diferiprone – repaglinide – Siddha and Ayurvedic drugs – active components of medicinal plants – alkaloids, flavonoids, diterpenoids in the treatment of these diseases.
Free radicals and free radical-induced damages – sources – ROS, RNS and causes – antioxidants – enzymic and non-enzymic – role of antioxidants in prevention of diseases like diabetes, cancer, aging, neuro degenerative disorders, cataract, CVD, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, assays to determine mutagenicity and carcinogenicity – Ames – role of apoptosis in cancer – mechanism of apoptosis and techniques to study apoptosis DAPI – COMET – MTT – TUNEL assay – micronucleus assay for chromosomal aberrations – sister chromatid exchange, in vitro, in vivo cytotoxicity assay – unscheduled DNA synthesis – DNA fragmentation studies.
Quality control and standardization of medicinal plant and their 15 formulations
British herbal pharmacopoeia monograph – modern herbal monographs
Japanese standard for herbal medicines – ayurvedic pharmacopoeia
aphs – use of medicinal plants as leads for computer-aided drug design
Production of secondary metabolites – culture techniques – hairy root culture, micropropagation of endangered species and conservation of medicinal plants – elicitation and immobilization of cell culture for enhanced synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds – ethical aspects and intellectual property rights in relation to medicinal plants. Transgenic plants as biopharmaceuticals for the production of edible vaccines and antibodies, glucocerebrosidases for Gaucher’s disease, Hirudin for thrombosis.
Divakar, C.M. (2002), Plant Drug Evaluation, CD remedies, India.
2. Foye, O.W., Lemke,J.L. and William D.A. (1995), Medicinal Chemistry, B.I.Waverly
3. Harborne, J.B. (2007), Phytochemical methods – A guide to modern techniques of plant
analysis, 3rd ed. Springer International edition,NewJERSEY.
4. Harborne,J.B. (1989), Methods in Plant Biochemistry in Plant Phenolics, Academic
5. Harborne,J.B., (2007), The flavanoids: advances in research since 1986. Chapman and
6. Kalsi, P.S. (1998), Spectroscopy of organic compounds, New Age International
7. Khan, A., and Khanum, A (1998) Role of Biotechnology in Medicinal and Aromatic
8. Mycek,M.J., Harvey, A.R and Champe, P.C. (1997), Lipincott’s Illustrated Reviews:
Pharmacology, 2nd edition, Lipincotts Williams and Wilkins publishers.
9. Satoskar, R.S., Bhandarkar,S.D and Annapure,S.S (1999), Pharmacology and
Pharmocotherapeutics., Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.
Neuromorphology and Neurocellular Anatomy
Cells of the nervous system – neurons – neuroglia-Central Nervous system-General features of neurons – Cellular organization of neurons – Dendrites and Axons – Neurotubules – Neurofilaments.
Peripheral Nervous System: Muscle, nerve endings, sensory receptors and 8 effector endings – peripheral nerves, spinal and cranial nerves – plexuses ganglia, afferent pathways and sense organs. Autonomic nervous system – parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves
Structure, function correlation at the synapse – Transmission across and along the synapse.
Presynaptic events at the neuromuscular junction – Cholinergic and non-cholinergic synapses. Post synaptic events at the neuromuscular junction
Chemistry – Synthesis – Storage and release of neurotransmitters, mechanism of action, synaptic modulation and mechanism of neuronal integration.
Neurophysiology – Ion channels and transport of ions
Excitable neuronal membranes, Action potentials. The Resting potential – depolarization and refractory potential.
Normal oxygen consumption by the brain. Energy demanding functions - Role of cerebral circulation – Local cerebral blood flow and metabolism - Effects of glucose deprivation – influence of age and development on cerebral energy metabolism – Cerebral energy metabolism in pathological status – convulsive disorders, coma
Formation, structure and Biochemistry of myelin - chemistry of major brain lipids – Development of changes – lipid composition – Biosynthesis and catabolism of major lipids – characteristics of brain lipids.
Blood brain CSF barriers and Neuropeptides
Characteristics of BBB – morphology, diffusion mediated transport – Characteristics of blood CSF barrier – Composition of CSF – Formation of CSF – Active transport from CSF to brain – CSF brain interface – similarities of BBB to blood CSF barrier.
Classes of neuropeptides – mode of action – role of neuropeptides in obesity and 8 pain neuropeptide receptors – generation of cell specific RNA – generation of cell specific markers.
Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s diseases – amyotrophic, lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Huntington`s disease, Schizophrenia.
1. Murray, R.K, Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A., Rodwell, D.W. (2006), Harper’s
Biochemistry, twenty fifth edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
2. Raven, P.H. and Johnson, G.B. (1995) Understanding Biology, Third Ed, Wm. C. Brown
3. Raynor, J (1977), Anatomy and Physiology
4. Van De Graff, K.M. (1992), Human Anatomy, Wm.C. Brown publishers, New York.
46th ICHA – 8 OCTOBER 2012 CLOSING REMARKS BY THE CHAIRMAN Today, 52 countries were represented (49 members and 3 observers). We have been listening to various presentations during the day and there were many other meetings organized during the previous week. So what are the principal conclusions of these meetings and of today’s Conference ? A- GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND REGULATORY ISSUE
Global Equity Research UBS Investment Research 12-month rating Teva Pharmaceuticals Unchanged 12m price target US$64.00 Unchanged US$48.84 What we learned from the conference call (1) Mgt. attributed the US generic miss to Irvine (~$53M impact), a Jerusalem 11 May 2011 slowdown (~$55M) and headwinds from high 1Q10 sales of Mirapex, Protonix,Lotre