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The use of double-muscled cattle breeds in terminal
crosses: Meat quality
C. Gariépy1, J. R. Seoane2,5, C. Cloteau1, J. F. Martin3, and G. L. Roy4 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Food Research and Development Centre, 3600 Casavant West, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada J2S 8E3; 2Department of Animal Sciences, Laval University, Cité universitaire, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4; 3Station de Recherche sur la viande, INRA, Theix, 63122 St-Genes-Champanelle, France; 4Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, P.O. Box 90, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada, J1M 1Z3. Contribution no. 6184, received 5 November 1998, accepted 3 July 1999.
Gariépy, C., Seoane, J. R., Cloteau, C., Martin, J. F. and Roy, G. L. 1999. The use of double-muscled cattle breeds in terminal
crosses: Meat quality.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79: 301–308. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of meat from 84 calves
born from British (50% Hereford and 50% Red Angus) and Continental (50% Simmental and 50% Maine Anjou) dams insemi-
nated with semen from normal (Charolais) or double-muscled (Piedmontese, Belgian Blue) sires. Lean composition of Belgian
Blue and Piedmontese sired cattle had less intramuscular fat and more protein than Charolais sired cattle (P < 0.01 to 0.05). Breed
of sire, origin of dam or calf sex had no effect on longissimus ultimate pH, thawing and cooking losses, shear forces, tenderness
and overall flavour. However, meat from male progeny displayed higher drip loss (P < 0.05) and meat colour of male calves born
from British dams was slightly more saturated than that of male calves born from Continental dams (P < 0.02). There were no
other single effects of parental traits on meat quality. Significant interactions on total and soluble collagen content involving
parental traits together with the single sex effect of the progeny (P < 0.05) did not induce textural differences, but meat from male
progeny and that from Continental dams crossed with Belgian Blue sires was more juicy (P < 0.05). The use of DM bulls in ter-
minal crosses resulted in increased lean yield and less marbling of the meat of the progeny but did not exert any other important
effect on meat quality.
Key words: Beef, double-muscling, meat quality
Gariépy, C., Seoane, J. R., Cloteau, C., Martin, J. F. et Roy, G. L. 1999. Utilisation des races à double musculature en croise-
ments terminaux: qualité de la viande.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79: 301–308. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer la qualité de la
viande de 84 veaux nés de mères des races anglaises (50% Hereford et 50% Red Angus) et continentales (50% Simmental et 50%
Maine Anjou) inséminées avec la semence de taureaux normaux (Charolais) ou à double musculature (Piedmontais, Blanc Bleu
Belge). Le muscle des veaux Blanc Bleu Belge et Piedmontais contenait moins de gras intramusculaire et plus de protéine que
celui des veaux Charolais (P < 0,01 à 0,05). La race du père, l’origin de la mère et le sexe des veaux n’eurent aucun effet sur le
pH ultime, les pertes à la décongélation et à la cuisson, les forces de cisaillement, la tendreté et la saveur globale du longissimus
. Cependant, la viande de la progéniture mâle fut plus exsudative (P < 0,05) et la couleur de la viande des mâles issus des
mères anglaises fut légèrement plus saturée que celle des mâles issus des mères continentales (P < 0,02). Il n’y eut aucun autre
effet simple des caractères parentaux sur la qualité ultime de la viande. Des interactions significatives impliquant les effets
parentaux ainsi qu’un effet simple du sexe de la progéniture furent identifiés sur les fractions totales et solubles du collagène (P < 0,05),
mais n’induisirent aucune différence de texture de la viande. La viande de la progéniture mâle et celle provenant de mères
Continentales croisées aux taureaux Blanc Bleu Belges furent cependant plus juteuses (P < 0,05). L’emploi des taureaux à double
musculature lors des croisements terminaux augmente le rendement en maigre et diminue le persillage de la viande de la progéniture,
mais n’influence pas de façon importante les autres caractéristiques sensorielles de la viande.
Mots clés: Boeuf, double musculature, qualité de la viande
Muscular hypertrophy or double muscling (DM) in cattle Upon subjective assessment of the musculature, hypertro- was identified almost 200 yr ago (Culley 1807). However, the phy is more prominent in the hindlimbs than in the fore- bulk of information on this inherited condition has been limbs and large superficial muscles are more affected than mainly obtained during the last decades from comparisons deep muscles (Boccard and Dumont 1974). A list of physi- between cattle showing double muscling and normal ones.
ological abnormalities associated with the syndrome has There is no objective biological method available for the been reviewed by Swatland (1984). Among them, reduced identification of the carriers of the most likely single gene fertility, dystocia and calf survival are the most important.
that would be responsible for this condition (Arthur 1995).
In spite of these problems, consumer preferences for leaner Abbreviations: B, British; BB, Belgian Blue; C,
5Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed Continental; CH, Charolais; DM, double-muscled; FA,
fatty acid; WHC, water-holding capacity
meat and price paid to the producer for superior carcass age. After weaning, all calves were implanted with Ralgro and yield have maintained the interest for DM cattle. Indeed, the placed in feedlots. Steers were fed in pens equipped with elec- syndrome has been associated with characteristics such as: tronic head gates (American Calan® Inc., Northwood, NH), higher meat yield, higher proportion of expensive cuts of whereas the heifers were fed in groups and were separated meat and lean and very tender meat, as reviewed by Arthur according to the paternal breed. The diet fed during back- (1995) who indicated that a premium is paid for this type of grounding consisted of ad libitum fed grass silage supple- mented with 600 g canola meal plus 50 g of a mineral mixture.
Muscular hypertrophy is mainly due to an increase in For the finishing phase, the same mineral pre-blend was used number of muscle fibers (hyperplasia) although an increase with a mixture of 35% rolled barley and 65% grass silage. All in fiber size (hypertrophy) has also been reported (Arthur animals received the same diets and same management.
1995). According to Swatland (1984), a higher percentage When ultrasound readings indicated approximately 10 mm of white muscle fibers could explain the paler appearance of backfat thickness, including the skin, animals were trans- and reduced water-holding capacity and taste observed in ported to a provincially inspected slaughterhouse (Lorrainville, DM meat (Boccard 1981, 1982; Bailey et al. 1982). Its supe- Temiscamingue, Quebec) located at 450 km from the exper- rior tenderness would be attributable to a lower total and imental farm. Feed deprivation was 48 h but animals had higher soluble collagen content (Boccard 1982; Bailey et al.
free access to water during this period. They were killed and carcasses refrigerated under standard commercial proce- In order to take advantage of the assets associated with dures. After grading, carcasses were aged for 7 d before the the DM syndrome while minimizing potential problems, short loins were taken. They were then frozen at –40°C for Arthur (1995) has suggested the use of a terminal sire breed- up to 22 wk under vacuum until meat quality analyses were ing system whereby normal females are mated to DM sires and all progeny slaughtered for commercial production.
Although a fairly large body of information is available Laboratory Analyses
on DM cattle, there are relatively few reliable data available The porterhouse steak was dissected into lean, fat and bone on the performance of DM crossbreds. In addition to the tissues and each was expressed as a percentage of the total character expression being influenced by breed, nutrition weight of the steak. The lean was further liophylized and and sex (Ménissier 1982b), the large variation in perfor- ground in a blender for analyses of intramuscular fat and mance among progeny of DM cattle crossed with normal protein. Protein was determined by the Kjeldahl procedure.
ones complicates the picture. As reported by Arthur (1995), Lipid extraction of intramuscular fat was conducted with a part of the progeny could be double-muscled, while the others Soxtec system HT6 apparatus (Tecator) in accordance with could be normal or intermediates. Studies by Cundiff et al.
the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1993, 1994) have shown that carcass characteristics of DM (1995) using a chloroform:methanol (2:1) solution.
cattle are expressed to some degree in the crossbreds.
Cholesterol in meat was obtained by the hexane extrac- However, much less information is available on meat quality tion method of Van Elswyk et al. (1991) with the following of DM crossbreds. Contrary to the superior meat tenderness modification. The hexane layer was dried directly using a generally attributed to DM cattle, there seems to be no dif- rotary evaporator. The cholesterol residue was then dis- ferences in shear forces of meat from either DM or normal solved using 5 mL of hot acetonitrile and placed into sili- sired progeny when slaughtered at the same age (Tatum conized, teflon-capped tubes for analyses. Cholesterol was et al. 1990; Cundiff et al. 1994). In fact, as reviewed by analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography Arthur (1995), higher meat yield of DM cattle has over- according to the procedure of Goh et al. (1989).
Individual fatty acids were determined after transesterifi- The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the cation with sodium methoxyde using the GLC technique overall meat quality from progeny of double muscled sires described by Chouinard et al. (1997). Determinations were crossed with normal dams of British and Continental breeds.
carried out under the following conditions: HP 5890 chro-matograph (Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA), 60 m × MATERIALS AND METHODS
0.32 mm DB-23 capillary column, 0.25-µm film thickness, H carrier gas, 2.73 cm3 min–1 volumetric flow rate, injector Semen from five sires of each of two DM breeds, namely split 1/72.26 at 250°C, septum purge vent at 2.7 mL min–1, Belgian Blue (BB) and Piedmontese (PM), and from five flame ionization detector at 250°C, and 15 kPa head pressure.
Charolais (CH) bulls exempt of the DM condition (controls) The initial temperature was 150oC, which was increased 5°C was used to inseminate two groups of normal hybrid dams: a min-1 up to 200°C and maintained at that temperature for 7 British (B) group consisting of 50% Red Angus and 50% min. Peak area was measured using a Nelson Analytical sys- Hereford cows, and a Continental (C) group consisting of tem (PE Nelson, Cupertino, CA). Each peak was identified 50% Simmental and 50% Maine Anjou cows. These repre- using methyl ester standards (Alltech, Deerfield, IL) on the sent breeds commonly used in Quebec and Northern Ontario.
basis of their retention times. The surface to concentration All calves were raised at the Agriculture and Agri-Food ratio for all identified FA was used to determine their Canada Experimental Farm at Kapuskasing (Ontario) as respective concentrations (Chouinard et al. 1997).
described by Seoane et al. (1999). Briefly, calves were kept For quality measurements, five 2.5 cm steaks were with their mothers until weaning at approximately 185 d of obtained in the frozen state from the anterior portion of the GARIÉPY ET AL. — DOUBLE-MUSCLED CROSSBREDS: MEAT QUALITY
longissimus lumborum. Two steaks were maintained frozen ination with solubilized collagen at the surface. Alternatively, (–30°C) under vacuum until ulterior sensory evaluation.
measurement of soluble collagen content was carried out on Two other steaks were used for duplicate measurements of the cooking juice from the largest sample. A 10-min cen- pH, colour and thaw and drip losses. The remaining steak trifugation (1000 × g, 20°C) was used to eliminate fat and was used for total and soluble collagen determination. A cell materials. All samples were hydrolysed for 16 h at 10-cm sample was obtained in the frozen state from the mid 105°C under acid conditions (H SO , 7 N) and hydroxypro- portion of the longissimus lumborum for shear force mea- line was determined according to method # 990-26 of the surements. Samples for physicochemical analyses were AOAC (1995). Total collagen content was calculated as the thawed at 4°C for 48 h. Difference in weight of steaks sum of the soluble and insoluble fractions and was before and after thawing was used for the calculation of expressed as mg g–1 in DM basis. Soluble collagen was thawing loss as percent of the initial weight. Other measure- expressed as percentage of total collagen.
ments were all carried out on thawed samples.
Duplicate pH measurements were taken with a spear type Sensory Analyses
electrode (model 406-M6, Ingold, Wilmington, MA) con- Sensory evaluation of tenderness, juiciness and off-flavour nected to an Oakton portable pH meter (Vernon Hills, IL).
was carried out on steaks cooked at 177°C for 30 min in a Surface L*, a* and b* colour indices were obtained in dupli- preheated convection oven until a final internal temperature cate after a 1-h blooming period at 4°C with a Chroma of 68°C was reached as monitored with thermocouples.
Meter II (Minolta, Mississauga, ON). Hue and saturation Cubes of 1.5 cm were prepared and maintained in hermetic were calculated according to the formulas Tan–1 b*/a* and glass jars for equilibration at room temperature. In order to (a*2 + b*2)0.5, respectively. Steaks were then placed on a evaluate any possible interactions, the 12 combinations of grid at 4°C and weight difference after a 48-h period was treatments were assessed within each session. For each used for the calculation of percent drip loss.
treatment, three different animals were evaluated and this From the larger longissimus sample, a 5 cm × 4 cm × 6 cm entire protocol was repeated twice. Six sessions were there- (length × width × height) sub-sample was prepared for shear fore necessary and 36 animals were evaluated. A trained force measurement. Individual sub-samples were placed in panel of eight members evaluated the intensity of each polyethylene bags and a slight vacuum was applied to allow attribute on a computerized 15 cm semi-structured line scale good heat transfer. Before cooking, all samples were equili- (version 4.1, Compusense Inc., Guelph, ON) for juiciness brated at 4°C for 2 h. They were then cooked in a water bath and tenderness, with the left end of the scale representing maintained at 68°C for 32 min. At the end of the cooking zero stimulus and the right end corresponding to a strong period, samples were cooled for 1 h under cold running level of perception for the attribute. Spectrum ™ terminolo- water until a final internal temperature of 68°C was gy (Meilgaard et al. 1991) was used as a reference standard obtained. These conditions were determined during prelim- for juiciness and tenderness. The evaluation of off-flavour inary trials and were monitored with thermocouples. This was done with a 10 cm structured line scale with marks for internal temperature was chosen to compare shear force absent, slight, moderate and high levels.
measurements with results of sensory evaluation. Weightsof the raw and cooked samples were used for the calculationof percent cooking losses. Cross sectional cooked sticks Statistical Analyses
(1 cm2) were prepared with their length parallel to the fibre For the physico-chemical parameters, the ANOVA was car- axis. They were sheared with a Warner-Bratzler device con- ried out using the MIXED procedure of SAS Institute, Inc.
nected to a texturometer (model 4201, Instron Corp., Canton, MA) according to Moller (1981). Fifteen readingswere taken per sample.
= µ + B + F + (BF) + S + (BS) + (FS) Insoluble and soluble collagen were measured respectively on two 4-g and on one 50-g meat samples in order to obtain two aliquots for ulterior acid hydrolysis. Samples in thesemi-frozen state were finely chopped with a scalpel in is the individual observation of the mth animal order to allow complete hydrolysis. All the samples were of the lth sire (P) of the ith breed (B), the jth dam origin (F), individually vacuum packaged before being equilibrated the kth sex of the progeny (S) and µ is the overall mean.
and cooked under the same conditions as used for shear P (B ) corrects for the effect of calves born from the same force measurements. A final internal temperature of 68°C sire. All main effects were fixed except for P (B ) and the was attained to correspond with the final temperature of the , which were independent random variables.
roasts used for sensory evaluation. This dry cooking proce- For sensory parameters, a Generalized Procrustean dure was based on the method suggested by Williams and Analysis (Gower 1975) was first carried out in order to eval- Harrison (1978) for the assessment of correlations between uate the level of consensus existing among judges with collagen determination, shear force measurements and ten- respect to sensory attributes. This method allows for the derness of expensive cuts of meat. Cooked samples were measurement of how judges comprehend the different cooled under cold running water. For insoluble collagen attributes and use the scales. Procrustean ANOVA was then determination, cooking juice was discarded and samples carried out on results from concurring judges using the were blotted with absorbant paper in order to avoid contam- GLM procedure of SAS Institute, Inc. (1989).
Table 1. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on meat composition of the progeny (main effects)z
Lean composition (fresh basis)Water (%) zLeast-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (T = tendency: P < 0.10,
* = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01).
yStandard error of the mean.
Table 2. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat of the progeny
(main effects)z

zLeast-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (* = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01).
yStandard error of the mean.
et al. (1997) observed that C18:0 content decreased from17.6 to 12.5% as the time on a finishing 85% concentrate Carcass Traits and Meat Composition
diet increased from 0 to 90 d. Breed of sire did not have any Dissectable lean from the porterhouse steak tended to be effect on FA composition of intramuscular fat (Table 2).
higher (P < 0.10; Table 1) and dissectable fat lower (P < Calves of British dams had less cis-C16:1, C18:2 and total 0.10) in calves sired by DM than in those sired by CH bulls.
unsaturated FA than calves from Continental dams (P < 0.05).
These results are in agreement with those published in theliterature (Arthur et al. 1989). Differences in bone percent- Meat pH, Color and Water Losses
age were not statistically different. Analysis of the longis- Pre-slaughter procedures and treatments used in this study simus and psoas muscles revealed more protein (P < 0.05) had no effect on meat ultimate pH (Table 3), which varied and less intramuscular fat (P < 0.01) in progeny of DM sires within the normal range occurring in beef longissimus muscle than in that of CH sires. Cholesterol concentrations aver- according to Asghar and Pearson (1980). Although DM ani- aged 59.4 mg 100 g–1 of lean and were not affected by sire, mals have been reported to be, on a general basis, more dam or sex of the calf. Baker and Lunt (1990) reported cho- stress sensitive than controls (Menissier 1982a), our results lesterol values of 57.7 and 55.2 mg 100 g–1 of lean for PM indicate that crossbred DM cattle can sustain a fairly long and CH sired cattle, respectively, values similar to those transportation period (450 km) without suffering any major muscular energy expenditure. As a consequence, there were Intramuscular fat (Table 2) was rich in cis-C18:1 no differences in L* values (Table 3) which are known to be (38.5%), C16:0 (31.4%) and C18:0 (17.1%) fatty acids, pH dependant and no dark cutters were obtained. Arthur which represent normal values for steers consuming con- (1995) and Bailey et al. (1982) have reported a paler appear- ventional finishing diets (Camfield et al. 1997). Camfield ance of meat from DM cattle, which was attributed to a GARIÉPY ET AL. — DOUBLE-MUSCLED CROSSBREDS: MEAT QUALITY
Table 3. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on pH, colour and water losses of the longissimus dorsi
of the progeny (main effects)z

zLeast-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05).
yThere was a significant dam – sex-of-calf interaction. Meat colour of males born from British dams was more saturated than that of males born from
Continental dams (P < 0.02).
zStandard error of the mean.
Table 4. Interactive effects of crossing double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams and single sex effect on collagen, shear force and
juiciness of the longissimus lumborum of the progenyz

Shear forcex
Breed of sire × dam combinationCharolais × British zLeast-square means ± standard error. Means within a parameter followed by a different letter are statistically different (T = P < 0.10, * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01).
There was no sire, dam or sex effect on sensory evaluation of tenderness (3.94 ± 0.16) and off flavour (0.92 ± 0.21).
yInteraction of breed of sire and origin of dam tended to be significant (P < 0.07).
xInteraction of breed of sire and origin of dam was not statistically significant; values reported represent breed of sire effect (P < 0.08).
wJuiciness was assessed with a semi-structured line scale varying from 0 to 15. A higher score indicates a more pronounced characteristic.
higher glycolytic fibre content. In our study, however, breed WHC of meat from male progeny. As presented in Table 1, of sire had no effect on both a* and b* values and, as a con- there was also no effect of calf sex on water or fat content of sequence, no differences were found in both hue and satura- the longissimus muscle from these animals.
tion (Table 3). A significant interaction between origin ofthe dam and calf sex was obtained on a* values, which led Collagen Content, Shear Force and Sensory
to a difference in colour saturation (P < 0.02). According to Evaluation
this interaction, meat colour of steers born of British dams A lower total collagen content was obtained for the meat (20.70 ± 0.65) was more saturated (P < 0.02) than meat of from male progeny (Table 4) and could relate to its lower steers born of Continental dams (18.36 ± 0.71). However, WHC. As reported by Hamm (1960), it is common opinion absence of any single dam and calf sex effects on both a* that the WHC of meat increases with the amount of connec- and b* values (Table 3) indicates that this interaction is of tive tissue it contains. It must be pointed out that this opinion, small magnitude relative to the human eye.
however, was mainly based on experiences obtained from With respect to WHC, treatments had no effect on thaw- heating procedures such as in processing emulsion type ing and cooking losses (Table 3). However, meat from male sausages. From a histological study, however, Offer and progeny displayed higher drip loss than that from females (P Knight (1988) have demonstrated that rigor development < 0.05) irrespective of sire or dam, which had no effect on causes a first fluid-filled gap at the perymisium level fol- this parameter (Table 3). Absence of any effect of treat- lowed by a second extra-cellular space at the endomysium ments on pH or thawing losses cannot support the lower level upon rigor completion. This indicates that water can CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
pass relatively easily through both cell membrane and the sensory assessment of tenderness. In this study, meat quali- thinner endomysium layer but the gap observed at the per- ty from the entire progeny was evaluated and the possible imysium junction also suggests a barrier effect brought varying expression of treatment among the progeny might about by heavier connective tissue strands. According to be thought of as a cause for the lack of tenderness differ- Asghar and Henrickson (1982), collagen associated muco- ences as objectively and subjectively evaluated. In both polysaccharides could also contribute to WHC of animal tis- cases, however, the variation associated with shear force sue. In addition to its smaller amount in total collagen, meat measurements and tenderness assessment, respectively, was from male progeny also had a larger portion of soluble col- well within the range commonly encountered in the litera- lagen (P < 0.01; Table 4). According to Etherington (1987), ture. Results by Gariépy et al. (1990) indicated that a differ- both the quantity and the degree of crosslinking of intra- ence of 1 kg in shear forces between beef samples obtained muscular collagen can be influenced by the age of an animal.
following the procedure of Moller (1981) was in the order of Although, Seoane et al. (1999) did not find any difference in detectable magnitude by a trained panel. It should be point- age at slaughter between male and female progeny, they did ed out that, although non-significant, there was a marked report significantly higher carcass weight and average daily difference on shear force values between samples from the gain in males, which could explain their lower total and two DM sire breeds (5.56 and 6.45 kg for PM and BB, higher soluble collagen content. According to Menissier respectively; P = 0.08; Table 4). A similar ranking was (1982b), males tend to manifest more clearly muscular obtained by Liboriussen (1982) with meat from the progeny hypertrophy which, as suggested by Boccard (1982), would of the same sire breeds. In that particular study, the differ- depend on inferior intramuscular collagen content that ence in shear forces between samples was also not statisti- would allow superior muscular development. Indeed, cally significant, but the panel found that meat from BB absence of any difference between males and females of the progeny was significantly tougher than that from both CH CH progeny in this study clearly demonstrates that the lower and PM with an overall preference for meat from PM with intramuscular collagen content in males, arose from DM sire respect to that from BB. Also similar to our results, meat breeds (results not shown since calf sex × sire breed inter- from CH progeny was found in an intermediate position.
action was not significant). Changes in connective tissue in Uytterhaegen et al. (1994) have reported increased tough- meat from fast-growing animals may in part be derived from ness in meat from DM Belgian Blue that was due to their a small overall decrease in the percentage of total collagen, reduced postmortem proteolytic tenderization in comparison but it seems more likely that the large quantity of recently with normal Belgian Blue. It must be mentioned that the dry synthesized and poorly cross-linked collagen, which repre- cooking procedure (Williams and Harrison 1978) yields sents its soluble fraction, is diluting out the older fibres smaller amounts of soluble collagen than the salt, acid or alkali solution extraction procedures (Light 1985). This pro- Single effects for sire and dam were not significant on cedure, on the other hand, has potential to favour the estab- either total or soluble collagen content. On this basis, prog- lishment of relationship with shear forces. According to eny from either DM breeds or controls would have similar Eilert and Mandigo (1993), the solution extraction proce- connective tissue characteristics, contrary to what has beendocumented in the literature from comparisons between ani- dures, along with the higher cooking temperature involved, mals showing or not the DM condition (Bailey et al. 1982; may indeed lead to a solubilization artifact and impede cor- Boccard 1982; Hanset et al. 1982). The ANOVA, however, relations with textural measurements. Notwithstanding this revealed a significant interaction of the parental traits on procedure and the fact that treatment had no effect on shear total collagen content (P < 0.05) and also, at a lower proba- forces and tenderness evaluation, juiciness was influenced bility level (P < 0.07), on the soluble collagen fraction of by calf sex (P < 0.05) and also by the same interaction of meat from the entire progeny. These interactions would be parental traits, which influenced total and soluble collagen caused, in the case of total collagen, by the much larger dif- contents. Meat from male progeny was more juicy than that ference found in the progeny of dams of different origin from females (Table 4) and the effect of Continental dams, sired with BB (Table 4). In the case of soluble collagen con- which also increased juiciness of DM crossbreds, was much tent, the interaction arose from the opposite pattern found more prevalent when crossed with BB sires. We have not between dam origin according to the sire breed used. In found any information on the relationship between collagen other words, in comparison with CH progeny, collagen sol- solubility and meat juiciness but the influence of the soluble ubility of meat from DM sires progeny would be much more collagen fraction on retention or release of juice during influenced by the origin of the dam (Table 4). The soluble chewing appears as a logical possibility since the largest collagen fraction was also under a significant interactive amount was found in meat from male progeny (Table 4).
effect of calf sex and dam. Meat from males born of However, a closer look at the results suggests a more effec- Continental dams had more soluble collagen than females tive role of the total collagen content as the smallest amount (2.00 vs. 1.37% respectively; P < 0.03). Offsprings of was also found in meat from male progeny with respect to British dams were in intermediate position and did not sta- that from female, but also because meat from Continental and British dams crossed with BB sires induced the most These preceding interactions, however, did not translate and less juicy meat, respectively (Table 4). This aspect is into textural differences as there was no significant effect of also in agreement with the observations of Offer and Knight treatments on either shear force measurements (Table 4) or (1988) on the effect of the layers of connective tissue on GARIÉPY ET AL. — DOUBLE-MUSCLED CROSSBREDS: MEAT QUALITY
water migration within muscle as discussed previously.
tion. Martinus Ninjhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Since cooking losses were not affected by treatments, it is Baker, J. F. and Lunt, D. K. 1990. Comparison of production
not clear how meat from male progeny, which displayed characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by higher drip losses, could still be perceived as more juicy in Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 68:
the absence of any sex effect on intramuscular fat and water Boccard, R. 1981. Facts and reflections on muscular hypertrophy
content as reported earlier. Since calf sex had minor effects in cattle: Double muscling or culard. Pages 1–28 in R. Lawrie, ed.
on fatty acid profile (Table 2), it might simply be that the vol. 2. Developments in meat science. Elsevier Applied Science amount of drip released could not induce significant changes in juiciness rating. In spite of the reduced taste attributed to Boccard, R. 1982. Relationship between muscle hypertrophy and
meat from DM cattle (Bailey et al. 1982), treatments in this the composition of skeletal muscles. Pages 148–162 in J. W. B.
study had no effects on the flavor of meat from the progeny.
King and F. Ménissier, eds. Muscle hypertrophy of genetic originand its use to improve beef production. Martinus Ninjhoff, the CONCLUSION
Meat quality of progeny from normal British or Continental Boccard, R. and Dumont, B. L. 1974. Effects of hereditary mus-
cular hypertrophy on the musculature of cattle. Ann. Génét. Sél.
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Carcasses of DM crosses tended to have more lean and their Camfield, P. K., Brown, Jr. A. H., Lewis, P. K., Rakes, L. Y.
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