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The use of double-muscled cattle breeds in terminal
crosses: Meat quality
C. Gariépy1, J. R. Seoane2,5, C. Cloteau1, J. F. Martin3, and G. L. Roy4
1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Food Research and Development Centre, 3600 Casavant West, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada J2S 8E3; 2Department of Animal Sciences, Laval University, Cité universitaire,
Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4; 3Station de Recherche sur la viande, INRA, Theix, 63122 St-Genes-Champanelle,
France; 4Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, P.O. Box 90,
Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada, J1M 1Z3. Contribution no. 6184, received 5 November 1998, accepted 3 July 1999.
Gariépy, C., Seoane, J. R., Cloteau, C., Martin, J. F. and Roy, G. L. 1999. The use of double-muscled cattle breeds in terminal
crosses: Meat quality.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79
: 301–308. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of meat from 84 calves
born from British (50% Hereford and 50% Red Angus) and Continental (50% Simmental and 50% Maine Anjou) dams insemi-
nated with semen from normal (Charolais) or double-muscled (Piedmontese, Belgian Blue) sires. Lean composition of Belgian
Blue and Piedmontese sired cattle had less intramuscular fat and more protein than Charolais sired cattle (P
< 0.01 to 0.05). Breed
of sire, origin of dam or calf sex had no effect on longissimus ultimate pH, thawing and cooking losses, shear forces, tenderness
and overall flavour. However, meat from male progeny displayed higher drip loss (P
< 0.05) and meat colour of male calves born
from British dams was slightly more saturated than that of male calves born from Continental dams (P
< 0.02). There were no
other single effects of parental traits on meat quality. Significant interactions on total and soluble collagen content involving
parental traits together with the single sex effect of the progeny (P
< 0.05) did not induce textural differences, but meat from male
progeny and that from Continental dams crossed with Belgian Blue sires was more juicy (P
< 0.05). The use of DM bulls in ter-
minal crosses resulted in increased lean yield and less marbling of the meat of the progeny but did not exert any other important
effect on meat quality.
: Beef, double-muscling, meat quality
Gariépy, C., Seoane, J. R., Cloteau, C., Martin, J. F. et Roy, G. L. 1999. Utilisation des races à double musculature en croise-
ments terminaux: qualité de la viande.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79
: 301–308. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer la qualité de la
viande de 84 veaux nés de mères des races anglaises (50% Hereford et 50% Red Angus) et continentales (50% Simmental et 50%
Maine Anjou) inséminées avec la semence de taureaux normaux (Charolais) ou à double musculature (Piedmontais, Blanc Bleu
Belge). Le muscle des veaux Blanc Bleu Belge et Piedmontais contenait moins de gras intramusculaire et plus de protéine que
celui des veaux Charolais (P
< 0,01 à 0,05). La race du père, l’origin de la mère et le sexe des veaux n’eurent aucun effet sur le
pH ultime, les pertes à la décongélation et à la cuisson, les forces de cisaillement, la tendreté et la saveur globale du longissimus
. Cependant, la viande de la progéniture mâle fut plus exsudative (P
< 0,05) et la couleur de la viande des mâles issus des
mères anglaises fut légèrement plus saturée que celle des mâles issus des mères continentales (P
< 0,02). Il n’y eut aucun autre
effet simple des caractères parentaux sur la qualité ultime de la viande. Des interactions significatives impliquant les effets
parentaux ainsi qu’un effet simple du sexe de la progéniture furent identifiés sur les fractions totales et solubles du collagène (P
mais n’induisirent aucune différence de texture de la viande. La viande de la progéniture mâle et celle provenant de mères
Continentales croisées aux taureaux Blanc Bleu Belges furent cependant plus juteuses (P
< 0,05). L’emploi des taureaux à double
musculature lors des croisements terminaux augmente le rendement en maigre et diminue le persillage de la viande de la progéniture,
mais n’influence pas de façon importante les autres caractéristiques sensorielles de la viande.
: Boeuf, double musculature, qualité de la viande
Muscular hypertrophy or double muscling (DM) in cattle
Upon subjective assessment of the musculature, hypertro-
was identified almost 200 yr ago (Culley 1807). However, the
phy is more prominent in the hindlimbs than in the fore-
bulk of information on this inherited condition has been
limbs and large superficial muscles are more affected than
mainly obtained during the last decades from comparisons
deep muscles (Boccard and Dumont 1974). A list of physi-
between cattle showing double muscling and normal ones.
ological abnormalities associated with the syndrome has
There is no objective biological method available for the
been reviewed by Swatland (1984). Among them, reduced
identification of the carriers of the most likely single gene
fertility, dystocia and calf survival are the most important.
that would be responsible for this condition (Arthur 1995).
In spite of these problems, consumer preferences for leaner
, British; BB
, Belgian Blue; C
5Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed
, Charolais; DM
, double-muscled; FA
fatty acid; WHC
, water-holding capacity
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
meat and price paid to the producer for superior carcass
age. After weaning, all calves were implanted with Ralgro and
yield have maintained the interest for DM cattle. Indeed, the
placed in feedlots. Steers were fed in pens equipped with elec-
syndrome has been associated with characteristics such as:
tronic head gates (American Calan® Inc., Northwood, NH),
higher meat yield, higher proportion of expensive cuts of
whereas the heifers were fed in groups and were separated
meat and lean and very tender meat, as reviewed by Arthur
according to the paternal breed. The diet fed during back-
(1995) who indicated that a premium is paid for this type of
grounding consisted of ad libitum fed grass silage supple-
mented with 600 g canola meal plus 50 g of a mineral mixture.
Muscular hypertrophy is mainly due to an increase in
For the finishing phase, the same mineral pre-blend was used
number of muscle fibers (hyperplasia) although an increase
with a mixture of 35% rolled barley and 65% grass silage. All
in fiber size (hypertrophy) has also been reported (Arthur
animals received the same diets and same management.
1995). According to Swatland (1984), a higher percentage
When ultrasound readings indicated approximately 10 mm
of white muscle fibers could explain the paler appearance
of backfat thickness, including the skin, animals were trans-
and reduced water-holding capacity and taste observed in
ported to a provincially inspected slaughterhouse (Lorrainville,
DM meat (Boccard 1981, 1982; Bailey et al. 1982). Its supe-
Temiscamingue, Quebec) located at 450 km from the exper-
rior tenderness would be attributable to a lower total and
imental farm. Feed deprivation was 48 h but animals had
higher soluble collagen content (Boccard 1982; Bailey et al.
free access to water during this period. They were killed and
carcasses refrigerated under standard commercial proce-
In order to take advantage of the assets associated with
dures. After grading, carcasses were aged for 7 d before the
the DM syndrome while minimizing potential problems,
short loins were taken. They were then frozen at –40°C for
Arthur (1995) has suggested the use of a terminal sire breed-
up to 22 wk under vacuum until meat quality analyses were
ing system whereby normal females are mated to DM sires
and all progeny slaughtered for commercial production.
Although a fairly large body of information is available
on DM cattle, there are relatively few reliable data available
The porterhouse steak was dissected into lean, fat and bone
on the performance of DM crossbreds. In addition to the
tissues and each was expressed as a percentage of the total
character expression being influenced by breed, nutrition
weight of the steak. The lean was further liophylized and
and sex (Ménissier 1982b), the large variation in perfor-
ground in a blender for analyses of intramuscular fat and
mance among progeny of DM cattle crossed with normal
protein. Protein was determined by the Kjeldahl procedure.
ones complicates the picture. As reported by Arthur (1995),
Lipid extraction of intramuscular fat was conducted with a
part of the progeny could be double-muscled, while the others
Soxtec system HT6 apparatus (Tecator) in accordance with
could be normal or intermediates. Studies by Cundiff et al.
the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)
(1993, 1994) have shown that carcass characteristics of DM
(1995) using a chloroform:methanol (2:1) solution.
cattle are expressed to some degree in the crossbreds.
Cholesterol in meat was obtained by the hexane extrac-
However, much less information is available on meat quality
tion method of Van Elswyk et al. (1991) with the following
of DM crossbreds. Contrary to the superior meat tenderness
modification. The hexane layer was dried directly using a
generally attributed to DM cattle, there seems to be no dif-
rotary evaporator. The cholesterol residue was then dis-
ferences in shear forces of meat from either DM or normal
solved using 5 mL of hot acetonitrile and placed into sili-
sired progeny when slaughtered at the same age (Tatum
conized, teflon-capped tubes for analyses. Cholesterol was
et al. 1990; Cundiff et al. 1994). In fact, as reviewed by
analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography
Arthur (1995), higher meat yield of DM cattle has over-
according to the procedure of Goh et al. (1989).
Individual fatty acids were determined after transesterifi-
The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the
cation with sodium methoxyde using the GLC technique
overall meat quality from progeny of double muscled sires
described by Chouinard et al. (1997). Determinations were
crossed with normal dams of British and Continental breeds.
carried out under the following conditions: HP 5890 chro-matograph (Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA), 60 m ×
MATERIALS AND METHODS
0.32 mm DB-23 capillary column, 0.25-µm film thickness,
H carrier gas, 2.73 cm3 min–1 volumetric flow rate, injector
Semen from five sires of each of two DM breeds, namely
split 1/72.26 at 250°C, septum purge vent at 2.7 mL min–1,
Belgian Blue (BB) and Piedmontese (PM), and from five
flame ionization detector at 250°C, and 15 kPa head pressure.
Charolais (CH) bulls exempt of the DM condition (controls)
The initial temperature was 150oC, which was increased 5°C
was used to inseminate two groups of normal hybrid dams: a
min-1 up to 200°C and maintained at that temperature for 7
British (B) group consisting of 50% Red Angus and 50%
min. Peak area was measured using a Nelson Analytical sys-
Hereford cows, and a Continental (C) group consisting of
tem (PE Nelson, Cupertino, CA). Each peak was identified
50% Simmental and 50% Maine Anjou cows. These repre-
using methyl ester standards (Alltech, Deerfield, IL) on the
sent breeds commonly used in Quebec and Northern Ontario.
basis of their retention times. The surface to concentration
All calves were raised at the Agriculture and Agri-Food
ratio for all identified FA was used to determine their
Canada Experimental Farm at Kapuskasing (Ontario) as
respective concentrations (Chouinard et al. 1997).
described by Seoane et al. (1999). Briefly, calves were kept
For quality measurements, five 2.5 cm steaks were
with their mothers until weaning at approximately 185 d of
obtained in the frozen state from the anterior portion of the
GARIÉPY ET AL. — DOUBLE-MUSCLED CROSSBREDS: MEAT QUALITY
longissimus lumborum. Two steaks were maintained frozen
ination with solubilized collagen at the surface. Alternatively,
(–30°C) under vacuum until ulterior sensory evaluation.
measurement of soluble collagen content was carried out on
Two other steaks were used for duplicate measurements of
the cooking juice from the largest sample. A 10-min cen-
pH, colour and thaw and drip losses. The remaining steak
trifugation (1000 × g
, 20°C) was used to eliminate fat and
was used for total and soluble collagen determination. A
cell materials. All samples were hydrolysed for 16 h at
10-cm sample was obtained in the frozen state from the mid
105°C under acid conditions (H SO , 7 N) and hydroxypro-
portion of the longissimus lumborum for shear force mea-
line was determined according to method # 990-26 of the
surements. Samples for physicochemical analyses were
AOAC (1995). Total collagen content was calculated as the
thawed at 4°C for 48 h. Difference in weight of steaks
sum of the soluble and insoluble fractions and was
before and after thawing was used for the calculation of
expressed as mg g–1 in DM basis. Soluble collagen was
thawing loss as percent of the initial weight. Other measure-
expressed as percentage of total collagen.
ments were all carried out on thawed samples.
Duplicate pH measurements were taken with a spear type
electrode (model 406-M6, Ingold, Wilmington, MA) con-
Sensory evaluation of tenderness, juiciness and off-flavour
nected to an Oakton portable pH meter (Vernon Hills, IL).
was carried out on steaks cooked at 177°C for 30 min in a
* and b
* colour indices were obtained in dupli-
preheated convection oven until a final internal temperature
cate after a 1-h blooming period at 4°C with a Chroma
of 68°C was reached as monitored with thermocouples.
Meter II (Minolta, Mississauga, ON). Hue and saturation
Cubes of 1.5 cm were prepared and maintained in hermetic
were calculated according to the formulas Tan–1 b
glass jars for equilibration at room temperature. In order to
*2 + b
*2)0.5, respectively. Steaks were then placed on a
evaluate any possible interactions, the 12 combinations of
grid at 4°C and weight difference after a 48-h period was
treatments were assessed within each session. For each
used for the calculation of percent drip loss.
treatment, three different animals were evaluated and this
From the larger longissimus sample, a 5 cm × 4 cm × 6 cm
entire protocol was repeated twice. Six sessions were there-
(length × width × height) sub-sample was prepared for shear
fore necessary and 36 animals were evaluated. A trained
force measurement. Individual sub-samples were placed in
panel of eight members evaluated the intensity of each
polyethylene bags and a slight vacuum was applied to allow
attribute on a computerized 15 cm semi-structured line scale
good heat transfer. Before cooking, all samples were equili-
(version 4.1, Compusense Inc., Guelph, ON) for juiciness
brated at 4°C for 2 h. They were then cooked in a water bath
and tenderness, with the left end of the scale representing
maintained at 68°C for 32 min. At the end of the cooking
zero stimulus and the right end corresponding to a strong
period, samples were cooled for 1 h under cold running
level of perception for the attribute. Spectrum ™ terminolo-
water until a final internal temperature of 68°C was
gy (Meilgaard et al. 1991) was used as a reference standard
obtained. These conditions were determined during prelim-
for juiciness and tenderness. The evaluation of off-flavour
inary trials and were monitored with thermocouples. This
was done with a 10 cm structured line scale with marks for
internal temperature was chosen to compare shear force
absent, slight, moderate and high levels.
measurements with results of sensory evaluation. Weightsof the raw and cooked samples were used for the calculationof percent cooking losses. Cross sectional cooked sticks
(1 cm2) were prepared with their length parallel to the fibre
For the physico-chemical parameters, the ANOVA was car-
axis. They were sheared with a Warner-Bratzler device con-
ried out using the MIXED procedure of SAS Institute, Inc.
nected to a texturometer (model 4201, Instron Corp.,
Canton, MA) according to Moller (1981). Fifteen readingswere taken per sample.
= µ + B
) + S
) + (FS
Insoluble and soluble collagen were measured respectively
on two 4-g and on one 50-g meat samples in order to obtain
two aliquots for ulterior acid hydrolysis. Samples in thesemi-frozen state were finely chopped with a scalpel in
is the individual observation of the m
order to allow complete hydrolysis. All the samples were
of the l
th sire (P
) of the i
th breed (B
), the j
th dam origin (F
individually vacuum packaged before being equilibrated
th sex of the progeny (S
) and µ is the overall mean.
and cooked under the same conditions as used for shear
) corrects for the effect of calves born from the same
force measurements. A final internal temperature of 68°C
sire. All main effects were fixed except for P
) and the
was attained to correspond with the final temperature of the
, which were independent random variables.
roasts used for sensory evaluation. This dry cooking proce-
For sensory parameters, a Generalized Procrustean
dure was based on the method suggested by Williams and
Analysis (Gower 1975) was first carried out in order to eval-
Harrison (1978) for the assessment of correlations between
uate the level of consensus existing among judges with
collagen determination, shear force measurements and ten-
respect to sensory attributes. This method allows for the
derness of expensive cuts of meat. Cooked samples were
measurement of how judges comprehend the different
cooled under cold running water. For insoluble collagen
attributes and use the scales. Procrustean ANOVA was then
determination, cooking juice was discarded and samples
carried out on results from concurring judges using the
were blotted with absorbant paper in order to avoid contam-
GLM procedure of SAS Institute, Inc. (1989).
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
Table 1. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on meat composition of the progeny (main effects)z
Lean composition (fresh basis)
Least-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (T
= tendency: P
* = P
< 0.05, ** = P
Standard error of the mean.
Table 2. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat of the progeny
Least-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (* = P
< 0.05, ** = P
Standard error of the mean.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
et al. (1997) observed that C18:0 content decreased from17.6 to 12.5% as the time on a finishing 85% concentrate
Carcass Traits and Meat Composition
diet increased from 0 to 90 d. Breed of sire did not have any
Dissectable lean from the porterhouse steak tended to be
effect on FA composition of intramuscular fat (Table 2).
< 0.10; Table 1) and dissectable fat lower (P
Calves of British dams had less cis
-C16:1, C18:2 and total
0.10) in calves sired by DM than in those sired by CH bulls.
unsaturated FA than calves from Continental dams (P
These results are in agreement with those published in theliterature (Arthur et al. 1989). Differences in bone percent-
Meat pH, Color and Water Losses
age were not statistically different. Analysis of the longis-
Pre-slaughter procedures and treatments used in this study
simus and psoas muscles revealed more protein (P
had no effect on meat ultimate pH (Table 3), which varied
and less intramuscular fat (P
< 0.01) in progeny of DM sires
within the normal range occurring in beef longissimus muscle
than in that of CH sires. Cholesterol concentrations aver-
according to Asghar and Pearson (1980). Although DM ani-
aged 59.4 mg 100 g–1 of lean and were not affected by sire,
mals have been reported to be, on a general basis, more
dam or sex of the calf. Baker and Lunt (1990) reported cho-
stress sensitive than controls (Menissier 1982a), our results
lesterol values of 57.7 and 55.2 mg 100 g–1 of lean for PM
indicate that crossbred DM cattle can sustain a fairly long
and CH sired cattle, respectively, values similar to those
transportation period (450 km) without suffering any major
muscular energy expenditure. As a consequence, there were
Intramuscular fat (Table 2) was rich in cis
no differences in L
* values (Table 3) which are known to be
(38.5%), C16:0 (31.4%) and C18:0 (17.1%) fatty acids,
pH dependant and no dark cutters were obtained. Arthur
which represent normal values for steers consuming con-
(1995) and Bailey et al. (1982) have reported a paler appear-
ventional finishing diets (Camfield et al. 1997). Camfield
ance of meat from DM cattle, which was attributed to a
GARIÉPY ET AL. — DOUBLE-MUSCLED CROSSBREDS: MEAT QUALITY
Table 3. Effects of crossing normal or double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams on pH, colour and water losses of the longissimus dorsi
of the progeny (main effects)z
Least-square means. For a given parameter within a main effect, means followed by a different letter are significantly different (P
There was a significant dam – sex-of-calf interaction. Meat colour of males born from British dams was more saturated than that of males born from
Continental dams (P
Standard error of the mean.
Table 4. Interactive effects of crossing double-muscled sires with British or Continental dams and single sex effect on collagen, shear force and
juiciness of the longissimus lumborum of the progenyz
Breed of sire
× dam combination
Charolais × British
Least-square means ± standard error. Means within a parameter followed by a different letter are statistically different (T
< 0.10, * = P
< 0.05, ** = P
There was no sire, dam or sex effect on sensory evaluation of tenderness (3.94 ± 0.16) and off flavour (0.92 ± 0.21).y
Interaction of breed of sire and origin of dam tended to be significant (P
Interaction of breed of sire and origin of dam was not statistically significant; values reported represent breed of sire effect (P
Juiciness was assessed with a semi-structured line scale varying from 0 to 15. A higher score indicates a more pronounced characteristic.
higher glycolytic fibre content. In our study, however, breed
WHC of meat from male progeny. As presented in Table 1,
of sire had no effect on both a
* and b
* values and, as a con-
there was also no effect of calf sex on water or fat content of
sequence, no differences were found in both hue and satura-
the longissimus muscle from these animals.
tion (Table 3). A significant interaction between origin ofthe dam and calf sex was obtained on a
* values, which led
Collagen Content, Shear Force and Sensory
to a difference in colour saturation (P
< 0.02). According to
this interaction, meat colour of steers born of British dams
A lower total collagen content was obtained for the meat
(20.70 ± 0.65) was more saturated (P
< 0.02) than meat of
from male progeny (Table 4) and could relate to its lower
steers born of Continental dams (18.36 ± 0.71). However,
WHC. As reported by Hamm (1960), it is common opinion
absence of any single dam and calf sex effects on both a
that the WHC of meat increases with the amount of connec-
* values (Table 3) indicates that this interaction is of
tive tissue it contains. It must be pointed out that this opinion,
small magnitude relative to the human eye.
however, was mainly based on experiences obtained from
With respect to WHC, treatments had no effect on thaw-
heating procedures such as in processing emulsion type
ing and cooking losses (Table 3). However, meat from male
sausages. From a histological study, however, Offer and
progeny displayed higher drip loss than that from females (P
Knight (1988) have demonstrated that rigor development
< 0.05) irrespective of sire or dam, which had no effect on
causes a first fluid-filled gap at the perymisium level fol-
this parameter (Table 3). Absence of any effect of treat-
lowed by a second extra-cellular space at the endomysium
ments on pH or thawing losses cannot support the lower
level upon rigor completion. This indicates that water can
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
pass relatively easily through both cell membrane and the
sensory assessment of tenderness. In this study, meat quali-
thinner endomysium layer but the gap observed at the per-
ty from the entire progeny was evaluated and the possible
imysium junction also suggests a barrier effect brought
varying expression of treatment among the progeny might
about by heavier connective tissue strands. According to
be thought of as a cause for the lack of tenderness differ-
Asghar and Henrickson (1982), collagen associated muco-
ences as objectively and subjectively evaluated. In both
polysaccharides could also contribute to WHC of animal tis-
cases, however, the variation associated with shear force
sue. In addition to its smaller amount in total collagen, meat
measurements and tenderness assessment, respectively, was
from male progeny also had a larger portion of soluble col-
well within the range commonly encountered in the litera-
< 0.01; Table 4). According to Etherington (1987),
ture. Results by Gariépy et al. (1990) indicated that a differ-
both the quantity and the degree of crosslinking of intra-
ence of 1 kg in shear forces between beef samples obtained
muscular collagen can be influenced by the age of an animal.
following the procedure of Moller (1981) was in the order of
Although, Seoane et al. (1999) did not find any difference in
detectable magnitude by a trained panel. It should be point-
age at slaughter between male and female progeny, they did
ed out that, although non-significant, there was a marked
report significantly higher carcass weight and average daily
difference on shear force values between samples from the
gain in males, which could explain their lower total and
two DM sire breeds (5.56 and 6.45 kg for PM and BB,
higher soluble collagen content. According to Menissier
= 0.08; Table 4). A similar ranking was
(1982b), males tend to manifest more clearly muscular
obtained by Liboriussen (1982) with meat from the progeny
hypertrophy which, as suggested by Boccard (1982), would
of the same sire breeds. In that particular study, the differ-
depend on inferior intramuscular collagen content that
ence in shear forces between samples was also not statisti-
would allow superior muscular development. Indeed,
cally significant, but the panel found that meat from BB
absence of any difference between males and females of the
progeny was significantly tougher than that from both CH
CH progeny in this study clearly demonstrates that the lower
and PM with an overall preference for meat from PM with
intramuscular collagen content in males, arose from DM sire
respect to that from BB. Also similar to our results, meat
breeds (results not shown since calf sex × sire breed inter-
from CH progeny was found in an intermediate position.
action was not significant). Changes in connective tissue in
Uytterhaegen et al. (1994) have reported increased tough-
meat from fast-growing animals may in part be derived from
ness in meat from DM Belgian Blue that was due to their
a small overall decrease in the percentage of total collagen,
reduced postmortem proteolytic tenderization in comparison
but it seems more likely that the large quantity of recently
with normal Belgian Blue. It must be mentioned that the dry
synthesized and poorly cross-linked collagen, which repre-
cooking procedure (Williams and Harrison 1978) yields
sents its soluble fraction, is diluting out the older fibres
smaller amounts of soluble collagen than the salt, acid or
alkali solution extraction procedures (Light 1985). This pro-
Single effects for sire and dam were not significant on
cedure, on the other hand, has potential to favour the estab-
either total or soluble collagen content. On this basis, prog-
lishment of relationship with shear forces. According to
eny from either DM breeds or controls would have similar
Eilert and Mandigo (1993), the solution extraction proce-
connective tissue characteristics, contrary to what has beendocumented in the literature from comparisons between ani-
dures, along with the higher cooking temperature involved,
mals showing or not the DM condition (Bailey et al. 1982;
may indeed lead to a solubilization artifact and impede cor-
Boccard 1982; Hanset et al. 1982). The ANOVA, however,
relations with textural measurements. Notwithstanding this
revealed a significant interaction of the parental traits on
procedure and the fact that treatment had no effect on shear
total collagen content (P
< 0.05) and also, at a lower proba-
forces and tenderness evaluation, juiciness was influenced
bility level (P
< 0.07), on the soluble collagen fraction of
by calf sex (P
< 0.05) and also by the same interaction of
meat from the entire progeny. These interactions would be
parental traits, which influenced total and soluble collagen
caused, in the case of total collagen, by the much larger dif-
contents. Meat from male progeny was more juicy than that
ference found in the progeny of dams of different origin
from females (Table 4) and the effect of Continental dams,
sired with BB (Table 4). In the case of soluble collagen con-
which also increased juiciness of DM crossbreds, was much
tent, the interaction arose from the opposite pattern found
more prevalent when crossed with BB sires. We have not
between dam origin according to the sire breed used. In
found any information on the relationship between collagen
other words, in comparison with CH progeny, collagen sol-
solubility and meat juiciness but the influence of the soluble
ubility of meat from DM sires progeny would be much more
collagen fraction on retention or release of juice during
influenced by the origin of the dam (Table 4). The soluble
chewing appears as a logical possibility since the largest
collagen fraction was also under a significant interactive
amount was found in meat from male progeny (Table 4).
effect of calf sex and dam. Meat from males born of
However, a closer look at the results suggests a more effec-
Continental dams had more soluble collagen than females
tive role of the total collagen content as the smallest amount
(2.00 vs. 1.37% respectively; P
< 0.03). Offsprings of
was also found in meat from male progeny with respect to
British dams were in intermediate position and did not sta-
that from female, but also because meat from Continental
and British dams crossed with BB sires induced the most
These preceding interactions, however, did not translate
and less juicy meat, respectively (Table 4). This aspect is
into textural differences as there was no significant effect of
also in agreement with the observations of Offer and Knight
treatments on either shear force measurements (Table 4) or
(1988) on the effect of the layers of connective tissue on
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