Chemistry is everywhere
amorphization: the process whereby a substance is brought to a state characterized by the absence of order in the distribution of
(calculations): refers to calculations based on funda-
the matter particles (amorphous state), as opposed to the crystalline
mental equations of physics and which therefore require neither
experimental data nor empirical parameters.
analogue: a substance that is similar in structure to another
actinides (An): natural and/or artificial radioelements with an
atomic number between 89 (actinium) and 103 (lawrencium). This group corresponds to the filling of the 5f and 6d electronic subshell.
Actinides all exhibit very similar chemical properties; major acti-nides: heavy nuclei of uranium and plutonium present or formed in
antibody: a complex protein used by the immune system for specific
nuclear fuel; minor actinides: heavy nuclei formed in relatively small
detection and neutralization of antigens; secreted by cells derived
quantities in a reactor by successive neutron captures by fuel nuclei.
These long-lived isotopes are primarily neptunium (237), americium
antioxidant: a molecule which neutralizes free radicals, thus
(241, 243) and curium (243, 244, 245).
preventing them from destroying biomolecules.
activity: the number of nucleus decays per unit of time within a
aptamer: a synthetic oligonucleotide, usually an RNA, capable of
radionuclide or a mixture of radionuclides. It is expressed in bec-
binding a specific ligand and sometimes of catalyzing a chemical
querels (Bq), with one becquerel corresponding to one decay per
second and which is thus an almost infinitesimal unit. High-level activity reaches several billion becquerels per gram.
: a small crucifer whose genome is the small-est known in the plant kingdom. Because of this characteristic, this
adducts: AB chemical species in which each molecular entity is
species is used as a model for genome analysis.
formed by the direct combination of two distinct A and B molecular entities.
aromatic (compound): a chemical compound containing a cyclic system following Hückel’s rule
. This states that a hydrocarbon is
adsorption: a surface phenomenon in which the gas or liquid mole-
aromatic if planar and if it possesses 4n
+ 2 electrons (where n
cules bind to the solid surfaces of adsorbents through a number of
positive integer or zero) that can be delocated into a cyclic system.
processes of varying intensity; this phenomenon is extremely impor-
Benzene C6H6, for example, which contains one cycle and 6 delocal-
tant in the evolution of numerous chemical reactions. Desorption is
ized electrons, is an aromatic. This rule applies to polycyclic com-
pounds made up of adjacent cycles, only if a carbon does not belong
aerosol: a set of solid or liquid particles of a given chemical sub-
to more than three cycles. For example, anthracene C14H10, which is
stance in suspension in a gaseous medium.
formed of three benzene nuclei, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
aggregates: small grains of matter comprised of a very small
Arrhenius’s law: this states that there is a linear relationship
number of atoms or molecules, or even cells, bound to each other
between the logarithm of a measured quantity and the inverse of
by forces of varying strength, generally irreversibly.
the temperature, from which one can deduce an activation energy. In chemical kinetics, this law can be used to describe the variation
algorithm: a theoretical method for numerical calculation on a
in the rate of a chemical reaction versus temperature. The reactions
computer by means of a programming language.
with the weakest activation energies are the fastest, and vice-versa.
alkane: a saturated hydrocarbon of formula Cn
ATALANTE (originally standing for ATelier Alpha et Laboratoires pour ANalyses, Transuraniens et Études de
alkenes: unsaturated hydrocarbons characterized by a double
retraitement: Alpha Workshop and Laboratories for Ana-
covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The general formula for
lyses, Transuranics and Reprocessing Investigations): a
acyclic alkenes is Cn
nuclear facility at CEA/Marcoule dedicated to R&D for the processing
alkylation: a chemical reaction consisting of the transfer of an
of spent fuels, from dissolution of the fuel up to vitrification of the
alkyl group from one organic molecule to another. It thus leads to
waste, using real radioactive products and the acquisition of basic
an increase in the number of carbon atoms in an organic compound.
data concerning the chemistry of actinides. Sophisticated scientific analysis and processes equipments utilizing a system of confinement
alloy: a metallurgical product resulting from the incorporation into
chambers (gloveboxes and shielded chains) allow the study of the
a base metal of one or more metallic or other elements.
processing processes (hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy) and the
manufacturing of compounds for actinide recycling tests.
a positively charged particle consisting of two
atomic emission spectroscopy: a physico-chemical analysis
Alzheimer’s disease: a neurodegenerative disease of the cerebral
method based on the emission of photons by excited atoms returning
tissue leading to gradual and irreversible loss of mental functions,
memory in particular. It was first described by the German physician
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM): a method of microscopy
based on measurement of the force or force gradient in the three
amidine: a class of organic compounds comprising a C(ϭNH)NH
spatial directions between a probe (the tip of which is formed of just
functional group equivalent to an amide in which the oxygen atom
a few atoms) and a solid surface. The pointed probe is attached to
of the oxo is replaced by the NH group.
a thin blade acting as a spring, the deflection of which is measured by the deviation of a laser beam, with a computer allowing the data
amino acids: a class of chemical compounds possessing two func-
tional groups (both a –COOH carboxyl group and a –NH2 amine group).
automatic learning: a branch of artificial intelligence the aim of
␣-amino-acids: chemical compounds possessing two functional which is to study techniques enabling a computer to acquire behavior groups, a carboxylic acid and an amine bound to the same carbon
from knowledge. In chemistry, these techniques are in particular
atom; the 20 natural amino acids are the basic components of
used to obtain procedures capable of estimating a physical value
ammonia (NH3): a colorless gas producing highly concentrated
autoradiography: an image produced directly on an emulsion or
condensation fumes and releasing a highly unpleasant pungent odor.
photographic film by the radiation emitted by a radioactive substance.
bacterium: a prokaryote (characterized by the absence of nucleus
cadmium selenide: a chemical compound of formula CdSe,
and organelles) single-cell living organism.
: bacteria of the mouth which
calixarene: a macrocycle resulting from the reaction of a phenol
are part of the normal flora of the digestive, genito-urinary and
and an aldehyde; calixarenes exhibit hydrophobic cavities which can
bar: unit of pressure; 1 bar = 105 pascals (legal unit Pa).
Callovo-Oxfordian argilite: a clayey rock formed 160 million years ago in a marine environment, during the Jurassic period of the
Base Excision Repair (BER): a mechanism for repairing damage
secondary era. It consists of a geological layer of the Paris Basin,
to an individual DNA base; such a damage is repaired by simple exci-
today situated at a depth of between 400 and 600 meters.
sion of the base, followed by cleavage of the deoxyribose and then new synthesis. This mechanism concerns relatively slight damage.
calmodulin: a monomer protein of 148 amino acids, capable of binding with the calcium ions present in the cell environment. This
benzene (C6H6): a monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; a colorless
bond leads to a change in the conformation of the protein, forming
organic compound, benzene is a carcinogenic liquid; it is a solvent
widely used in the chemical industry, and an important precursor for the synthesis of drugs, plastic materials, synthetic rubber, or dyes.
calorific value (of a combustible material): the energy con-
Benzene is a natural component of crude oil.
tained in materials which can be given off in the form of heat by the reaction of combustion with oxygen. Generally expressed in kJ/kg.
benzol[a]pyrene: a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic
capacitance: measures the quantity of electrical charge stored
bio-remediation: a set of processes to eliminate pollutants
capacity (of an electrochemical generator): quantity of elec-
(organ ic and/or mineral) present in soils, sediments, liquid effluents
tricity stored. Expressed in ampere-hours (Ah).
by means of micro-organisms (bacteria, yeast, fungi).
capillary electrophoresis: a method for separating components
bioavailability: the fraction of an element which is present in a mix-
according to their rate of migration in an electrical field.
ture of varying complexity and capable of assimilation by an organism.
carbon monoxide (CO): one of the oxides of carbon in gaseous
biochip: a set of DNA molecules attached to and ordered on a
state in normal pressure and temperature conditions; colorless,
small surface (glass, silicon, plastic) allowing analysis of the level
odorless and highly toxic for mammals. It is the cause of extremely
of expression of genes in a cell, a tissue, an organ, an organism, or a
frequent and sometimes fatal domestic intoxication accidents if
complex mixture, at a given time and in a given state, by comparison
undetected or if appearing suddenly in the air breathed by humans.
carbon nanotube: a structure consisting of one or more rolled
biocompatible: which is compatible with biological tissues.
graphene layers, with a nanometric diameter but with a length that
biokinetics: the study of modifications and movements due to
can reach several, or even several hundred micrometers. Depending
on the type of rolling, it may be either metallic, or semiconducting.
the mass of living matter, more than 99% vegetable,
an ion consisting of a carbon atom and three oxygen
atoms carrying a double negative electrical charge (CO2-), or a chem-
present on the surface of the Earth.
ical compound comprising this anion.
biosensors: biological devices used to capture biochemical changes
carcinogenic: a factor provoking, aggravating or sensitizing the
within living matter and transmit them via
a reception system to an
appearance of a cancer (chemical product, occupational exposure,
apparatus capable of interpreting them.
lifestyle, physical and biological agents).
biosphere: all the ecosystems on the planet, comprising all living
catalysis: a process involving a substance (catalyst) capable of
accelerating a chemical reaction, without itself undergoing any
bioturbation: a phenomenon involving the transfer of nutrients
or chemicals by living beings within an ecosystem compartment or
catharometry: a gas analysis technique based on the difference
between different compartments, but also the active mixing of soil
in the thermal conductivity of gases. The response of the detector
or water layers by living species, primarily animal.
is proportional to the measured concentration of the substance.
blood plasma: a liquid component of blood in which the blood
cellulose: the main component of plant cell walls. It is a linear
cells are in suspension, constituting 55% of the total blood volume.
polymer consisting of glucose units. It varies relatively little with
Boletus badius (Xerocomus badius)
: a basidiomycete mushroom
chelation: the establishment of several bonds by the same ligand
bottom-up: the bottom-up approach in nanotechnologies involves
within a complex; chelator: a ligand liable to form several coordination bonds with an ion or a molecule within a complex; chelating: qualifies
the controlled assembly of atoms and molecules in order to form
a multidendate ligand liable to engage in several bonds with the same
components of a larger size. The reverse operation is said to be
metal cation by exerting a “clamping” effect, making the assembly
particularly stable (formation of a 5 to 7 link cycle with the cation).
Brownian motion: named after the Scottish botanist Robert
chemiluminescence: a chemical reaction phenomenon the
Brown (1773-1858), it is the mathematical description of the random
consequence of which is the emission of light when an excited
motion of a “large” particle immersed in a fluid and which is subject
(unstable) molecule returns to a stable state.
to no other interaction than the shocks with the “small” molecules of the surrounding fluid; this results in a highly irregular motion of
chemo-grafting: a self-limited functionalization method allowing
controlled deposition of a molecular monolayer on a surface.
chromatography: an analysis technique in which the sample,
structure, which would naturally offer little or no contrast and which
containing one or more species, is entrained by a mobile phase
would be hard to differentiate from the neighboring tissues.
current (liquid, gas or supercritical fluid) along a stationary phase
coordination number: the number of bonds an ion is capable
(paper, gelatin, etc.). Each species moves at its own speed dependent
of establishing with electron donor atoms. For actinyl ions (AnOn
on its characteristics and on those of the two phases; a molecule
= 1 or 2), the coordination number is split into two: that
separation technique based on their different solubilities in solvents.
corresponding to the coordination in the equatorial belt and that of
the two axial positions given between parentheses.
cladding: a leaktight envelope around nuclear fuel, designed to
copper sulfide: a chemical compound of formula Cu2S, semi-
confine the radioactive material, guarantee its mechanical strength
inside a reactor core and transmit heat from the fuel to the coolant.
corrosion: the slow deterioration of the surface of materials by
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor): a
chemical agents; on metals, corrosion involves oxidation.
technology for manufacturing electronic components and, by exten-
counterion: an ion which, in association with a surface or another
sion, all the components manufactured by means of this technology.
ion with the opposite charge, ensures electric neutrality.
co-crystallization: a technique which places a very good inhibitor
covalent bond: a bond between two atoms which saturate their
together with its enzyme and which uses X-ray crystallography to
last orbital by sharing one or more electron pairs.
destroy the precise conformation of the inhibitor inside the enzyme cavity.
cracking: a modification of the molecular structure of a hydrocarbon
under the effect of heat, pressure and sometimes a catalyst.
solutions without explicit representation of the solvent.
CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy): a technique allowing
the analysis of gas traces by absorption spectroscopy. The principle
in genetics, a gene codes for a protein, in other words,
consists in measuring the time constant of the decay of a laser pulse
induces the synthesis of a protein which possesses a clearly defined
injected into a resonating cavity containing the gas to be analyzed,
then deducing the concentration from this measurement.
cognition: the range of intellectual activities and processes relating
crown-ethers: heterocyclic chemical compounds which, in their
to knowledge and the function which produced it.
simplest form, are cyclic oligomers of ethylene oxide.
colloidal (phase): a mixture of ultramicroscopic particles uniform -
CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition): a method for preparation
ly dispersed through a substance to form a suspension or a gel.
of layers (with a thickness that can vary from a few tens of nano-
complexation: the formation in an organic or aqueous solution of
meters to about a hundred micrometers) by vapor phase deposition
an edifice (or complex) consisting of a central metal ion to which other
formed by a chemical reaction from a gaseous medium of different
ions or molecules, called ligands, bind in numbers greater than the
is a complex). A complexing molecule (or ligand) is a chemical species
expressed as a number of cycles (a cycle corresponds
capable of binding with a metal ion to form a complex.
to a charge and a discharge), it characterizes the lifetime of an elec-trochemical generator, in other words the number of times it can
composite: a material formed by the assembly of several other
restore a capacity greater than a predetermined threshold (generally
materials and exhibiting properties that each of the latter do not
80% of the initial capacity). It heavily depends on the type of load and
individually possess. It for example consists of a framework (stiffener
supporting the mechanical loads, and an encapsulating material (matrix
cycling: alternation of charging and discharging.
computed tomography: X-ray imaging for studying anatomical
cyclotron: a type of circular particle accelerator in which the
particles placed in a magnetic field follow a spiral path and are accelerated by an alternating electric field to energies ranging from
computer code (or software): in a computer software, a simpli-
fied numerical representation (modeled) of a system or process, in the form of coded mathematical expressions, in order to simulate it.
cysteine: a natural ␣-amino acid present in most proteins and which possesses a thiol group.
conductivity: characterizes the conduction capacity (electrical, thermal) of a material.
cytoplasm: comprises everything contained inside the volume bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane, except for the nucleus and
confinement: the physical and/or chemical ability to maintain
certain organelles (mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.).
radioactive and/or toxic elements in a given place or within a given object (limiting dispersion or release).
confocal: refers to an image from an optical microscope; these are images with a very small depth of field (about 400 nm); they are
␤-diketones: organic compounds possessing two ketone functions
obtained by positioning the focal plane of the lens at different depths
(CϭO), separated by an intermediate carbon, and exhibiting chelating
in the sample; this can be used to produce a series of images from
properties with respect to metal cations.
which it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional representation of
DDL: an abbreviation designating 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine,
the object. The object is not therefore directly observed by the user,
a cyclic compound resulting from the condensation between two
who sees an image recreated by computer.
molecules of Fluoral-P and formaldehyde; 2,6 lutidine, which is
containment barrier: a device capable of preventing or limiting
the dimethyl derivative of pyridine (benzene with a nitrogen atom
the dispersion of radioactive materials.
replacing a carbon atom), exists naturally and comes from the carbonization of coal.
contrast agent: in medical imaging, a compound which artificially increases the contrast, allowing the visualization of an anatomical
decorporation: a treatment using a chemical substance to elimi-
(for example blood vessels) or pathological (for example a tumor)
nate radioactive or toxic elements incorporated into an organism.
degree (or number) of oxidation or oxidation state: the
doping: the introduction of a foreign atom (doping agent) into a
relative number of electrons that must be added to a metal ion in a
crystalline or amorphous array, in order to modify its properties.
complex to make it neutral (for example, the oxidation state (o.s.) of
the quantity of energy deposited by a unit of mass in a material
2O)6]3+ is +III). A lower number corresponds
to reduction and a higher number to oxidation.
dendron: a molecule comprising on the one hand a branch site with
dosimeter: an instrument designed to measure exposure to
reactive ends and, on the other, a site able to bind with a molecular
double-helix: the chemical components of DNA, named A, T, C
Density Functional Theory (DFT): a theory based on the exis-
and G (for adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine) combine to create
tence of a universal functional allowing calculation of the energy
"steps” forming the double-helix structure of DNA and always com-
of a quantum system with n
particles on the basis of the electronic
bining according to the same model: A with T and C with G.
density. Conceptual DFT is a branch of this in which one seeks to
D-penicillamine: a decay product of penicillin; a drug which has
extract chemical concepts and principles from DFT; other names:
been used to treat Wilson's disease since 1956.
chemical DFT, chemical reactivity DFT.
DTPA (Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid): a member of
descriptor: a numerical value that is easy to obtain from a chemical
the polyaminocarboxylates family widely used in chemistry.
formula and which is therefore liable to constitute an input variable for automatic learning methods.
diazonium (salts): positively charged ions, consisting of an aro-
matic cycle carrying a “diazo” N2 group; these compounds are used
echography: an imaging technique using ultrasounds.
to synthesize dyes and as precursors of aryl groups for surface functionalization.
ecosystem: a group of biological communities sharing a physical environment: air, water, the earth and the living organisms, including
dielectric: refers to a material which contains no electrical charge
humans, interact to form an ecosystem.
liable to move and thus which cannot conduct electrical current; synonym for electrical insulator.
eco-toxicology: a discipline at the interface between ecology and toxicology, arose from recognition of the fact that a growing number
dimer: in chemistry, a molecule consisting of two sub-units bound
of toxins have contaminated and are continuing to contaminate all or
together. Tetramers and hexamers comprise four and six sub-units
part of the biosphere with some of them interacting with each other
dimethyl-ether (DME): a chemical compound of formula
effluents: waste in liquid or gaseous form.
CH3–O–CH3 occurring in liquid state at 20 °C under a pressure of 5.3 bar.
electrocatalyst: the catalyst of an electrochemical reaction, in other words involving an exchange of electrons between one or more
diode: an electronic component which lets electrical current pass
electrochemical shuttles: certain additives present in the elec-
dipolar (moment): the origin of the existence of a dipolar moment
trolyte of a Li-ion rechargeable battery undergo oxidation reactions
in a molecule lies in the difference in electronegativity between the
on the positive electrode. In their oxidized form, they then diffuse to
the negative electrode, where they are regenerated by reduction.
disaccharide: a carbohydrate comprising two sugar molecules
The oxidation potential of the chosen additive is a way of limiting the
maximum potential to which the positive electrode will be charged. The surplus capacity injected as charge is thus consumed by the redox
disposal (of radioactive waste): the operation consisting
reactions of this electrochemical shuttle, generating the equivalent
in placing the radioactive waste in a special facility designed for
potentially permanent disposal. This term also refers to a disposal facility designed for the conservation of the waste with no plans for
electrochemistry: a scientific discipline describing chemical
subsequent recovery. Recovery would however be possible in the
phenomena coupled with reciprocal exchanges of electrical energy.
case of a reversible disposal facility. The deep geological disposal
electrode: a conducting element using an electric field to emit, cap-
of radioactive waste entails placement of these substances in an
ture or guide electrons or ions. When placed in a medium (electrolyte,
underground facility specially designed for this purpose.
etc.), electrodes can be divided into cathodes and anodes depending
disproportionation: a redox reaction in which a given chemical
on whether they supply electrons to the external medium or receive
element, present at a certain degree of oxidation in the reagents,
them. The anode is where an electrochemical oxidation reaction
acts as both oxidant and reductant, thus having two different degrees
occurs, while the cathode is where an electrochemical reduction
of oxidation in the products, one higher and the other lower than the
reaction takes place. In a disposable or rechargeable battery, there
is a positive electrode and a negative electrode.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): the molecule carrying hereditary
electrografting: the “organic” equivalent of electroplating; the
genetic information; its original structure, comprising two helical
species generated by electrochemistry are organic reagents, pre-
wound complementary strands (double helix), enables it to dupli-
cursors of an organic film covalently grafted onto the electrode.
cate into two molecules identical to each other and to the parent
electrokinetics: the study of electrical circuits and above all of
molecule; these are the components of chromosomes; genes are
the movement of electricity through materials, as compared with
electrostatics, which studies the phenomena and laws relative to
donepezil: a drug with indirect parasympathomimetic action owing
electroluminescence: an optical and electrical phenomenon
to its reversible inhibiting effect on acetylcholinesterase; used in light
during which a material emits light in response to an electric current
to moderately severe forms of Alzheimer's disease.
passing through it, or to a strong electrical field.
electrolysis: the use of electric current passing through an
Fast Neutron Reactor (FNR): a reactor without moderator in
electrolyte placed between two electrodes to perform a chemical
which most of the fissions are produced by neutrons presenting
reaction. In the specific case of electrolysis of water, the electric
energy levels of the same order of magnitude as that they had when
current breaks the water down into oxygen and hydrogen, given off
fast neutrons: neutrons released by fission, traveling at very high
electrolyte: a liquid or solid medium allowing the conduction of the
speed (20,000 km/s). Their energy is about 2 MeV.
electric current via
the displacement of the ions it contains.
electronic component: an element designed to be assembled with others in order to perform one or more electronic functions.
Fick’s equation: this is obtained by writing the conservation of matter law and considering that the diffusive flux is proportional to
electronic or ionic conduction: the phenomenon whereby an
the concentration gradient (Fick’s first law).
electron or an ion moves within a material.
field-effect transistor: a semiconducting device of the transistor
electronic relaxation: return to electronic spin magnetization
family, which uses an electrical field to control the shape and thus
equilibrium after disruption by a magnetic field disrupting its equi-
the activity of a “channel” in a semiconducting material.
librium (the electrons have their own kinetic moment, called spin, which gives rise to a magnetic moment); if electronic relaxation of
fissile: refers to a nuclide whose nucleus is liable to undergo fission
a paramagnetic complex is too fast, this compound will not be an
by absorption of neutrons. Strictly speaking, it is not the nucleus
referred to as fissile which undergoes fission, but the compound
electronvolt (eV): unit of energy corresponding to the energy
nucleus formed following a neutron capture.
acquired by an electron accelerated by a potential of 1 volt, thus
fission: the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two pieces, accompanied
1 eV = 1.602·10-19 joule. Primary multiples: keV (103 eV), MeV
by the emission of neutrons, radiation and significant amounts of heat.
fission products: nuclides generated either directly by nuclear
electrophoresis: a separation technique, used in chemistry
fission, or indirectly by the decay of fission fragments. They are
and biology (with chromatography), to separate and characterize
gaseous (fission gases) or solid (volatile or otherwise).
molecules; it is based on the difference in their partition coefficients between a mobile phase (buffer, solvent) and the solid phase (gel,
flexography: a relief printing technique with flexible plastic or
Electrospray Mass Spectrometry/ES-MS: a mass spec-
fluidized bed (reactor): a reactor in which an ascending current
trometry (MS) technique in which the elements to be analyzed are
of a fluid counteracts the apparent weight of particles of a powder
introduced into the apparatus in the form of a spray (Electro Spray
product which then flows like a fluid.
Ionization/ESI) and then ionized, before identification of the mass of the ions thus formed.
Fluoral-P: the commercial name for acetylacetonamine or 4-amino-3-penten-2-one, a synthetic compound produced from
empiricism: a method relying on experimentation alone.
energy output (of an electrochemical generator): expressed
fluorescence: the emission of light triggered by the absorption
in watt-hours (Wh), it corresponds to the product of the current (in
of an incoming flux (of light, X-ray electromagnetic radiation or
amperes A) and the voltage (in volts V) integrated over the duration
electrons) followed by rapid de-excitation of the electrons in the
outer atomic layers of the luminescent body – this loss of energy
enrichment: the process designed to increase the content of one
leads to the emission of a new electromagnetic radiation; if its
wavelength is situated in the visible part of the spectrum, there is luminescence.
enzyme: a molecule able to reduce the activation energy of a reac-tion and to accelerate by up to several million times the chemical
fluorescent or profluorescent oligonucleotide probes:
reactions of the metabolism taking place in the cellular or extra-
small fragments of DNA manufactured by chemical synthesis, by
cellular environment, without modifying the equilibrium created;
sequentially adding the different nucleotides carrying DNA bases
these proteins are the catalysts of the living world.
in a predetermined order; the fluorescent probes are marked by a
ESI-MS: the electro-spray source (Electro Spray Ionization/ESI) is
fluorescent tracer which enables their location or their transforma-
a source of ion formation from a liquid solution, by vaporization and
tion to be monitored, especially during the enzymatic repair process.
nebulization of this solution, in the presence of an intense electrical
fluorophore: a chemical substance capable of emitting fluores-
field. When associated with mass spectrometry (MS), it is a powerful
force field: a conventional model describing the potential energy
ethanol: a colorless liquid (alcohol) with chemical formula C2H5OH.
of a system of particles (generally atoms). A polarizable force field
extrusion: a transformation process consisting in continuously
implicitly includes the effect of polarization by introducing induced
pushing a heat-softened material through a die
which imparts its
formaldehyde (H2CO): a gas at ambient temperature better known as formol when solubilized in water. It is present in numerous
products such as paints, wallpapers, detergents, glues, softeners, adhesives, forest fires, tobacco smoke. It is even produced in small
Fabry’s disease: a genetic disease, linked to the X chromosome
quantities by the human body. It is classified as a “known carcinogen”,
and due to an alpha-galactosidase A enzyme deficiency. It therefore
mainly attacks men. The first signs appear in childhood or ado-lescence with skin lesions, painful extremities, reduced sweating,
fossil energies: energies produced from geological deposits of
anomalies of the cornea, cataracts. By adulthood, the disease can
organic fuel matter buried under the ground, such as coal, oil and
evolve to kidney failure, heart problems and strokes.
Fourier transform: result of a complex mathematical operation
gene: a sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which specifies
which consists in “weighing” the relative weight of each frequency in
the synthesis of a chain of polypeptides or a functional ribonucleic
a time signal in order to give a spectral representation of that signal.
Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR): an analy-
genetic code: a set of rules enabling proteins to express the infor-
sis technique based on the absorption of infrared radiation from the
mation contained in the genetic material of living cells.
gases examined; through the detection of the vibrations characteristic
genome: the assembly of hereditary material comprising nucleic
of chemical bonds, it can be used to analyze the chemical functions
acids (DNA or RNA) of a cellular organelle, an organism or a species.
present and thus identify the nature of the gases present. The spectra obtained are interpreted using a mathematical operation called the
genotoxicology: the branch of toxicology which focuses on studying
the effects of toxic substances on the genes. This discipline looks at damage to DNA, its repair and its biological consequences, especially
fourth-generation nuclear reactor: a new generation of
nuclear power generating systems being studied internationally and offering improved economics and safety, less waste and a lower
geosphere: all the different parts of the Earth supporting the
risk of proliferation when compared with the existing reactors or
biosphere, comprising the inner layers, the outer layer (lithosphere),
those under construction. Six reactor technologies, mostly closed
and fast neutron, were selected for the detailed design studies,
glaucoma: an increase in the intraocular pressure leading to
using sodium, lead, supercritical water, gas (helium) or molten
glutathione: a tripeptide, formed by the condensation of glutamic
a type of laser that functions using electrons
acid, cysteine and glycine: ␥-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine.
that are not bound to an atom, hence the term “free”, to create photons.
glycoamidine: a molecule composed of a glucid type structure
a fissile material which, through an appropriate
geometry, sustains a chain reaction within the core of a reactor; fuel
glycosidase: an enzyme performing hydrolysis of sugars.
element: the smallest component of a core with its own structure, containing nuclear fuel; spent fuel: fuel which can no longer sustain
glycosylation: an enzymatic reaction consisting in creating a
the nuclear reaction and is removed from the reactor.
covalent bond between a glucid and a peptide chain or a protein.
fuel cell: a cell in which electricity is produced by the oxidation
grain boundary: the boundary between two crystallites. A crys-
on an electrode of a reducing fuel (for example hydrogen) coupled
tallite is an area of matter (grain) with the same structure as a
with the reduction on the other electrode of an oxidant, such as the
single-crystal and a size ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds
graphene: a two-dimensional (single-plane) crystal of carbon,
the circuit followed by nuclear fuel. The cycle comprises
mining of the ore, concentration of the fissile material, enrichment, fabrication of the fuel elements, their utilization in the reactor, their
graphite: one of the allotropic forms (in other words with a ther-
processing, the possible recycling of the heavy atoms thus recovered
modynamically stable crystalline structure in certain temperature
and the packaging and disposal of the radioactive waste.
and pressure conditions) of carbon with a crystalline structure taking
the form of graphene layers, in which each atom is bound to three
carbon compounds containing at least 60 carbon atoms.
The atoms are arranged in polyhedra (similar to graphite) to form spherical compounds.
gravure printing: a printing technique employed for large print runs, using etched copper cylinders or plates.
functionalization: broadly speaking, the adaptation of a chemical, physical, or biological object to make it perform the desired functions.
green chemistry: a concept defined in 1998 by the American
More strictly speaking, we talk of surface functionalization to bind
chemists Paul Anastas and John Warner, which entails the appli-
certain chemical functional groups on a surface.
cation of principles to reduce and eliminate the use or generation of substances harmful to the environment, by means of new chemical
furfural: a cyclic compound with chemical formula C5H4O2 used in
processes and “clean” synthesis methods, in other words which are
particular in the chemical industry as a solvent.
fusion: an energy production process involving the fusion of light-
greenhouse gas: gases present in the Earth’s atmosphere and
contributing to global warming. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor and methane.
gamma radiation: a highly penetrating but only slightly ionizing
electromagnetic radiation emitted in the form of photons by the decay
hadrontherapy: a method for destroying cancer cells by irradiating
them with a beam of accelerated particles (particularly carbon ions
and protons). Its advantage over conventional radiotherapy, which
mainly uses X-rays, lies in the fact that it allows precise targeting of
separate the various molecules of a mixture. It primarily applies
deep tumors while causing less damage to the healthy surrounding
to gas compounds or compounds liable to be vaporized by heating,
without breakdown, and is increasingly widely used in the main fields of chemistry.
half-pitch: in a periodic array structure, the half-pitch represents half the distance between a node on the network and its nearest
Gaucher’s disease: a disease due to a deficiency of an enzyme,
glucocerebrosidase, essential to the breakdown of a particular lipid, glucocerebroside. When it abnormally builds up in the spleen and the
hemicellulose: the second component of plant cell walls. It is a
liver, it leads to hypertrophy of these organs, as well as to anemia,
ramified polymer formed of sugar units with 5 or 6 carbon atoms. Its
spontaneous bruising and coagulation disorders.
nature significantly varies according to the biomasses.
hemodialysis: a method for blood purification by creating an
IDA: ImidoDiAcetate, a chemical molecule which complexes ura-
extracorporeal circuit passing the blood through a dialyzer.
hemoglobin: a protein whose main function is to transport dioxygen
immunology and immunobiology: the branch of medicine
in the human organism and other vertebrates.
studying immunity, in other words the reactions of the organism in which an element of the antigen category appears.
hertz: a unit of frequency (Hz) of an alternating phenomenon, equal to one cycle per second; the main multiples are: the megahertz
incineration: a chemical treatment process involving the com-
(1 MHz = 106 Hz) and the gigahertz (1 GHz = 109 Hz).
bustion of certain combustible radioactive wastes. This term is sometimes used with respect to nuclear transmutation, when this
heteroaromatic radiofluorination: refers to a chemical reaction
operation is envisaged for the management of radioactive wastes.
allowing the introduction of radioactive fluorine into an aromatic type chemical nucleus not exclusively consisting of carbon atoms.
indium phosphide (InP): a semiconducting material used in microelectronics.
heterocycles: a class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of a carbocycle is replaced by a heteroatom (atom
indole: an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound the name
other than carbon or hydrogen and non-metallic), such as oxygen,
of which is derived from indigo, a blue pigment whose molecule
contains two fused indole groups; it is formed of a benzene cycle
when an electron passes into the conduction band, a hole
(vacant place) is created in the valence band; this carrier has an
infrared radiation (IR): a part of the electromagnetic spectrum
covering radiation with a wavelength ranging from 760-780 nm to
1 mm. Physicists subdivide the infrared spectrum into the near IR
the ability of an organism to maintain its internal
(760 nm - 4 μm), mid IR (4 μm - 14 μm), far IR (14 μm - 100 μm) and
physiological equilibrium despite external stresses.
HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite): a substrate of
infrared spectrometry (IR): see infrared spectroscopy.
graphite with oriented crystallographic axes.
infrared spectroscopy: this technique consists in passing a beam
a chemical messenger carried by the blood or the lymph
of infrared light through a sample and analyzing the emitted light. It
which acts at a distance from its production site by binding with
is based on the fact that the molecules exhibit specific frequencies at
which they rotate or vibrate in correspondence with discrete
humic: concerning humus, an organic soil matter formed by the
levels. The frequency of the vibrations can be associated with a
decomposition of plants and plant substances.
particular chemical bond. Infrared spectroscopy thus gives access to chemical bonds and their dynamic measurement.
hybrid vehicle: a vehicle which associates two energy generation modes. The currently preferred formula combines an internal
insulin: an hormone secreted by the pancreas with the role of
combustion engine and a battery supplying an electric drive train;
lowering the level of glucose in the blood and enabling the cells to
the first, which operates at constant speed and thus at optimum
efficiency, recharges the battery which absorbs the current peaks and recovers braking energy.
ion: an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons and is thus electrically charged (cation: positively charged
hydrocarbon: a molecule comprising only carbon and hydrogen.
ion; anion: negatively charged ion).
hydrogen sulfide (H2S): a chemical compound of sulfur and
ionic bond: a bond characterized by the transfer
of electrons from
hydrogen, responsible for the unpleasant rotten-egg smell.
one atom to another, but without sharing
as in a covalent bond.
hydrogenases: enzymes which reversibly catalyze the conver-
ionic force: one of the main factors influencing the activity of ions
sion of H+ ions (“protons”) into dihydrogen through the reaction:
ionization: a state of matter in which the electrons are separated
hydrology: Earth science concerning the water cycle, in other
from the nuclei; the process in which ions are produced, by collision
words the exchanges between the atmosphere, the surface of the
with atoms or electrons (collisional ionization
) or by interaction with
electromagnetic radiation (photo-ionization
hydrolysis: in mineral chemistry, the hydrolysis reactions of a metal
ionizing radiation: a radiation capable of directly or indirectly
cation correspond to the breakdown of a water molecule (into H+
producing ions as it passes through matter.
and OH-), allowing the chemical reaction between this metal cation and the hydroxyl anion (OH-).
ionophore: a solute which transports ions.
hydrometallurgy: a process designed to extract metals from
isopropanol: a colorless and flammable chemical compound
compounds, after dissolving the latter in an aqueous phase. Hydro-
(alcohol) of formula CH3CH(OH)–CH3.
metallurgical processes are used, for example, to extract uranium
isotopes: forms of a given chemical element, the nuclei of which
from ore and to separate the actinides from spent nuclear fuel.
possess an identical number of protons (as well as an identical
hydrophobic/hydrophilic: which repels/attracts water.
number of electrons orbiting the nucleus) but a different number of neutrons.
ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reac-
tor): a very large scale scientific experiment aiming to demonstrate
ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry):
the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy, thus
the association of an extremely energetic atomization and ionization
paving the way for its industrial and commercial operation. ITER
source, the inductive coupling plasma, with a mass spectrometer;
will be the first fusion device capable of producing 10 times more
this is one of the most sensitive element analysis techniques.
as eV/nm. It is possible to talk of the mean LET over the total track of the particle, or over a segment. The value of the LET for an ion
keratinocytes: cells accounting for 90% of the skin surface layer
increases as its energy drops, as it slows down. It is at its maximum
(epidermis) and the skin appendages (nails, hair, fur, feathers, scales).
at the end of its track, at the Bragg peak. This particularity is not one
kerosene: a mixture of hydrocarbons containing alkanes (C
possessed by accelerated electrons, X-rays or gamma rays but it is
liquid chromatography: a quantitative, qualitative and separative
kinetic crystallography: a crystallography method aiming to
analysis technique, primarily used in analytical chemistry, organic
determine the structure of molecules in motion.
kinetics: in chemistry, kinetics is the study of the speed of chemical
long-lived: a term applying to radionuclides with a half-life of
luminescence: emission of “cold” light, as opposed to incandes-
cence, referred to as “warm” light.
labeling: the introduction of radioactive or fluorescent elements
lysosome: a small-dimension cell component containing or produ-
(tracers or markers) into a molecule, a substance, a living organism,
cing various enzymes which digest or break down certain substances.
lamellar structure: constructed of a stack of successive layers.
LiCoO2 for example consists of layers of octahedra (CoO6) between
macro: in general, a prefix meaning large and qualifying an object
which the lithium is positioned and diffused.
with dimensions on the human scale, larger than 1 mm (for example,
lanthanides (Ln): the family of elements with an atomic number
a macromolecule is a large molecule); however, in biology, the
between 57 (lanthane) and 71 (lutecium). This group corresponds to
prefix “macro” is used to differentiate between large molecules
the filling of the electron subshell 4f and 5d. The lanthanides exhibit
(proteins) and their complexes of small molecules (substrates,
very similar chemical properties which are also similar to those of
the +III actinides of the end of the series (americium and beyond).
magnetism: a physical phenomenon which leads to the manifesta-
laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
tion of attraction or repulsion forces between one object and another
Radiation): a light source providing monochromatic waves (of a
or with electrical charges in motion.
single wavelength) that are coherent in both time and space (always
mannose: an ose (simple non-hydrolysable sugar) the basic for-
mula of which is identical to that of glucose (C6H12O6) but for which
laser diode: an optoelectronic component constituting a source
the developed formula exhibits the carbon atom (C2) of opposite
of coherent light, for which the beam intensity can be modified by
configuration; mannose is thus an epimer of glucose.
mannosidase (alpha- and beta-mannosidases): an enzyme
leaching: placing a solid body in contact with a liquid, with the
which hydrolyses a mannose function in a polysaccharide or a gly-
idea of extracting certain elements from it. By extension, leaching
coprotein: the alpha- and beta-mannosidases are differentiated by
is used to describe any experiment concerning the alteration of a
the position of the mannose residue in the active site.
mass spectrometry: a physical analysis technique for detecting
lead sulfide: a chemical compound of formula PbS, semiconduct-
and identifying molecules of interest, by measuring their mass, and
characterizing their chemical structure. Its principle lies in the gas phase separation of the charged molecules (ions) according to their
ligand: an organic molecule which, by means of a coordinate bond,
can attach to an ion within a coordination complex.
an organic or mineral matrix (glass, bitumen,
hydraulic binder, ceramic) the function of which is to immobilize a
ordinary water acts as both the coolant and the moderator. The
waste to prevent its dispersal, and/or ensure the long-term confine-
LWR family includes PWR Pressurized Water Reactors and BWR
mesoscopic: situated at an intermediate scale between the nano-
an electronic component able to produce
light. It consists of several superposed layers, based on inorganic or organic semiconductors, between two electrodes. By applying an
metabolism: the set of molecular and energetic transformations
appropriate electrical voltage, the electrons and the holes injected
which continuously take place in a cell or a living organism.
into the emission layer from the cathode and the anode recombine to form excitons (electron-hole pairs). Light is emitted (electro-
metabolites: organic compounds that are the intermediates or
luminescence). The basic processes which follow one another are
the opposite of the sequence employed in a photovoltaic cell.
metabolomics: the science studying all the metabolites (sugars,
lignin: the third main component of the plant cell walls. This is
amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) present in a cell, an organ, an organism.
a complex three-dimensional polymer comprising phenolic units,
It is the equivalent of genomics for DNA.
which differ according to the biomasses.
metallothionein: a protein involved in detoxification of the organ-
LIHOPO: Linear Hydroxypyridinone, of the family of siderophores
ism, playing a protective role for our cells against metal trace
which are chelators of iron, synthesized and in particular secreted
elements, previously called heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium,
Linear Energy Transfer: LET = dE
, where dE
is a part of the
methamidophos: an organophosphorus insecticide used in many
energy transferred in electronic form over a track dx
by the particle
countries, especially Spain, Australia, China, Japan and the United
entering the medium. It is expressed in J/m but more commonly
methane: as a hydrocarbon with a general formula CH4, methane
is the main component of natural gas and the biogas resulting from the fermentation of animal or vegetable organic matter. It is given off
-acetylgalactosamine: an ose derived from galactose.
naturally in wet zones with little oxygenation such as marshes and
nano: prefix n for one billionth (10-9); 1 nanometer (nm) = 10-9 meter;
flooded land. It also forms in the stomachs of ruminants.
micro: prefix μ for one millionth (10-6). 1 micrometer (μm) or
nanotechnologies: the range of manufacturing and manipulation
micron = 10-6 meter; 1 microsecond (μs) = 10-6 second.
processes for structures, devices and material systems, at the
microprocessor: a processor in which the components have been
scale of the nanometer; as in nano-aerosols, nanomaterials, nano-
sufficiently miniaturized for placement on a single integrated circuit.
objects, nanoparticles, nano-labels, nanostructures, nano-wires,
Functionally, the processor is the part of the computer which runs
the instructions and processes the program data.
NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Systems): a device contain-
ing electrical and mechanical functionalities at the nanometric
this term applies to nuclear fuel or a material
and designates the shape, size and arrangement of its components (grains of a poly-crystalline material, minerals) and its voids (porosity,
neurochemistry: a science concerned with the biochemical
phenomena of the central nervous system.
modeling: the simplified representation (model) of a system or
neurotoxic: refers to a product that is toxic to the central nervous
process in order to simulate it, contained in a computer software
(often called code), in the form of mathematical expressions. The
neurotransmitter: a chemical substance which transmits signals
mesh size, in terms of space and time, gives the resolution of the
from one neuron to another across a synapse.
a corrosive liquid chemical compound with formula
a unit of quantity of matter (symbol mol) in a system containing
as many basic entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon 12,
or 6.03·1023 (Avogadro's number). M = mole/liter.
NitriloTriAcetic acid (NTA): a tricarboxylic acid (C6H9NO6) which can bind with metal ions, by a chemical complexation reaction, and
molecular dynamics: a method consisting in simulating the
thus form hydrosoluble complexes; this is an important chelating
movements of atoms within molecular systems, by applying the
agent with many industrial applications.
laws of conventional mechanics to predict the evolution of their spatial configuration over time. These movements correspond to
nitrogen dioxide (NO2): a toxic gas and an atmospheric pollut-
vibrations around a minimum or to the passage from one energy
ant, able to absorb UV radiation, which then no longer reaches the
minimum to another. Gives access to structural properties and to
NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy: a
molecule 19 E: a bisphosphonate dipod of the phosphonates
spectroscopy technique based on the phenomenon of nuclear
magnetic resonance consisting in causing a radio-frequency (RF) wave to interact with a system to be examined – the RF frequency
monocrotophos: a very highly toxic organophosphorus insecticide
differs according to the magnetic field and the nucleus concerned
banned in France, the European Community and the United States
– followed by detection of the signal re-emitted by the sample
(NMR signal) which provides information about the local structure around the nucleus.
monosaccharides (or oses): monomers of glucides, not hydrolysable but soluble in water: glucose and mannose are two
noble metals: historically, precious metals that are unaltered
by air or water (silver, gold, platinum), used in jewel-making. This term now applies to other metals which are scarce in the Earth's
Monte-Carlo (method): a statistical method for approximating the
crust and which are thus also costly (palladium, rhodium, iridium,
value of an integral, using a set of points randomly distributed accord-
ing to a certain probability. It consists in repeating the allocation of a numerical value depending on the running of a process involving
norbadione A: a pigment isolated from the Boletus badius
chance and then calculating the mean of its statistical dispersion
(indicating its precision) for all the values obtained.
nuclear glass: a mineral matrix used for the confinement of
Mtoe: millions of tonnes oil equivalent. 1 toe = 42 billion joules or
high-level nuclear waste. Glass has the structure of a frozen liquid,
in other words a short-range order and an absence of intermediate-range order, which enables it to accommodate most fission products
multidendate (or polydentate): qualifies a ligand liable to engage
and minor actinides resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuels.
in several bonds (a bidendate ligand is liable to engage in two bonds,
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): its principle is based
on the properties of certain atomic nuclei possessing a nuclear
mutagenesis: a genetic approach to understanding the function of
spin, placed in a magnetic field; when subjected to electromagnetic
the genes, which consists in intentionally introducing mutations into
radiation, the atomic nuclei can absorb the radiation energy and
a DNA sequence by means of chemical or physical agents.
then release it; the energy involved in this resonance phenomenon corresponds to a very precise frequency that is dependent on the
mutagenic: an agent which changes the genome (DNA in general)
magnetic field and molecular factors; this phenomenon is thus
of an organism, thereby raising the number of genetic mutations
capable of identifying the structure of the compounds present.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): this medical
myasthenia: a neuromuscular disease of the skeletal striated
imaging technique can visualize the organs and soft tissues in
muscles through impairment of neuromuscular transmission leading
various spatial planes, making it possible to accurately determine
to fluctuating muscle weakness and excessive fatiguability; one of
the position of lesions that would otherwise be invisible; this exam-
the most well-known auto-immune diseases.
nuclear medicine: the range of medical applications of radio-
organic acid: a molecule comprising a carboxyl group (–C(O)OH);
labels or unsealed radioactive sources.
these are acids and their conjugated bases are called carboxylates.
nucleic acids: polymers consisting of a chain of nucleotides. There
organometallic (compound): a compound associating a metal
are two types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic
and an organic ligand containing at least one carbon-metal bond. By
extension, certain complexes with a low degree of oxidation contain-ing hydride (H-), molecular hydrogen (H
nucleic probe: a natural or synthetic fragment of DNA or RNA
ligands are often included in the family of organometallic compounds.
(ribonucleic acid), reproducing a small part of human or another organism's DNA or RNA, used in research or in laboratory exami-
organometallic precursor: a molecule formed primarily of metal
nucleophilic: a chemical compound attracted by positively charged
organophosphorus (compound): an organic compound com-
species, as opposed to an electrophilic compound.
prising at least one phosphorus atom bound directly to one carbon.
nucleotide: a basic unit of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine
oxidation: a reaction during which an atom or an ion loses electrons.
base (adenine, guanine for example) or pyrimidine base (cytosine,
The most common is that in which a compound combines with one
thymine for example), a sugar and one or more phosphate groups.
or more oxygen atoms, thus forming an oxide; oxidant: which causes
an atom or an ion to lose electrons.
the repair of damaged DNA, in particular as a result of exposure to ultraviolet radiation or to radioactivity.
nuclide: a nuclear species characterized by its number of protons Z
(atomic number), its number of neutrons N
and its mass number A
package: an assembly consisting of a transportation, storage or
equal to the sum of the number of protons and the number of neu-
disposal container and a clearly defined content of radioactive waste.
packaging (of radioactive waste): the series of consecutive
number of spin states: the number of potential spin orientations
operations to be performed to ensure that the waste is in a stable
(angular momentum or momentum of intrinsic internal rotation) of
and safe form compatible with subsequent management, whether
an elementary or composite particle, or molecular entity, in relation
this is storage, transmutation or disposal. These operations can in
particular include compacting, encapsulation, fusion, vitrification, containerization.
numerical simulation: the reproduction by computation of the functioning of a system, previously described by a model or a set
pandemic: an epidemic affecting an exceptionally large percentage
of the population and present over a large geographical area.
parathion: a very highly toxic organophosphorus insecticide;
imports are illegal in more than fifty countries, including France.
passive (or passivating) layer: a barrier capable of limiting
OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode): an organic component
access by corrosive species (H2O, O2, etc.) to a surface. It thus helps
with the property of emitting light when a voltage is applied to it.
reduce the rate of corrosion of the underlying material. In a Li-ion
oligomer: a polymer of small size, consisting of 4 to 20 monomers.
rechargeable battery, the passivating layer (Solid Electrolyte Inter-phase (SEI)) formed on the negative electrode, provides protection
oligonucleotides: sequences produced artificially by synthesis.
oligosaccharides: carbohydrates formed of a small number of
pentavalent plutonium: plutonium with degree of oxidation +5;
oses and representing a large set of molecules comprising both
in aqueous phase corresponds to molecular species PuO+.
anti-diabetic drugs such as acarbose (designed to lower glycemia), numerous antibiotics (particularly anti-bacterial), food additives,
peptide: a chain comprising fewer than 50 amino acids bound by
digestion enhancers (mannane), immune defense stimulants, etc.
olivine structure (of oxides): the crystalline structure of oxides
pertechnetate: TcO- ion formed in oxidant conditions.
with the general formula ABXO4 where X (Si for olivine) is a cation
pH: a measurement of the concentration in hydrogen ions in a liquid.
situated at the centre of a tetrahedron formed by the oxygen ions
In pure water, below 7, it is acid, above which it is basic (or alkaline).
(O2-), the A and B cations occupying different octahedral sites. In the case of LiFePO4, the FePO4 skeleton bounds the lithium diffusion
pharmacodynamics: describes the effects of an active ingredient
on the organism; a detailed study of the receptor/active substance
interaction. This response is a component of the desired therapeutic
the study of cancer, its diagnosis and its treatment.
optical imaging: a medical imaging technique using the optical
pharmacokinetics: the discipline studying the fate of an active
interference of the light emitted by an infrared source, with the tis-sues analyzed, to obtain an image of the tissues at different depths
ingredient contained in a drug inside the organism.
(virtual biopsies); at shallow depth (about one mm) it is possible to
pharmacophores: active atoms consisting of a pharmacologically
obtain high-resolution images (of about a micron); these are non-
active part of a molecule acting as a model; used in drug design.
destructive and harmless techniques.
phenols: aromatic chemical compounds (alcohols) carrying a
opto: a prefix indicating a relationship with what is visible or with
phosphate: in inorganic chemistry, a phosphoric acid salt resulting
optoelectronics: a branch of both electronics and photonics. It
from the attack of a base by phosphoric acid and, in organic chemistry,
studies the electronic components which emit or interact with light;
an organophosphorus compound derived from phosphoric acid.
optoelectronic components are electronic to optical, or optical to electrical transducers, or components which use such devices to
phosphonic amines: a RCH2NHCH2PO3 type functional group,
phosphopeptides: peptides containing an amino acid bound to
porphyrin: a molecule with a cyclic structure involved in the trans-
port of oxygen and able to act as a bound cofactor (prosthetic group) of certain enzymes.
photocatalysis: catalysis of chemical reactions under the effect of light.
positron: an antiparticle associated with the electron, which pos-sesses an electric charge of +1 elementary charge (as against -1
photodecomposition: the destruction, under the effect of light, of
for the electron), the same spin and the same mass as the electron.
the photochemical properties of an optical contrast agent.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET): a medical imaging
photodetector: a photoelectric detector.
technique consisting in injecting a radioactive substance emitting
photolysis: the use of light energy to perform a chemical reaction,
positrons and then collecting the radiation by means of an external
generally involving breaking the bond within a compound.
sensor and then finally reconstructing a cross-section image of the organ on the computer.
photosynthesis: the process whereby plants, algae and certain
potential (electrochemical potential of an electrode):
bacteria use solar energy to synthesize organic molecules. Plants
and algae use carbon dioxide and water to do this, while giving off
measured in relation to a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which acts as a reference in electrochemistry, the potential of which is set
at 0 V. It is thus expressed in relation to SHE (V/SHE).
photovoltaic: the effect whereby light energy is directly transformed
into electrical energy in a semiconductor.
an electronic component which, when exposed
to light (photons), generates electricity.
precipitation: the formation in a solution of an insoluble solid
substance (precipitate) by a chemical reaction between two (or
polypeptides responsible for plant tolerance of
a chemical system is said to be conjugated when
transferred from the core to the heat exchanger via
water kept at
it is formed of atoms bound to each other in a covalent manner with
high pressure in the primary circuit, to stop it from boiling.
at least one delocalized type bond.
primary system: the closed and leaktight primary system contains
the core and, by means of circulating pumps or compressors, car-
plasmid: a supernumerary molecule of DNA distinct from chro-
ries the coolant which transfers its heat to a secondary system via
mosomal DNA, capable of autonomous replication and not essential
processing or reprocessing (of spent fuel): the selective
plasmon resonance: a physical phenomenon implying an
sorting of the materials contained in spent fuels in order to extract
absorption of light by metal compounds (gold for example) utilized
those which are reusable and recyclable (uranium and plutonium)
in particular for biological analysis.
or possibly transmutable, and to package the ultimate waste.
pluviometry: the measurement of rainfall, generally in milli-
prosthetic: a group of a heteroprotein molecule which is not an
amino acid and which is bound to the protein fraction on which it confers its main properties.
polarization: the macroscopic value corresponding to the sum, per unit volume, of microscopic dipolar moments (induced by the
protein: the main macromolecular component of cells, formed by
shift in the center of gravity of the positive charges in relation to the
the DNA coded chaining of amino acids.
center of gravity of the negative charges) created at application of
proteomics: a science which studies proteomes, in other words
all the proteins of a cell, organelle, tissue, organ or organism at a
polarography: a particular form of voltammetry which uses a
given moment and in given conditions.
dropping mercury electrode as its working electrode; a method for
protonation/deprotonation: a chemical reaction during which
analyzing oxidation and reduction in solution, it falls into the cate-
an H+ proton is added to/removed from a molecule.
gory of electrochemistry, the science which describes the chemical reactions in which electron transfers occur.
Prussian Blue: ferric ferrocyanide, chemical formula Fe7(CN)18(H2O)x
, where x
varies from 14 to 18.
poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diyl): a macromolecular organic semiconductor (semiconducting polymer) consisting of a
pseudopotential: a supplementary term in Schrödinger's equation
-conjugated, controlled regiochemistry macromolecular skele-
capable of simulating the effect of the electrons of the inner layers
ton (head to tail chain of 3-dodecylthiophene type monomer units)
of an atom, which play no direct part in the chemical bonds. The
based on heterocyclic thiophene units functionalized in position 3 by
volume of calculations required is thus significantly reduced without
-dodecyl paraffin groups (C
sacrificing too much information on the physico-chemical properties
polyethylene glycol: a polymer of ethylene oxide with a molecular weight of less than 20,000 g/mol.
pulvinic acid or vulpinic acid (Methyl (2E
)-2-(5-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-phenylfuran-2-ylidene)-2-phenylacetate): an organic acid present
polymer: a macromolecule repeating the same structural pattern,
called a monomer, in the case of a homopolymer, or at least two different monomers for a copolymer.
PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Refining by EXtraction): a hydro-metallurgical process for reprocessing spent fuel, currently
polymerization: the progressive addition of molecules of mono-
used industrially to extract from it the uranium and plutonium still
mers by covalent bonds, forming a polymer (ant.
of value in energy terms. The process separates these two elements
Copolymerization involves at least two different monomers.
from the minor actinides and fission products, considered to be waste.
polysaccharides: polymers created by the polycondensation of a
PVC (polyvinyl chloride): abbreviation designating a plastic
large quantity of ose molecules (starch, cellulose, etc.).
pyrex: a brand of kitchenware belonging to the Arc International
radioactivity: the property possessed by certain natural or arti-
group, created in 1915 and traditionally best known for its thermo-
ficial elements which, as they decay, spontaneously emit alpha
particles (helium nuclei), beta particles (positrons [beta + or ␤+ emission] or electrons [beta - or ␤- emission]) and/or gamma
pyridinecarboxylate: an organic compound consisting of an
radiation (high-energy photons). This term more generally refers
aromatic amine (pyridine) and a carboxylate.
to the emission of radiation accompanying the decay of an unstable
pyrrole (or azole): a simple and fundamental heterocyclic com-
pound, of general formula C4H5N, consisting of an aromatic cycle of
radioelement: an element of which all the isotopes are radioac-
radiography: the set of techniques for taking pictures of the inter-
nal structures of a patient or mechanical component using X-rays.
QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship): a
radionuclide: an unstable nuclide of an element which sponta-
process whereby a chemical structure is correlated with a clearly
neously decays or disintegrates, emitting radiation.
determined effect, such as biological activity or chemical reactivity.
radioprotective: refers to a substance which, if ingested by a living
quantum: related to the theory developed on the basis of Planck's
organism, attenuates the effects of any subsequent irradiation to
principle of quanta
(any manifestation of energy can only be expressed
by a discrete
value called a quantum) and on Heisenberg's uncertainty
radiotherapy: a cancer treatment based on the administration of
according to which it is not possible to accurately measure
gamma rays or X-rays, designed to destroy or reduce the size of a
both the position and speed of a particle at the same time.
quantum chemistry: a branch of theoretical chemistry which
radiotoxicology: a recent scientific discipline which studies the
applies quantum mechanics to molecular systems, to study the
direct and/or indirect effects of radioactive chemical bodies on living
quantum confinement: the displacement of electrons or holes
radiotracer: a radioactive substance whose path through a tissue,
in a semiconductor material, limited in one or more dimensions;
organ or living organism can be easily detected by an appropriate
modifies the electronic properties of a material.
quantum numbers: in quantum mechanics, the electron is char-
Raman diffusion spectrometry: used to identify the chemical
acterized by four numbers. The principal quantum number n
structure and molecular composition of a sample by subjecting it
integer ≥ 1, corresponds to the number of the electron layer and to
to laser radiation and analyzing the scattered light. This is a local
a large extent indicates the energy of the electron and the size of the
measurement technique: by focusing the laser beam on a small
orbital, which increases with n
. The secondary quantum number l
part of the medium, it is possible to investigate it in volumes of
which take can any integer value between 0 and n
- 1, primarily
a few cubic microns. This is then referred to as micro-Raman
defines the form of the orbital – orbitals s (l
= 0), p (l
= 1), d (l
= 3). The magnetic quantum number m
, whose integer values range from - l
to + l
, determines the orientation of the orbital followed
rare earths: a family of elements chiefly comprising the lanthanides
by the electron. Finally, the spin quantum number s
receptor: a membrane or soluble protein the activity of which is
quartz: a mineral species of the silicates group.
regulated by one or more “signal” molecules.
quencher: a chromophore specifically absorbing the energy
recoil nucleus: a nucleus which, as a result of a nuclear reaction
emitted by a donor fluorochrome, leading to the expected signal
or radioactive emission, is given kinetic energy.
recycling: the reutilization of reusable materials after a production process. In a nuclear reactor, the reuse of fissile material (generated
plutonium, residual uranium 235, etc.) resulting from a previous cycle after reprocessing of the spent fuel.
R7T7 glass: a type of borosilicate glass, intended for the confine-ment of waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuels, and
redox (reduction/oxidation): a redox reaction is a chemical
so-called after the name of the R7 and T7 facilities in the La Hague
reaction during which a transfer of electrons occurs. The chemical
species capturing the electrons is called the oxidant and that which releases them the reductant.
radioactive decay: the process by which a nucleus or particle breaks down into several fragments (particles and nuclei, which
reduction: a reaction during which an atom or an ion gains electrons
constitute the decay products, photons) to achieve a lower energy
state which is therefore more stable. The characteristics of this
reforming: the chemical cracking of a molecule of a hydrocarbon
transformation only depend on the initial state of the nucleus (of the
or alcohol to transform it into its major components.
particle) and not on the process which produced it.
relaxivity: a measurement of the effectiveness of a paramagnetic
radioactive half-life: the time after which half of the radioactive
complex to create a contrast; an increase in the speed of relaxation
atoms initially present in a sample of a radioactive nuclide have
of the protons of the neighboring water molecules, when the concen-
tration of contrast agents increases by one millimol/L.
radioactive waste: a radioactive substance for which no subse-
resistance: the property of certain materials to oppose the passage
quent use is planned or envisaged. Ultimate radioactive waste is
radioactive waste that can no longer be processed in current tech-nical and economic conditions, in particular through extraction of its
RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification): an electronic identi-
reusable part or by mitigation of its polluting or hazardous nature.
fication tag readable by radiowaves.
ribosome: a giant macromolecular complex present in cells, in
siloxanes: a class of silicon compounds, with formula R2SiO, where
which the RNA is converted into proteins.
R is a radical group which may be organic. These compounds may be organic and inorganic hybrids.
rubrene: an organic crystal with semiconducting properties.
single-crystal: a crystal formed in a single block with no discon-tinuity, from an assembly of atoms, ions or molecules periodically
and regularly distributed in the three spatial directions, contrary to a poly-crystal.
yeast: used since the earliest days of mankind for making bread, wine and top-fermented beer.
sintering: an operation consisting in fusing the grains of precursor powders (of metal and/or inorganic compounds) by performing a heat
saccharide: a term previously used to designate glucides.
treatment at a temperature lower than the melting point of the main
salt: in chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound consisting of cations
component, in order to produce a continuous solid.
and anions forming a neutral product with no net charge.
sol-gel: a process which allows the production of vitreous materials
SANEX (Selective ActiNides EXtraction): a process used to
separate actinides(III) (americium + curium)/lanthanides(III).
solvation: a chemical interaction of the molecules of a solvent with
sarin: an odorless, colorless, volatile substance of the organo-
phosphorus family, extremely toxic for humans and animals, even
solvent: a substance capable of dissolving a body; solute: a dis-
in very small doses (0.01 ppm can be lethal); about 500 times more
the characterization of the chemical species of an
element present in a substance and, more generally, in a given
scopes, the image is built up point by point, by scanning a small
environment; by extension, the characterization of the method of
probe of electrons over the object. For each probe position, a signal
binding an element or a molecule to particles. The speciation of
is recorded by one or more detectors and a software or acquisition
an element or a molecule is essential in evaluating its possible
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM): a method of micro-
specific capacity (of electrode materials):
scopy which, at the atomic scale, can be used to explore the surface
topology of conducting solids by means of a probe so thin that its tip
the quantity of electricity used in these materials during oxidation or
consists of only a few atoms, moving along the surface. The interac-
reduction reactions (exchange of lithium ions between the negative
tion between the tip and the surface is measured by the number of
and positive electrodes in the case of a lithium-ion rechargeable
electrons circulating by tunnel effect between the metal probe and
battery). It is expressed in milliampere-hours per gram (mAh/g) or
the conducting surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy is based on
in ampere-hours per kilogram (Ah/kg).
the fact that there is a non-nil probability that a particle with energy
specific energy and energy density: these respectively corre-
lower than the height of a potential barrier can cross it (tunneling
spond to the energy output per unit of mass (Wh/kg) or volume (Wh/l)
effect). Scanning tunneling microscopy also allows the study of
specific power and power density: these respectively represent
Schrödinger's equation: an equation which, when resolved,
the energy per unit of time that can be produced by the unit of mass
can determine the energy of the system as well as a function, the
(W/kg) or volume (W/l) of an electrochemical generator.
wavefunction, from which all the properties of this system can be deduced. It was proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926.
specific surface area: the actual surface area of an object (taking
Seldi-TOF (Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ioniza-
account of its roughness for example) as opposed to its apparent
for Time Of Flight mass spectrometry, marketed by the Ciphergen
spectroscopy: the study of bodies according to the radiation they
company for analysis of protein samples.
emit or the transformations they undergo because of other bodies
selectivity (chemo- and regio-): chemoselectivity is character-
placed in their path; spectrometry: the measurement and inter-
ized by the preferential attack of a functional group within a molecule
pretation of spectra of quantities linked to the physical or chemical
from among other (different) groups; regioselectivity is defined by the
composition of a body, or to the analysis of a wave.
preferential attack of a particular functional group within a molecule
spin coating: a method for producing a thin film by deposition of
containing several copies of these groups (identical).
a solution containing different molecules on a rotating substrate.
selenite: SeO2- ion formed in oxidizing conditions.
spinel structure (of oxides): a crystalline structure of oxides
semiconductor: a material in which the band of occupied electron ic
in which the oxygen ions (O2-) form a compact face-centered cubic
states (valence band) is separated from the band of unoccupied
type stack (a structure in which the atoms occupy the eight summits
states (conduction band) by a relatively narrow inhibited energy band
of a cube and the centre of each of the faces of this cube), with the
(gap). Such a material is an electrical insulator at absolute zero, but
cations occupying the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of these
becomes moderately conducting when its temperature is high enough
assemblies. In the case of LiMn2O4, the arrangement of the MnO6
to excite electrons in the valence band towards the conduction band.
octahedra bounds the lithium diffusion channels in the three orthog-onal axes of the mesh.
sequence: a succession of amino acids in a protein, or of DNA bases in a gene.
spintronics: a discipline based on electron spin (angular momen-tum).
silica: a chemical compound of formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide). It is used in the composition of numerous minerals.
stainless steel: an alloy of iron and carbon to which is mainly added chromium which, at over 12 to 13%, produces the required
silicon alkoxides: metallo-organic precursors containing Si-O-R
functions (R = CH3, CH2CH3.) that are easily hydrolysable in the presence of water to obtain silanol functions (Si-OH).
steric: relative to the spatial configuration of a molecule.
stoichiometry: the study of the proportions, during a chemical
thiol: an organic compound comprising an ᎏSH thiol group (sulf-
reaction, in which reagents combine and products form. A reaction
hydryl group) bonded to a carbon atom; owing to its strong odor,
is said to be stoichiometric when the quantities of reagents are in
it is used in the manufacture of “stink bombs” or as an additive to
molar proportions identical to those of the chemical equation.
domestic gas as a means of detecting leaks.
sulfate: a salt formed by the combination of sulfuric acid with
time-resolution: the smallest interval of time separating two
successive productions of a time signal and enabling them to be perceived as separate.
supercritical (fluid): a fluid which, when placed in temperature and pressure conditions higher than their critical values, exhibits a
Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy
viscosity close to that of a gas, a density close to that of a liquid and
(TRLFS): a technique used to monitor the evolution versus time of
a high diffusivity. Its solvent capacity evolves with the pressure and
the fluorescence emitted by a molecular system after short photo-
temperature conditions. Fluids most commonly used: carbon dioxide
(CO2) owing to its low critical temperature (31 °C) and water (H2O)
owing to its high oxidizing capacity.
tive analytical technique for determining certain fluorescent actinides
superoxide dismutase: a metalloprotein with an enzymatic activ-
and lanthanides in solution. Its principle is based on pulsed laser
ity; an important part of the defense system against free radicals, it
excitation, followed by time resolution (positioning of a measurement
is to be found in nearly all aerobic organisms.
gate of a few μs after the laser pulse) of the fluorescence signal thus eliminating stray short-lived fluorescences.
supramolecular: which associates, via
non-covalent interactions, several molecules within the same structure. By extension, a com-
toxicology: a science studying toxic substances, their etiology,
pound is said to be supramolecular if it associates several distinct
the circumstances of their contact with the organism, the effects of
properties carried by different centers and clearly identified.
exposure on an organism, the effects of exposure on the environment, the means of detecting and combating them.
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR): a physical method able to quantify the bond between a ligand and a “receptor”, fixed to a
trace: an element present in small concentrations; there are
specific matrix, itself adsorbed on a metal layer (generally gold); the
no precise rules to define a threshold concentration as of which
technique uses the measurement of the variations in the refraction
the term trace is to be used; this notion of trace varies with the
indices caused by the formation of a ligand-receptor complex.
changing sensitivity of the techniques used and does not have the same meaning for a geochemist, a biologist, a metallurgist, and
synapse: region of the interaction between two nerve cells, acting
so on. In practice, an analyst will talk of traces when the element
as a junction across which the chemical message passes from one
to be assayed is present in concentrations varying from a few
neuron to another, leading to its excitation or inhibition.
tens of mg/kg to a few tens of μg/kg and of ultra-traces for lesser
synchrotron radiation: the electromagnetic radiation emitted by
electrons which circulate in a storage ring; these electrons regularly
trace elements: elements (metals, metalloids, vitamins) which
change their path and their acceleration also changes regularly;
exist in trace levels in living organisms and whose presence is
when this change occurs, the electrons emit energy in the form of
essential to the life of animal or plant cells.
photons. This radiation is used to study the structure and electronic properties of matter.
tracer: an element or chemical compound that can be easily iden-tified by physico-chemical means; tracing consists in using a tracer to monitor the displacement of matter in a chemical reaction or in
tar: an organic compound (other than soot or coal) with a molar
transcriptomics: the study of all the RNA (ribonucleic acids) which
are the messengers produced during the process of transcription of a genome.
TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide): a transparent and conducting oxide used to make electrodes, for example for flat
transferrin: a beta globulin, synthesized by the liver, consisting
of a single polypeptide chain carrying 2 iron binding sites, with 2 iron atoms per molecule of transferrin; the main participant in the
tellurite: TeO2- ion formed in oxidizing conditions.
homeostasis of iron, it allows transfer of this metal from the blood
compartment to the intracellular medium.
arisen from the association of the two words “ther-
apeutic” and “diagnostic”, this practice will lead to personalized
transistor: an active electronic component that is fundamental to
medicine by choosing a treatment according to the reaction by each
electronics, used as a switch, for amplification to stabilize a voltage,
thermobalance: a laboratory reactor for measuring the evolution
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM): a beam of electrons
of the mass of a sample versus time, according to the temperature
is sent to the sample and passes through it before being detected.
A system of lenses focuses the beam on the sample and another
set of lenses then modifies the output beam to form a magnified
the application of the laws of thermodynamics
to isothermal and/or isobaric chemical reactions.
transmutation: the transformation of one nuclide into another by a
the branch of physics describing energy trans-
nuclear reaction. The transmutation envisaged for the management
of radioactive waste aims to transform a nuclide with a long half-life
thermodynamics (chemical): the branch of chemistry describing
into one with a shorter half-life or into a stable nuclide.
the evolution of chemical reactions and the associated exchanges.
trichloramine: a volatile irritant substance, belonging to the family
thin layer: a coating, the thickness of which can vary from a few
of chloramines, which develops when the chlorinated products used
atomic layers to about ten micrometers, modifying the properties
to disinfect waters combine with nitrogen pollution from organic
of the substrate on which it is deposited.
derivatives (sweat, saliva, urine, etc.).
trientine: a polyamine type chemical molecule used as a chelating
plants or certain types of fermentation), they are biodegradable at
agent in the treatment of Wilson's disease.
various rates by bacteria and fungi, or even plants, or are degraded by UV or by ozone.
tritiated water: in its chemically pure form, tritiated water (or super-heavy water) is a form of water in which all or some of the
voltage: (general definition
) the circulation of the electric field
hydrogen atoms have been replaced by tritium; not to be confused
along a circuit; (usual definition
) the electrical potential difference
with heavy water, which is deuterium oxide; as tritium is itself a
between two points on an electric circuit (positive electrode and
radioisotope with a half-life of 12.32 years, pure tritiated water is
voltammetry: understanding the fundamental characteristics of
trophic: relates to everything concerning the nutrition of a living
an electrochemical reaction can be achieved by measuring current
variations versus the potential applied to the terminals of an elec-trolysis cell; the general principle of voltammetry is thus to obtain
tryptophane: one of the 20 amino acids making up proteins;
a response (the current) from the system studied at the excitation
ob tained from food, it is essential to humans.
(the potential) responsible for the desired chemical reaction.
ultraviolet and visible radiation absorption spectrometry:
water radiolysis: when water is irradiated with ionizing radiation,
based on the absorption of light radiation by matter. This technique
the first step is ionization. The ejected electron may have enough
is mainly used to measure the concentrations of chemical species
energy to ionize other water molecules in turn. This step is followed
by extremely rapid reactions (primary events) which lead to the
formation of stable molecular products, hydrogen H
trum characterized by a wavelength of 100 to 400 nm.
2O2, as well of free radicals R• (H•, HO•, HO2
latter exhibit an unpaired electron in a chemical bond, noted by a dot,
uranium: chemical element of symbol U and atomic number 92,
which makes them highly reactive. The hydrated electron e• is not
exists in the natural state in the form of a mixture of three isotopes:
bound to any water molecule but is trapped in a cavity consisting of
238U fertile (99.28%), 235U fissile (0.71%) and 234U (traces).
the neighboring water molecules. For its part, the oxygen O2 is not a primary product of water radiolysis. It primarily forms by a reaction
uranium dioxide: a mineral with formula UO2, with a cubic crystal
of the HO• hydroxyl radicals with hydrogen peroxide.
structure, in which the uranium has valence IV; in nature, its com-position varies between UO
watt (W): a unit of power corresponding to the consumption of
2 and UO3, resulting from a more or less
one joule per second. Main multiples: kilowatt (1 kW = 103 watts), megawatt (1 MW = 106 watts), gigawatt (1 GW = 109 watts) and
a cation in which the uranium is at its +6 oxidation
terawatt (1 TW = 1012 watts); watt-hour (Wh): the amount of energy
state and forms salts with the acids; this is the most frequent form
consumed, or delivered by a system, corresponding to a power of
of uranium in its aqueous solution chemistry.
weak acids: acids which do not completely dissociate in water.
They are classified according to their acidity constant (pKa), which measures their ability to dissociate. The higher the pKa, the weaker
vacuole: an organelle present in plant and fungi cells.
valence: valence electrons are those of the external electronic
Wilson's protein (ATP7B): an ATPase type trans-membrane
subshells (not filled) of an ion. In coordination chemistry, this term
protein, called ATP7B, coded by the ATP7B
gene. It takes part in
is often used to indicate the degree of oxidation. A monovalent ion
the intra- and extra-cellular transport of copper, regulating the
has charge +1, a divalent ion +2 and so on.
concentration of this metal and its excretion by the bile duct. If the protein is deficient, the metal builds up inside the cells. Mutations
van der Waals (interaction or force): named after the physicist
of this gene have been associated with Wilson's disease (WD).
Johannes Diederik van der Waals, 1910 Nobel laureate in Physics; a low-intensity electrical interaction between atoms, or between a molecule and a crystal.
vectorization: the action consisting in modulating and controlling
X-ray crystallography: a method for determining the structure
the distribution of an active ingredient to a target, by associating it
X-rays: an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength compa-
vicinal position: in DNA, describes the relative position of two
rable to the distances between atoms, between a few fractions of
bases, situated side by side, on the same strand.
a nanometer (0.005 nm) and from 1 to 100 nm, and with an energy
viscosity: the capacity of a fluid to flow.
between a few keV and a few hundred keV.
visible radiation: the electromagnetic radiation stimulating the human optic nerve, with a wavelength approximately situated
between the ultraviolet (380 nm) and the infrared (780 nm).
zinc selenide: a chemical compound with formula ZnSe, semi-
vitrification: the operation consisting in incorporating radioactive
waste into glass providing it with stable packaging, in the form of a package compatible with storage or disposal.
zinc sulfide: a chemical compound of formula ZnS, semiconducting.
VOC (volatile organic compounds): carbon and hydrogen com-pounds which can easily be found in gaseous form in the atmosphere; of anthropic origin (from refining, evaporation of organic solvents, unburned substances, etc.) or naturally occurring (emissions from
Le livre tunisien 2002 ____________________________________________________________________ INDEX TITRES Bio bac : les sciences naturelles en 4è A secondaire : section sciences expérimentales… 104 secondaire : sections math,lettres,éco-ges, tech : exercices et problèmes corrigés 105 développement de l'assurance crédit export en Afrique et en Méditerranée, Tunis, les ex
BIJSLUITER: INFORMATIE VOOR DE GEBRUIK(ST)ER Lees de hele bijsluiter zorgvuldig door voordat u start met het gebruik van dit geneesmiddel. Dit geneesmiddel kan zonder voorschrift verkregen worden. Desondanks moet u Imodium zorgvuldig innemen om een goed resultaat te bereiken. - Bewaar deze bijsluiter. Het kan nodig zijn om deze nog eens door te lezen. - Heeft u nog vragen, raadpleeg d