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Pilot study on the effect of reducing dietary fodmap intake on bowel function in patients without a colon

Pilot Study on the Effect of Reducing Dietary FODMAPIntake on Bowel Function in Patients without a Colon Catherine Croagh, MB, BS, Susan J. Shepherd, BApplSci, Melissa Berryman, BApplSci, Jane G. Muir, PhD, andPeter R. Gibson, MD ileorectal anastomosis, diet, short-chain carbohydrates, pouch function Background: Poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates (FOD-
MAPs) in the diet should, by virtue of their osmotic effects, increase
fecal output following colectomy and ileal pouch formation or
ileorectal anastomosis (IRA). The aim was to perform a proof-of-
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery is curative surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) that is medi- concept evaluation of this hypothesis.
cally refractory or complicated by dysplasia. Colectomy with Methods: Fifteen patients (13 pouch, 2 IRA) had dietary and
ileorectal anastomosis is also used for the treatment of in- symptomatic evaluation before and during a low FODMAP diet.
flammatory bowel disease and familial adenomatous polyp- Carbohydrate malabsorption was evaluated by breath tests. Pouchitis osis. IPAA significantly improves quality of life in patients was assessed clinically/endoscopically or by fecal lactoferrin.
with UC who require surgery.1 However, the clinical out- Results:
come is not ideal. Even though the ileal pouch acts as a Of 8 patients with a breath hydrogen response to lactu- lose, 7 had fructose malabsorption, 3 with lactose malabsorption, reservoir and continence is usually maintained, the average and 1 had lactose malabsorption alone. Five of 7 studied retrospec- number of stools per day is 6 – 8 and usually with overnight tively improved stool frequency (from median 8 to 4 per day; P stool production, and the consistency of those stools is rarely ϭ 0.02), this being sustained over 0.5–3 years of follow-up. Five of solid.2 A problematic functional result might be due to in- 8 patients completed a prospective arm of the study. One patient had flammation of the pouch (pouchitis), the retained rectal cuff sustained improvement in stool frequency and 1 had reduced wind (cuffitis), or ileum proximal to the pouch (pre-pouch ileitis),3 production. Overall, none of 8 patients who had pouchitis improved.
but irritable pouch syndrome may also occur, being a syn- In contrast, median daily stool frequency fell from 8 to 4 (P drome of increased frequency of bowel movement with ϭ 0.001) in the 7 without pouchitis. The degree of change in change in stool consistency, abdominal pain or cramping, and FODMAP intake also predicted response. There was a tendency for perianal or pelvic discomfort in the absence of endoscopic pouchitis to be associated with low baseline FODMAP intake.
and histologic inflammation.4 Similar frequent bowel actions Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of carbohydrate malab-
and unformed consistency is also associated with ileorectal sorption in these patients. Reduction of the intake of FODMAPs may be efficacious in reducing stool frequency in patients without Management of functional problems with pouches has pouchitis, depending on dietary adherence and baseline diet.
ranged from antibiotic therapy for pouchitis to hypomotility (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007;13:1522–1528) agents such as loperamide, to pouch excision in extremesituations.3 Dietary intervention has figured little in manage- Key Words: inflammatory bowel disease, colectomy, ileal pouch,
ment recommendations, except that fiber supplementation isoften recommended. However, the evidence base for this isabsent, with only 1 crossover study that showed methylcel- Received May 20, 2007; accepted July 14, 2007.
lulose and pectin to be ineffective.5 Supplementation with From the Department of Gastroenterology and Monash University Depart- inulin at a relatively high dose improved mucosal inflamma- ment of Medicine, Box Hill Hospital, Victoria, Australia.
Supported by grants from the International Organisation for Inflammatory tion in patients with pouchitis without altering symptoms,6 Bowel Disease, the Vera & Les Erdi Foundation, and the CASS Foundation.
but its effect in those without inflammation has not been Lactoferrin kits were donated by TechLabs Inc. S.J.S. was supported by a Dora Lush Scholarship from the National Health & Medical Research One factor that will influence the functional properties Reprints: Prof. Peter Gibson, Department of Medicine, Box Hill Hospital, of a pouch or rectum is the volume of liquid entering it from Box Hill, Victoria 3128, Australia (e-mail:
the small bowel. This is well documented for the normal large bowel, where diarrhea will result if the volume entering it Copyright 2007 Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
from the small intestine overwhelms the desiccating ability of the large bowel mucosa. An ileal pouch or rectum will have Published online 7 September 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.
markedly reduced desiccating ability than an intact large Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 bowel. Hence, it might be anticipated that the pouch/rectum For the prospective study, patients gave written, in- will be less able to cope with changes in small intestinal formed consent. A medical history was taken and general output, with such increases being readily expressed as looser physical examination performed. A full dietary assessment and more frequent bowel actions. Two factors that potentially was made by an accredited practicing dietitian and a prospec- influence small intestinal output are the small intestinal tran- tive 7-day food diary using standard measures was performed sit7 and the number of osmotically active molecules in the by the patient during the screening period. The patients also small intestinal lumen, a factor utilized by osmotic laxatives.
filled out a daily symptom diary and continued this through- We have hypothesized that the osmotic load on the out the study. Fecal samples were obtained prior to com- pouch is significantly influenced by the amount of poorly mencing the diet. Breath hydrogen tests (see below) were also absorbed short-chain carbohydrates in the diet. Such carbo- performed during the screening period. The patients were hydrates have been collectively termed FODMAPs (Ferment- then educated on the low FODMAP diet (see below) and able Oligo-, Di-, and Mono-saccharides And Polyols) and asked to strictly follow that diet for the next 6 weeks. The include free fructose and lactose (if fructose and/or lactose patient was telephoned after 3 weeks by both the dietitian and malabsorption is/are present), fructans (oligosaccharides of a clinician. The patient was examined and diary cards perused fructose) that are not hydrolyzed in the small intestine, and at the last visit. The patient was again contacted by telephone polyols such as sorbitol, which are absorbed to a very limited extent only.8,9 Malabsorption of fructose and other FOD-MAPs has been linked to symptoms of irritable bowel syn- Breath Hydrogen Testing
drome including diarrhea, gas, and abdominal discomfort.9,10 Following dietary restriction of fermentable substrates for at In addition, a moderate to high fructose/sorbitol load hastens least 24 hours and an overnight fast, patients underwent small intestinal transit.11 Thus, the present study aimed to breath hydrogen tests with the ingestion of 15 g lactulose (as explore the concept that a change in dietary FODMAPs will positive control), 35 g fructose in 200 mL water, and 50 g influence the frequency and quality of stool output from an lactose in 200 mL water on separate days. Breath hydrogen ileal pouch or a rectum following an IRA.
was measured every 15 minutes using a hand-held breathhydrogen monitor (Bedfont Gastrolyzer, Air-Met Scientific, MATERIALS AND METHODS
Nunawading, Victoria, Australia, or SC Microlyzer, Quintron Patients
Instrument, Milwaukee, WI). A positive test was defined as a Two cohorts of patients were studied. The first comprised 7 rise of 10 ppm in breath hydrogen above the baseline.
patients referred for the management of a dysfunctionalpouch or poor results following colectomy and IRA. The Evaluation of the Baseline Diet
results from investigation and dietary intervention were au- All patients in the retrospective group had an assessment of FODMAP intake on a qualitative basis via a dietary history The second group was studied prospectively using a taken by a dietitian. For the prospective study, baseline diet defined protocol before and during dietary intervention.
was analyzed semiquantitatively using tables of known FOD- These patients were self-referred in response to advertising MAP content.10 The intake was described as average prob- through the newsletter and website of the Australian Crohn’s lematic serves per day; 1 serve represented a portion of food and Colitis Association (ACCA). Twenty-three patients re- that contained Ͼ0.5 g free fructose or fructans,9 Ͼ4 g lactose, sponded to advertising. Ten were excluded since they resided and any sorbitol. An assessment was also made of the total interstate or overseas and 5 were not interested in participat- fructose load (comprising the sum of free fructose, equimolar ing. Eight, all of whom had an ileal pouch performed follow- fructose-glucose, and sucrose intake) and was expressed as ing colectomy for UC, were studied. The protocol for the the average number of sittings per day that the load exceeded prospective arm of the study was approved by the Research & 3 g.10 All evaluations were performed without knowledge of the response to dietary intervention.
Dietary Intervention
For the retrospective cohort, patients’ notes were reviewed The low FODMAP diet was instructed via a 1-hour, one-on- with regard to medical history, demographic data, and symp- one session with an Accredited Practicing Dietitian (M.B. or tomatology prior to dietary education. The dietitian’s assess- S.J.S.). The diet aimed to reduce free fructose and fructan ment of dietary FODMAP intake was noted, as was their ingestion as previously outlined in detail.9 If the fructose subsequent adherence to the dietary regimen, for which they breath hydrogen test showed complete fructose absorption, were educated in a single one-on-one session of Ϸ1 hour.
total fructose ingestion was limited at any 1 meal, but foods Changes in symptoms and other clinical indices were noted containing free fructose were permitted in moderation. If the lactose breath hydrogen test was negative, then no dietary Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 restriction of lactose was advised. Patients who failed to alone, 1 had lactose malabsorption alone, and 3 had both produce hydrogen in response to lactulose were considered to malabsorb free fructose and lactose in the construction oftheir diet. Normal dietary habits were taken into account in Analysis of Usual Dietary Intake of FODMAPs
the design of the dietary approach. Reinforcement of the diet In the retrospective group, 2 patients (R4 and R5) were noted and issues that arose with its use were managed at a telephone to consume foods with a very high FODMAP content, par- call made 3 weeks after commencing the diet. Assessment of ticularly of fructose, lactose, and sorbitol. One patient (R3) adherence to the diet was made on the basis of cross-check had a low intake of FODMAPs, although did regularly con- sume sources of fructose with equimolar concentrations ofglucose, equating to a high fructose load. The other patients Fecal Lactoferrin
had an intake of FODMAPs that was neither high nor low.
In the prospective group, feces were evaluated for lactoferrin Eight patients in the prospective arm completed a 7-day content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) food diary and a summary of their intake of FODMAPs is using a commercially available kit (TechLab, Blacksburg, shown in Table 2. Overall, the patients ate few foods con- VA). This was performed outside the protocol for the study, taining free fructose (such as apples, pears, honey, coconut but was approved by the Eastern Health Research & Ethics milk/cream). The major contribution to FODMAP intake Committee. The assay was performed according to the man- came from fructans, mainly as wheat-containing breakfast ufacturer’s instructions. Lactoferrin has been previously cereals, breads, pasta, and onions. Most also avoided milk or shown to be a good marker of inflammation associated with used lactose-free or soy milk, but ate cheese.
the pouch (pouchitis, cuffitis, and pre-pouch ileitis).12 Adherence to the Diet
Data Evaluation
All patients in the retrospective group had good apparent Data were expressed using descriptive statistics. Changes in understanding of the diet, but adherence, as assessed by indices were evaluated by paired or unpaired t-tests. Propor- dietary history, was questioned in 2. Patient R2 had only tions were compared using a Fisher’s exact test. A P-value of partial adherence to the diet. Patient R3 had a low FODMAP 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant.
intake prior to dietary change and changed her diet mini-mally.
In the prospective group, 5 of the 8 patients completed 6 weeks on the diet together with week-6 food diaries (Table Patient Characteristics
2). In 3 there was excellent adherence to the diet and 1 patient The characteristics of the 7 patients in the retrospectively (P2) markedly reduced FODMAP intake, although did con- studied group are shown in Table 1. Five had an ileal pouch sume some free fructose. One patient (P5) inadvertently con- performed because of UC at a median of 6 (range 5–17) years sumed foods high in FODMAPs, such as onion in tinned previously, while an ileorectal anastomosis was formed in 2 soups and sauces and wheat-containing foods at a celebratory after colectomy for chronic constipation (2 years previously) and Crohn’s disease (20 years previously). All had problem- Three patients did not complete the diet. One (P8) was atic increased frequency of and/or nocturnal bowel actions.
lost to follow-up before receiving dietary instruction, 1 (P6) Two were associated with chronic pouchitis, both of whom abandoned the diet on development of acute chronic pouchitis responded to antibiotic therapy (metronidazole or ciprofloxa- shortly after commencing the diet, and the third (P7) reported cin) either previously or subsequent to the study. The other 3 practical difficulty adhering to the changes required by the patients with an ileal pouch had no evidence of pouchitis on diet and abandoned it within 1 week.
clinical grounds or on recent endoscopic examination.
All patients in the prospectively studied group had J-pouch surgery for UC with formation of the pouch a median Effect of Diet on Symptoms
of 7 (range 3–10) years previously. In the majority, no sig- Retrospective Study
nificant comorbidities were present, but 5 patients had been Five of the 7 patients had substantial improvement in stool treated for pouchitis on 1 or more occasions in the past, frequency and consistency as shown by patient self-reporting.
including 1 who had chronic pouchitis.
The median number of stools per day fell from 8 to 4 (Pϭ 0.02; paired t-test). Benefits were sustained over longer- Prevalence of Fructose and Lactose Malabsorption
term follow-up of 2 (0.5–3) years. Furthermore, patients As shown in Table 1, 7 of the 15 patients had no breath uniformly reported that reintroduction of prohibited foods hydrogen response to lactulose (“nonhydrogen-producers”).
worsened their symptoms. The results of breath testing, while Of the other 8, 4 had evidence of fructose malabsorption influencing the nature of the dietary intervention, did not Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 TABLE 2. Quantification of FODMAP Intake According to Prospectively Completed 7-Day Food Diaries
Before Dietary Intervention (Numbers of Serves per Day) During Dietary Intervention (Numbers of Serves per Day) Noncompliant with or did not commence diet Results are shown as averaged daily intake of problematic serves. The serve sizes are free fructose 0.5 g, fructans 0.5 g, lactose Ͼ4 g, sorbitol any, and totalfructose load (free fructose plus sucrose) Ͼ3 g.
appear to influence the response to the diet. Both patients who At follow-up by telephone call 6 weeks after cessation had no response to dietary change had chronic pouchitis, of the study treatment period, the 2 patients who reported benefit had continued dietary change. Patient P2 adhered tothe diet most of the time and had continued improvement in Prospective Study
stool output and consistency. Patient P4 continued with par- Only 5 patients were evaluable for the effect of diet on stool tial adherence to the diet via the avoidance of apples, pears, frequency (Fig. 1), with no change seen (median 6 to 5 per and apricots, as well as lactose-containing foods. The im- day; P ϭ ns). One patient had considerable worsening of provement was not in stool frequency but wind production stool frequency and this proved to be due to acute pouchitis.
had reduced. One of the patients (P1) who initially did not As outlined in Table 1, the 3 patients who symptomatically improve had incorporated some aspects of the dietary advice did not improve had inflammation associated with the pouch into his eating habits, such as avoiding free fructose con- on fecal lactoferrin and clinical criteria, while the 2 who tained in honey and apples, presumably related to symptom- atic benefit. Two unresponsive patients (P3 and P5) did notcontinue the diet. Patient P6 who withdrew due to poorlycontrolled chronic pouchitis responded to ciprofloxacin ther-apy, and subsequent reintroduction of the diet led to signifi-cant improvement in symptoms, especially stool consistency.
Predictors of Response
Examining the 2 cohorts together, the presence or absence of
evidence for pouchitis predicted the effect of dietary inter-
vention on stool frequency. As shown in Figure 1, for the 7
patients without pouchitis median daily stool frequency fell
from 8 to 4 (P ϭ 0.001) compared with the 5 patients with
pouchitis, where the daily stool frequency rose from 7 to 8 (P
ϭ ns). This represents a statistically significant median fall of
3 stools per day compared with no change in those with
pouchitis (P ϭ 0.007; t-test).
Qualitative data in the retrospective group suggested that the degree of reduction in FODMAP intake might predictsymptomatic improvement. Response to dietary change wasseen in both patients (R4 and R5) who had a high baseline FIGURE 1. Daily stool frequency before and during the low
intake of FODMAPs with strict adherence to the diet. One FODMAP diet according the presence or absence of evidence of patient (R2) had a low baseline FODMAP intake, made few pouchitis. Changes in those without pouchitis were statisticallysignificant (P ϭ 0.001; paired t-test).
dietary changes, and did not respond. Semiquantitative as- Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 sessment in the prospective group showed that clear symp- (50%). These observations are of great importance since they tomatic improvement was observed in Patient P2, who re- offer an opportunity to reduce the osmotic load to the pouch duced FODMAP intake by 10 serves per day and partial or rectum via dietary modification. If attention is also paid to symptomatic benefit was reported by P4, who reduced by 9 minimizing intake of poorly absorbed oligosaccharides, most serves per day. No improvement was seen in P5, who reduced importantly fructans, and of polyols, particularly sorbitol, by 7 serves per day and P3, who developed acute pouchitis perhaps the fluid load on the pouch might be significantly during the study but was strictly adherent and reduced intake altered. Indeed, semiquantitative assessment of dietary FOD- by 9 serves per day. Thus, these data suggest that the degree MAP intake showed a generally modest intake of free fruc- of reduction in FODMAP intake may be another factor in tose, with most of the FODMAP intake deriving from fruc- tans contained in onions and wheat products.
Of the 5 patients who were found to consume a diet low The main outcome measure was the daily stool fre- in FODMAPs, 4 had evidence of pouchitis. In contrast, of the quency. In the retrospective group, this was significantly 9 patients who consumed a diet that contained moderate to reduced by dietary change, but such a finding was not con- high amounts of FODMAPs, only 2 had evidence of pouchi- firmed in the prospective study. However, it was apparent that tis. This difference was not, however, statistically significant the responders and nonresponders differed in a clear way.
(P ϭ 0.068, Fisher’s exact test).
The presence of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, asdemonstrated by endoscopic examination of the pouch or by DISCUSSION
the measurement of fecal lactoferrin,12 was strongly associ- Managing frequency and nocturnal bowel actions is challeng- ated with failure to change daily stool frequency on the ing in patients following colectomy and ileoanal pouch anas- low-FODMAP diet. In contrast, a highly significant reduction tomosis or IRA. Diet has figured poorly as a therapeutic tool in daily stool frequency was observed in patients where no due to inefficacy. Limiting dietary intake of FODMAPs as evidence of pouchitis was found. Reasons for the lack of outlined in the present study represents the first dietary ther- response in patients with inflammation are not clear. There apy that may reduce stool frequency, at least in the absence of may be a significant secretory element to diarrhea in associ- pouchitis or other causes of pouch-associated inflammation.
ation with inflammation. Intestinal transit might also be ac- The present study was designed to be a ‘proof-of- celerated in response to inflammation, although studies ex- concept’ study in that there was no blinding or randomiza- amining pouch dysfunction have not linked pouchitis with the tion. It was limited by the fact that several patients were rapidity of transit.11 Both of these factors, however, would studied retrospectively, where less precise documentation of render pouch output and function less responsive to changes stool frequency is almost certain to occur. Furthermore, the in the osmotic load. Additionally, it is likely that increased prospective arm was limited in the selection of patients, irritability of the pouch in pouchitis may have contributed to where volunteers responded to advertisements to participate.
stool frequency independently of the volume in the pouch.
This method of recruitment attracted those with problematic A second possible predictive factor was the degree of pouches in that at least 5 of the 8 patients had pouchitis, or reduction in FODMAP intake. Those with high baseline other cause for inflammation such as cuffitis or pre-pouch intake of dietary FODMAPs and with good adherence to the ileitis, as shown by elevated fecal lactoferrin concentrations, diet responded, while those with a low baseline intake and/or compared with only 2 of 7 in the retrospective study, who partial adherence did not. These observations would be an- were offered the dietary therapy when seen in routine clinical ticipated from the postulated mechanism for dietary efficacy practice. Nevertheless, this study did permit important obser- and, in that way, they support the hypothesis.
A limiting factor of the efficacy of any dietary change Nearly 50% of patients failed to produce hydrogen in for a chronic problem is the ability of patients to follow response to a load of lactulose compared with less than 10% dietary instruction and to maintain adherence in the long across healthy populations and patients with functional gut term. We have previously found that long-term adherence can disorders.8 This was similar to the observations of Santa- be achieved in at least 3 out of 4 patients with functional gut verta,13 where 32% of subjects had no hydrogen response to disorders.10 Patients who had responded to the diet in the lactulose in the only previous study describing hydrogen retrospective group did, on self reporting, adhere to the di- production in patients with an ileal pouch. It may well relate etary guidelines in the longer term. Reasons for such success to the length of time the lactulose is in contact with bacteria include the perception of continuing efficacy and the inter- or to the type of bacteria present in the pouch or rectum. It did mittent reinforcement associated with a relapse of symptoms not correlate with the presence of inflammation. In those who when excluded foods were again consumed. The fact that the did produce detectable hydrogen, fructose malabsorption was majority of patients remain adherent to the diet most of the common, being seen in 7/8 (88%) patients with a J pouch or time is in itself a testament to the diet’s efficacy. Long-term IRA. Likewise, lactose malabsorption was found in 4 patients follow-up in the prospective group was not possible, but it Inflamm Bowel Dis ● Volume 13, Number 12, December 2007 was interesting that 6 weeks after the completion of the positive impact on the quality of pouch function in such formal treatment part of the study the patient with excellent patients. Further prospective evaluation of this approach in a improvement of symptoms continued on the diet and that 2 larger population of patients without pouchitis, in whom patients who had some or little efficacy reported during the baseline dietary intake is evaluated, is needed to determine treatment period had continued with some of the dietary whether the diet indeed has an important role in improving restrictions, presumably since they had now recognized and experienced direct precipitation of increased or more frequentpouch output in response to specific FODMAP-rich foods.
There may be potential risks of reducing dietary intake 1. Lichtenstein GR, Cohen R, Yamashita B, et al. Quality of life after of FODMAPs. The prebiotic effect of fructose and fructans is proctocolectomy with ileoanal anastomosis for patients with ulcerative well demonstrated.14 One study has provided evidence that colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:669 – 677.
2. Michelassi F, Lee J, Rubin M, et al. Long-term functional results after dietary supplementation with a large dose of inulin (24 g/day) ileal pouch anal restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: a reduced pouch inflammation in patients with pouchitis.6 In- prospective observational study. Ann Surg. 2003;238:433– 441.
ulin is a long-chain fructan and is different in this respect to 3. Pardi DS, Sandborn WJ. Systematic review: the management of pou- chitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23:1087–1096.
the short-chain (oligosaccharide) fructans that make up the 4. Shen B, Achkar JP, Lashner BA, et al. Irritable pouch syndrome: a new majority of dietary fructans. However, it does exhibit similar category of diagnosis for symptomatic patients with ileal pouch-anal prebiotic effects to fructose and fructo-oligosaccharides.13 anastomosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:972–977.
5. Thirlby RC, Kelly R. Pectin and methyl cellulose do not affect intestinal This raises the possibility that reduction in dietary fructans as function in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Am J Gastroen- well as fructose might lead to a less favorable spectrum of bacteria in the pouch. Indeed, 1 patient in the study had 6. Welters CF, Heineman E, Thunnissen FB, et al. Effect of dietary inulin supplementation on inflammation of pouch mucosa in patients with an worsening symptoms on the low FODMAP diet, although ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:621– 627.
fecal lactoferrin level was elevated prior to commencing the 7. Tomita R, Fujisaki S, Tanjoh K. Relationship between gastrointestinal diet. There was also a tendency for patients with pouchitis to transit time and daily stool frequency in patients after Ileal J pouch-analanastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Am J Surg. 2004;187:76 – 82.
consume a low amount of FODMAPs in their usual diet.
8. Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Food for thought: Western lifestyle and sus- Further studies are required to determine whether the associ- ceptibility to Crohn’s disease: the FODMAP hypothesis. Aliment Phar- ation of low FODMAP intake with pouchitis is indeed real.
macol Ther. 2005; 21: 1399 –1409.
9. Gibson PR, Newnham E, Barrett JS, et al. Systematic review: fructose In conclusion, the present study suggests that reduction malabsorption and the bigger picture. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007; of dietary FODMAPs in patients with ileal pouch or IRA may be efficacious in reducing stool frequency in patients who do 10. Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Fructose malabsorption and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for effective dietary management.
not have active pouchitis or other inflammation associated J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:1631–1639.
with the pouch, especially in those who consume at least 11. Madsen JL, Linnet J, Rumessen JJ. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a modest quantities of FODMAPs in their usual diet. The high fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.
Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:147–153.
prevalence of fructose and lactose malabsorption indicates 12. Parsi MA, Shen B, Achkar JP, et al. Fecal lactoferrin for diagnosis of that reduction of the intake of free fructose and lactose should symptomatic patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Gastroenterol- be integral to the dietary approach. Taken together with the 13. Santavirta J. Lactulose hydrogen and [14C]xylose breath tests in patients observation that 1 in 2 patients are nonhydrogen producers, with ileoanal anastomosis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1991;6:208 –211.
the performance of breath hydrogen tests probably contrib- 14. Hopkins MJ, Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT. Inter-species differences in utes little to dietary design. The application of the FODMAP maximum specific growth rates and cell yields of bifidobacteria culturedon oligosaccharides and other simple carbohydrate sources. Selective approach to reducing the osmotic load on the ileal pouch or stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and rectum represents the first dietary strategy likely to have a inulin. J Appl Microbiol. 1998;85:381–386.


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