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Contents
Comparaison of oral ciprofloxacin with parenteral ceftriaxone in treatment of acute uncomplicated
pyelonephritis in women
The efficacy of antibiotic therapy on recovery of tonsilectomy and adenotonsillectomy
A. Meimane Jahromi, H. Honarvar, AR. Khalighi The effect of ultrasound and duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group on the range
of passive extension of the knee joint
H. Moodi, A. Akbari, F. Ghiasi, F. Moodi Association between Helicobacter pylori infection with coronary heart disease
Tratogenical effects of cadmium on mitochondria and nucleus of Purkinje cells in cerebellum
of rat embryos by Transmission Electron Microscope
Evaluating Puberty health program effect on knowledge increase among female intermediate
and high school students in Birjand
M. Moodi, N. ZamaniPour, Gh. SharifZadeh, M. Akbari-Bourang, S. Salehi Surveying pregnant women's nutritional status and some factors affecting it; in cases referring
to Shahrood health-care centers
M. Delvarian Zadeh, H. Ebrahimi, N. Bolbol Haghighi Epidemiology of Organophosphate poisoning,and its cardiac and pulmonary effects
AA. RafighDoost, E. MirHoseini, H. PourZand, AH. RafighDoost A Study of Birjand University students' knowledge and attitude towards taking Ecstasy pills
N. Moasheri, M. Miri, HR. Mashreghi Moghadam, MR Eslami Academic staff and students' impressions on academic evaluation of students in Birjand
University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
M. Ziaee, M. Miri, M. Haji-abadi, Gh. Azarkar, P. Eshbak Breast hematoma simulate as carcinoma: A case report and a review of the literature
Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
Comparaison of oral ciprofloxacin with
parenteral ceftriaxone in treatment of acute uncomplicated
pyelonephritis in women
MR. Erfanian1, M. Seyed Nozadi2
Abstract
Background and Aim: Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in women
which is usually managed by parenteral antibiotics, that are more expensive than oral ones. A lot of
physicians recommend oral ciprofloxacin as a drug of choice to treat acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.
Recently, some patients did not responded to ciprofloxacine practically. This study was to assess treatment
efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin with parenteral ceftriaxone in acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women.
Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 47 women who were hospitalized with
positive urine culture of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in Hashemy-nezhad hospital between 2002 and
2004. In all cases, isolated micro-organism was E.coli. After randomized selection each patient was treated
by using one of the two regimens: oral ciprofloxacin or parenteral ceftriaxone. The patients were examined
24, 48, and 72 hours after the beginning of treatment for fever and other clinical symptoms and signs. For the
assessment of bacteriologic response, urine cultures were undertaken at the end of the third and seventh day
after the beginning of treatment. The obtained data were processed by means of SPSS software. Then, for
data description statistical tables were used. Finally, student-t and fisher exact test were employed to analyse
the data at the significant level of P 0.05.
Results: Mean age of subjects was 41.35±10.22 years. Mean age of women treated by ciprofloxacine and
ceftriaxone were 41.68±9.30 and 41.12±11.80 years, respectively; the difference of which was not significant
statistically (P=0.61). Clinical response (negativity of urine cultures at the 3rd and 7th day) to treatment by
oral ciprofloxacin and parenteral ceftriaxone revealed no significant difference. Mean symptoms
improvement duration in oral ciprofloxacin and parenteral ceftriaxone were 2.67±0.49 and 1.63±0.63 days,
respectively and thus, the difference was significant (P=0.000).
Conclusion: The survey showed that oral ciprofloxacin is almost as effective as parenteral ceftriaxone but
improvement of symptoms by ceftriaxone occurred earlier compared with ciprofloxacin taking.
Key Words: Acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis; Women; Ciprofloxacin; Ceftriaxone; Clinical response
1 Corresponding Author; Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 2 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No. 4
The efficacy of antibiotic therapy on recovery of
tonsilectomy and adenotonsillectomy
A. Meimane Jahromi1, H. Honarvar2, AR. Khalighi3
Abstract
Background and Aim: Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy is one of the most frequent operations
performed in ENT practice. Mortality and morbidity associated with tonsillectony and adentonosillectomy
include severe otalgia, pyrexia, odynophagia, dysphasia, hemorrhage, upper air way obstruction,
nasopharyngeal stenosis, infection, and finally death.
Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was undertaken in 2004 in Emam_Reza hospital
of Mashhad to determine the efficacy of profilactic antibiotic therapy in reducing complications of
tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy. A total of 200 patients who had undergone tonsillectomy or
adenotonsillectomy for chronic / recurrent tonsillitis or adenotonsillar hypertrophy were included; 100
patients receive antibiotic in the form of amoxicillin for seven days postoperatively (case group), another 100
patients did not receive antibiotic postoperatively (control group).
Results: In the control group 49% were males and 51% were females. In the case group 55% were males and
45% were females. In the control group 3% were less than 3 years and 16% between 3 and 7 years; 44%
between 7 and 12 years, and 37% were over 12. In the case group 1% was under 3 years, 23% between 3 and
7 years, 49% between 7 and 12; and 27% patients were over 12. All of the patients were postoperatively
examined 24 hours and one week later to check the occurrence of fever, pain, hemorrhage, infection, wound
healing, general condition, progression to solid diet, activity, and hospital readmission. Statistically, there
were no significant differences between the two groups in regard to fever, infection, hemorrhage,
readmission, wound healing, general condition and pain (P>0.05)
Conclusion: Antibiotic therapy is not recommended routinely to all patients that undergo tonsillectomy and
adenotonsillectomy unless postoperative infection occurs.
Key Words: Tonsillectomy; Adenotonsillectomy; Antibiotic therapy
1 Corresponding Author; Assistant Professor, Department of Otolaryngology; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 2 Resident; Department of Otolaryngology; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 3 Resident; Department of Infection Diseases; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
The Effect of ultrasound and duration of stretching
of the hamstring muscle group on the range of
passive extension of the knee joint
H. Moodi1, A. Akbari2, F. Ghiasi3, F. Moodi4
Abstract
Background and Aim: Only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of ultrasound and
duration of stretching on the enhancement of hamstring muscle flexibility. The purpose of this study was to
determine the knee joint passive extension in male students with hamstring shortness and the effect of
duration of stretching and ultrasound on the treatment of this deficit.
Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed in Zabol in 2005. Fifty students from a boys'
intermediate school aged 12-14 years participated in the study through simple non-probability sampling. The
subjects were randomly assigned to five treatment groups including ultrasound therapy, ultrasound therapy
and fifteen seconds stretch, ultrasound therapy and thirty seconds stretch, only fifteen seconds stretch, and
finally thirty seconds stretch. The range of knee joint passive extension (degree) as an indicator of hamstring
muscle flexibility was measured before and after ten treatment sessions. The obtained data were analyzed at
the significant level of PJ0.05 using ANOVA and Student t-paired tests.
Results: Passive extension of the knee joint increased from 160.2±7.9 degrees to 163.3±7.5 degrees in the
first group (P=0.001). In the second group it increased from 161.1±6.9 degrees to 166.5±5.9 degrees
(P<0.0001); in the third group from 163.5±6.7 degrees to 171.2±5.9 degrees (P<0.0001), in the fourth group
from 161±11.8 degrees to 164.4±11.3 degrees (P=0.005), and in the fifth group from 166.1±5.6 degrees to
171.1±4.8 degrees (P=0.001). There was not a significant difference between the five groups before (P=0.48)
Conclusion: It was found that hamstring muscle group flexibility increased in all the five remedial
procedures. Although none of the procedures were significantly preferable to the rest in terms of increase in
hamstring muscle group flexibility.
Key words: Range of motion; Ultrasound; Knee joint; Hamstring; Extension
1 Corresponding Author; B.Sc. In Physiotherapy; Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Zahedan, Iran hesammoodi@yahoo.com 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Paramedicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. ZahedanIran 3 Instructor; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Paramedicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Zahedan Iran 4 B.Sc. In Biology Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No. 4
Association between Helicobacter pylori infection
with coronary heart disease
A. Amrai1, M.Azemati2, M. Moghaddam3
Abstract
Background and Aim: Today ischemic heart diseases are the first reason of death in most societies , and in
studies done some testimonies have reported about the role of inflammations and chronic infections in the
pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to find out if there were any association
between Helicobacter- pylori infection and atherosclerosis.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, endoscopy, urease test, and serology on 164 individuals
(82 with coronary heart disease and 82 healthy ones) were performed to test the existence of Helicobacter-
pylori. Finally, the obtained data were statistically analysed at the significant level of PJ0.05 by applying
SPSS software and t-test.
Results: It was found that among 82 individuals in the control group urease test of 82.5% and serology test
of 65% were positive; and among the case group (82 patients) 75% of urease test and 70% of serology test
was positive. There was not a meaningful relationship between infection and coronary heart disease
(P=0.21).
Conclusion: In these two groups, whose age and gender were partly matched, there was not a meaningful
statistical difference with regard to Helicobacter-pylori infection. Thus, other factors (inflammatory and non-
inflammatory) for coronary heart disease should be investigated.
Key Words: Coronary heart disease; Helicobacter pylori infection; Endoscopy
2 Corresponding Author; General Practitioner 3 Assistant Professor, Department of cardiovascular, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
Tratogenical effects of cadmium on mitochondria
and nucleus of Purkinje cells in cerebellum of rat embryos
by Transmission Electron Microscope
A. Amini1, A. Faghihi2, M. MehdiZadeh2
Abstract
Background and Aim: The results of various reports show that cadmium, as a teratogenic agent, affects the
development and evolution of mammals because it has several toxic impacts. On the other hand, regarding
the increase in cadmium use in industrial communities and its presence in non-industrial sources –such as
foods, water, beverages, cigarette- and also considering the reports presenting teratogenic impacts of the
element on the development of the brain and high sensitivity of neurons and mitochondria to teratogenic
elements, this study was carried out to evaluate cadmium impacts on the most sensitive nerve cell organelles
(i.e mitochondria and nucleus).
Material and methods: Forty adult female Wistar rats were used in this experimental study. The animals
were randomly assigned to four groups: control N, control NN, experiment N and experiment NN. The
experimental groups N and NN received 2mg/kg/BW of cadmium chloride solution intraperitoneally (ip) both
on the 7th day and 16th day of pregnancy. Whereas, the control group N and NN were injected intraperitoneally
with normal saline on the same days. After delivery, on the fourth day (postna/tal PN4) rats of the four
different groups were perfused intracardially with 1% fixative glutaraldehyde solution. After appropriate
procedures, the histological samples were observed through transmission electron microscopy and the
cellular and subcellular characteristics of Purkinje nerve cells were evaluated.
Results: Qualitative microscopic assessment of the specimens showed considerable changes such as
Purkinje cells death, heterochromatin nuclei, unclear nucleolus, deterioration of mitochondrial membrane
and cristae, formation of numerous abnormal vacuoles in mitochondria and separated particles of cytoplasm
with cellular components in the experimental groups.
Conclusion: The present study clearly identified that cadmium exposure can induce degenerative changes in
organelles especially mitochondria and nuclei of Purkinje cells in cerebellum of rat embryos.
Key Words: Teratogen; Cadmium; Mitochondry; Nucleus; Purkinje cell; Cerebellum; Rat
1 Corresponding Author; Instructor, Department of Anatomy; Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran d.amini2005@yahoo.com 2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy; Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No. 4
Evaluating Puberty health program effect on
knowledge increase among female intermediate and
high school students in Birjand
M. Moodi1, N. ZamaniPour2, Gh. SharifZadeh3,
M. Akbari-Bourang4, S. Salehi5
Abstract
Background and Aim: Puberty is one of the most critical period in a female adolescents' life. During this period, in
addition to consideration of the girls' social problem and relationships, it is necessary to pay close attention to the health
problems of puberty and get them aquainted with puberty health necessities. This intervening study aimed at evaluating
the effect of educational program for puberty health on improving intermediate and high school female students'
knowledge in Birjand.
Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 325 female intermediate and high school students were
selected through randomized cluster sampling during several stages. Then, a self-set questionnaire including 20
questions, each having one point regarding puberty health, was distributed among them. After being filled out, the
questionnaires were gathered. Following this, under a systemic educational plan all intermediate and high school
selected students were given the same instruction by trained instructors. Instruction time for each meeting was estimated
1.5 hours. One month after the educational program and handing out the pamphlets in schools, the previous
questionnaires were again distributed among the students to fill out, then, they were gathered. Those students who, for
whatever reason, had avoided to fill out the questionnaires were omitted from study. At the end, 302 students who had
filled out the questionnaires before and after intervention were studied. The obtained data were analysed by statistical
paired Student t-test at significant level of P 0.05.
Results: Out of 302 students, 151 were intermediate and 151 high school students. Knowledge level among
intermediate students was estimated 5.03±3.7 before intervention and 10.8±4.8 after intervention. Among high school
students, the scores were 4.1±2.3 and 8.7±3.8, respectively. There was a significant difference between pre-intervention
stage and post-intervention stage in both groups (P<0.001). Also, mean knowledge grade in all the students under study
increased from 4.6±3.1 before intervention to 9.7±4.4 after intervention (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Performing educational programs during puberty has a crucial role in young girls' knowledge increase.
Since young girls often do not share their problems with their parents and their peers during the period, instructional
classes in schools provide a good oppotunity for them to present their problems and finding solutions.
Key Words: Evaluation; Puberty: Health; Instruction program; Knowledge; Female students; Birjand
1 Corresponding Author; Instructor, Department of Health Education; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran mitra_m2561@yahoo.com 2 B.Sc in Family Health; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 3 Instructor; Department of Social Medicine; Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
Surveying pregnant women's nutritional status
and some factors affecting it; in cases referring
to Shahrood health-care centers
M. Delvarian Zadeh1, H. Ebrahimi2, N. Bolbol Haghighi2
Abstract
Background and Aim: Efficiency of nutrition has a crucial role during pregnancy. Malnutrition causes
health vulnerability of mothers and thereby oncoming pregnancy side effects including low birth weight,
delayed fetus growth, abortion and pre- term delivery. The present study was carried out to determine the
nutritional status of pregnant women and some of the factors affecting it in those attending various health-
care centers in Shahrood.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 169 pregnant women who were referred to 8 health-care
centers in Shahrood, experiencing their third trimester of pregnancy with mean age of 25.13 and marital age
of 20.11 years were selected. The diet of the pregnant women was checked by recording consumed
foodstuffs during the past 24 hours and for a period of one week. Biochemical and hematological tests as
well as anthropometrical examinations using body mass index (BMI) were also performed. The results were
statistically analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square, and t-tests at the significant level of P 0.05.
Results: BMI analysis showed that 42.6% of the subjects had normal BMI, 20.13% were overweight, and
37.27% were obese. The study also revealed that 9.6% of the women had less than 11g/dL hemoglobin. A
significant relationship was found between education and profession of the subjects, the dose of iron tablet
taking, multivitamin use, the last referring to doctor, and kind of housing to BMI. Moreover, it was found
that the intake of energy, protein, vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Ca, and iron among the subjects were
below the standard level of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Conclusion: The results of survey revealed that weight increase, obesity and the unavailability or shortage of
suitable nutritive foods were the main problems which was due to lack of mothers’ awareness and
information about the required balance between the intake of proper and nutritive diet and the amount of
energy needed. Thus, it is essential in health-care centers to pay close attention to mothers’ education
regarding their nutritional needs during pregnancy.
Key Words: Nutritional status; Pregnant women; Health care centers Shahrood; BMI
1 Corresponding Author; Instructor, Shahrood University of Medical Sciences. Shahrood, Iran delvarianzadeh_mehri@ yahoo.com 2 Instructor, Shahrood University of Medical Sciences. Shahrood, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No. 4
Epidemiology of organophosphate poisoning,
and its cardiac and pulmonary effects
AA. RafighDoost1, E. MirHoseini2, H. PourZand3, AH. RafighDoost4
Abstract
Background and Aim: Acute organophosphate poisoning causes thousands of human mortalities each year
in developing countries. Organophosphates are frequently used as insecticides in households and in
agricultural areas, thus posing a risk for accidental dermal exposure or through inhalation. The aim of this
study was to describe the characteristics, epidemiology, clinical course, cardiac and electrocardiographic
manifestation, and evaluation results of fifty one patients admitted to emergency room with a diagnosis of
acute organophosphate poisoning.
Materials and Methods: The clinical details of fifty one patients were collected in a prospective study for
twelve months. Diagnosis of intoxication was based on clinical findings, butyralcholinesterase levels, and- in
several cases- the material brought to the hospital. Finally, demographic, intoxication and clinical data were
analyzed.
Results: The study group was comprised of twenty males and thirty one females, whose age range was
between one year and over forty five years; 3.92% of whom were under ten. Accidental exposure was the
cause of intoxication in 13.73% of the cases, and 78.43% of them had attempted suicide. Cardiac
complication had developed in thirty three patients. Non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema was diagnosed in
seventeen patients (33.3%), electrogardiographic abnormalities including prolonged QTc interval in thirty
three (64.71%), ST-T changes in twelve (23.53%), and conduction defects in two cases (3.92%), T wave
changes in fourteen (27.45%), sinus tachycardia in eight (15/68%), and sinus bradycardia in eleven patients
(21.57%).
Conclusion: This study was performed to raise the knowledge of general population about toxicity of these
substances, multiple ways of their absorption through different systems, and the need for immediate seeking
of medical care after poisoning is suspected. It is essential to monitor electrical activity of the heart
especially QTc measurement which can be a good predictor of fatal arrythmias. The role of mass media,
here, is of great importance in prevention of this poisoning.
Key Words: Organophosphates; Arrhythmias; Cardiac arrest; Electrocardiography; QT interval
1 Corresponding Author; Associate Professor, Department of Cardiovascular; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 3 Resident; Department of Cardiovascular; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 4 Resident; Department of Internal Medicine; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
A Study of Birjand University students' knowledge
and attitude towards taking Ecstasy pills
N. Moasheri1, M. Miri2, HR. Mashreghi Moghadam3, MR Eslami4
Abstract
Background and Aim: Drug addiction is ruinous, but more ruinous is addiction to Ecstasy drugs and
materials .Undoubtedly, some juveniles and youths, due to lacking sufficient knowledge; take these pills to
put an end to their griefs. Regarding the increasing use of this material in the country the present study was
carried out to measure the extent of Birjand University students' knowledge about and attitude towards
Ecstasy (EX) pills in Birjand. It was thus considered their rate of knowledge and attitude to plan for
necessary training in this respect. The harmful effects of these materials should be introduced to the students
and to other vulnerable groups of the community.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study 536 students from Universities of Medical
sciences, Azad, and Birjand were investigated. Data collecting tool was a structured questionnaire containing
30 questions. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were measured by content validity and test re-test,
respectively .To analyze the data, chi-square, student t-test, and one -way variance were used and P 0.05
was considered as the significant level.
Results: It was revealed that 63.4% of the students had weak, 29.7% moderate, and only 6.9% had high
knowledge about Ecstasy pills, 13.6% of them had seen the pills, but only 4.3% had used them. There was no
significant relationship between mean knowledge score and variables such as gender, place of residence, and
University. Also, there was no significant relationship between using EX pills, University, and order of birth.
But there was a significant correlations between using EX pills and place of residence, gender, and students’
rate of knowledge (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Lack of information and knowledge is a leading factor in attracting vulnerable groups of the
community to Ecstasy pills .Besides, living in places, such as rented houses, not controlled by authorities can
be a factor in attracting students to narcotics and ecstasy.
Key Words: Ecstasy pills; Student; Knowledge; Attitude
1 Corresponding Author; Instructor, Department of Health Education; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 3 Assistant Professor; Department of Cardiovascular; Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 4 Pharmacologist; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No. 4
Academic staff and students' impressions on academic
evaluation of students in Birjand University of
Medical Sciences and Health Services
M. Ziaee1, M. Miri2, M. Haji-abadi3, Gh. Azarkar4, P. Eshbak4
Abstract
Background and Aim: Evaluating of academic members on students assessment is a kind of educational evaluation,
which includes determining their rate of success in their own educational goals. The present study was aimed to
investigate the academic staff and students' impressions on academic evaluation of students in Birjand University of
Medical Sciences and Health Services
Materials and Methods: In a periodic descriptive study the academic members (60 individuals) and students (280
individuals) of Birjand University of Medical Sciences contributed. Their views were studied through two discrete
questionnaires whose content validity, after some specialists’ poll and introductory study, was approved. Besides, the
reliability of the questionnaires was assessed using internal homogeneity and calculating Koronbach S coefficient.
Koronbach S coefficient was found to be 80%. The data were analyzed through SPSS software presenting frequency
and then chi-squarer test (S = 0.05) was used to compare the frequencies.
Results: Of the 60 academic members (30 majoring in basic sciences and 30 in clinical sciences), 95% were aware of
being evaluated by students and 81.7% thought that the university Educational Development Center (EDC) was
responsible for evaluation. Also 91.7% of the academic staff had received the feedback of their own evaluation, 45% of
them absolutely approved of the effectiveness of announcing evaluation grade in improving teaching, 40% believed that
filling out the forms by students lacks a sense of responsibility and patience, and 30% thought the job was not done
honestly. As for the students, from a total of 280, 40% believed that the evaluation forms- to a great extent- could not
evaluate teaching quality of an academic member 78.2% of them filled out the forms patiently enough and 82.8%
thought that the results of evaluation are credited very little.
Conclusion: Evaluating teaching method of academic members is a process aiming at improving their teaching and
promoting it and giving evaluation feedback to them can reveal their strengths and weaknesses in teaching. Besides,
with respect to the fact that students, more than all other educational staff are in touch with teaching process and they
are able to offer their views on the nature of teaching. Evaluation will often be useful if it is part of a comprehensive
assessment program of academic staff and if the feedback data have the necessary validity and reliability.
Key Words: Evaluation; Academic members; Students; Birjand University of Medical Sciences
1 Corresponding Author; Assistant Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases; Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education; Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Birjand, Iran 3 Instructor; Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran. 4 General Practitioner; Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2007; Vol. 13; No.4
Breast hematoma simulate as carcinoma:
A case report and a review of the literature
D. Farrokh1, B. Zandi2, J. Hashemi2
Abstract Breast hematoma is common after trauma, surgery, or biopsy. Sometimes there is no history of trauma;and hematoma can occur in patients with hematologic diseases or coagulation disorders. Breast hematoma may present mamographically as an ill-defined density or spiculated mass mimicking a carcinoma. In this report, a 48-year old woman who underwent mammography because of a painless palpable node in the right breast is introduced. Mammography revealed an irregular spiculated lesion, 25 mm in diameter, without microcalcifications in the upper inner quadrant of the right breast which seemed to be a malignant tumor. Ultrasonography of the right breast showed a non homogeneous hypoechoic nodule with irregular margins. Surgery and local excision revealed breast hematoma. Breast hematoma must be thought of as a differential diagnosis for a breast mass, regardless of previous trauma, surgery or hematologic disorders. Occasionally, the late squeal of a breast hematoma may resemble a carcinoma with spiculated lesion Key Words: Breast,Biopsy; Hematoma; Carcinoma; Mammography; Ultrasonography
1 Corresponding Author; Associate Professor, Department of Radiology; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran 2 Associate Professor, Department of Radiology; Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran

Source: http://bums.ac.ir/shares/journal/vol13_4/Journal27-2-13.pdf

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