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management of prostate cancer: an overview


Radiation Management
Of Prostate Cancer
An OvervieW
Table of Contents

THE PROSTATE GLAND ….…………………………………………….……….….2
PROSTATE CANCER.……………………………………….………………….……2
PATIENT EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTING …………….….….3-5
MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER
AN OVERVIEW OF APPROACHES……………………….…………………….5
COMBINATIONS OF THERAPIES: AN OVERVIEW……………………………6
EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY……………………………….…….7
RADIOACTIVE SEED IMPLANTS (MONOTHERAPY)………………………8-18
EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY AND RADIOACTIVE
SEED IMPLANTS (COMBINED THERAPY)………………………….…….19-20
RADIATION SAFETY……………………………………………………………21-22
HORMONE THERAPY………………………………………………………….23-24

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

THE PROSTATE GLAND


The prostate gland, a male sex organ, produces a thick fluid that makes up most of the
semen. It is located between the bladder and rectum. A normal sized prostate is about the
size of a walnut. The urethra, a tube that drains the urine from the bladder during
urination, passes through the prostate.
Interference with urinary flow is usually caused by a nonmalignant enlargement of the
prostate called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Symptoms associated with BPH
include frequency of urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, a weak urinary
stream, and frequent urination during the night. Infrequently, prostate cancer can cause
similar symptoms. Diabetes, medical conditions, and some medications can also cause
some of these symptoms.
PROSTATE CANCER
The prostate, like all other organs of the body, is made up of many types of cells.
Normally, cells divide in an orderly and controlled fashion to produce more cells only
when they are needed. This process helps to keep the body healthy. Cancer is a group of
diseases that have two things in common: cells become abnormal and then begin to
divide and grow uncontrollably. When this happens a malignant lump or tumor may
appear. In the case of prostate cancer, sometimes a nodule or firm area can be felt on
digital rectal exam (DRE).

Cancer cells may invade and damage the healthy surrounding tissue. In the case of
prostate cancer, the adjacent normal tissues include the surrounding fat and muscle, the
nerves that stimulate an erection (located in the neuro-vascular bundle), the seminal
vesicles, (sacs that sit on top of the prostate that store the seminal fluid that is ejaculated
during sex), the bladder, and the urethra. Cancer cells can also grow into the blood stream
or into lymphatic channels and spread to other parts of the body. This process is called
metastasis. When prostate cancer metastasizes, it most commonly spreads to the pelvic
lymph nodes and the bones.
2
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
PATIENT EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

PROSTATE BIOPSY

If your PSA is elevated, or if you have an abnormal DRE, your urologist may perform a
transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and multiple biopsies of the prostate. The TRUS uses
sound waves to image the prostate. Sometimes abnormal areas within the prostate can be
seen with TRUS and your urologist will target these at the time of biopsy. Once the
procedure is completed, the biopsy tissue is sent to a pathologist for analysis. The tissue
is then examined under a microscope, and the pathologist may make a diagnosis of
prostate cancer.
PSA TEST
The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a blood test that helps determine how much
cancer is present. In general, the higher the PSA, the larger or more advanced is the
cancer. However, the PSA level can also be elevated because of other factors, such as
BPH, and the presence of inflammation or infection in the prostate gland. On the other
hand, some medications, such as Finasteride (Proscar) or Dutasteride (Avodart), can
lower the PSA by as much as 50 percent creating a false impression that the PSA is
okay. For patients on these medications, it is best to double their PSA value to get a more
accurate indication of what their PSA really is.
The PSA is valuable in determining your prognosis (likelihood that you will be cured).
For example, if the PSA is lower than 4, the cure rate is very high. When the PSA is 4-
10, the prognosis is usually very good. For patients with a PSA of 10-20, the prognosis is
fair and for a PSA of greater than 20 the prognosis is less favorable. The cure rate for
patients with a PSA greater than 30 is very low, unless a special kind of prostate cancer,
called a transition zone cancer, is present.
Your PSA also helps your physicians determine the most appropriate treatment for you.
In general, the higher the PSA, the more aggressive the treatment. If the PSA is very low,
careful follow-up without any treatment can be considered (watchful waiting). If the PSA
is very high, hormone therapy alone may be indicated.
3
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

TUMOR STAGE
If cancer is found in your prostate, your physicians will need to know the tumor stage.
Staging is a careful attempt to find out how large your cancer is, and whether the cancer
has grown outside the prostate gland, or spread to other parts of your body. Blood work,
the DRE
, and various scans such as a CT scan, MRI scan, and bone scan can all
provide valuable information regarding tumor stage. Your physicians will decide which
studies are necessary. The stage of your cancer will strongly influence which treatment
options are most appropriate for you.
TUMOR GRADE
The tumor grade provides important information regarding how fast the cancer is likely
to be growing, and the likelihood that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body,
such as the lymph nodes or bones. The pathologist assigns a grade to your tumor when
he or she looks at the malignant cells under the microscope. The higher the Gleason
grade
, the more aggressive the tumor.
The most commonly used grading system is called the Gleason score. Each patient’s
tumor is assigned two grades that represent the major and minor patterns of
malignant
glands seen under the microscope. Each of the two grades will range from 1-
5. The two grades are then added together to give a Gleason score (which ranges from 2
to 10). A Gleason score of 2 to 5 represents a low-grade malignancy. These tumors are
usually slow growing, have a low likelihood of spreading, and are rarely fatal. Tumors
that have a Gleason score of 8 to 10 are high grade, and are more likely to be fast
growing or to have metastasized to lymph nodes or bones. Most patients have
intermediate grade tumors or a Gleason score of 6 or 7. These are medium growing
tumors and the prognosis is generally good. The Gleason score strongly influences
which staging tests are ordered and what treatment options should be considered.
4
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER
AN OVERVIEW OF APPROACHES
There are a wide variety of treatments available for the management of prostate cancer.
Radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and radioactive prostate seed
implant
are potential cures for prostate cancer. Hormone therapy may force the cancer
into a prolonged remission but does not provide a cure unless it is combined with other
treatments. The most commonly used treatments include the following:
1. RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY—surgical removal of the entire prostate gland.
2. EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION—treatment with high energy X-rays, delivered
by powerful linear accelerators. The X-rays pass through the patient and preferentially kill cancer cells.
3. RADIOACTIVE PROSTATE SEED IMPLANT—treatment delivered by
radioactive pellets that are placed directly into the prostate and surrounding tissues.
This type of treatment is also called brachytherapy, which comes from the Greek
word “brachy” which means near or close to; in other words, therapy that is near
or close to the tumor. The two types of radioactive seeds most commonly used are:
Palladium-103 (Pd-103) and Iodine-125 (I-125). Seed implants can deliver two to
four times more radiation than external beam radiation.

4. HORMONE THERAPY
—treatment which either stops male hormone production or
blocks male hormones from acting on the tumor. Most prostate cancers are stimulated to grow by testosterone and other similar male hormones. When the production of these hormones is suppressed, or these hormones are prevented from getting to the tumor, the cancer will usually stop growing and will shrink. This treatment can work well for many years.
5. WATCHFUL WAITING—patients whose cancers are not likely to harm
them are candidates for watchful waiting. With watchful waiting, patients do not
undergo treatment, but rather they are carefully monitored with routine PSA tests. For
some patients, periodic repeat prostate biopsies are also performed.

5

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
COMBINATIONS OF THERAPIES: AN OVERVIEW

There are many situations where combinations of treatments are recommended. For
example, patients with very large prostate glands may require hormone treatment
before a seed implant can be performed. Very large prostates may be difficult or
sometimes impossible to implant. Three to four months of hormone therapy will usually
shrink the prostate by 40-50 percent, often making these difficult glands amenable to a
seed implant.
Patients with a high PSA, a high Gleason score, or advanced cancer found on staging
studies
will often benefit from hormone therapy administered prior to, during, or even
after external beam radiation. In this case, the hormone treatment shrinks the cancer,
making it easier for the radiation therapy to kill the remaining cancer cells.
About half of the patients being considered for a seed implant are advised to receive this
therapy in combination with external beam radiation. In this case, the treatment is not
doubled; but rather, a reduced-dose of external radiation is combined with a reduced-
dose seed implant. T
he external radiation is used to destroy cancer cells that may be in
the tissues around the prostate or in the lymph nodes. The goal of the reduced-dose seed
implant
is to destroy the remaining cancer cells that are still present in the prostate after
completion of the reduced-dose external beam radiation.
Patients who undergo radical prostatectomy may be at risk for a recurrence of their
prostate cancer in the surgical area if the pathologist finds that the cancer has extended
outside of the prostate gland. For example, if there is involvement of the seminal vesicles,
neuro-vascular bundle, or lymph nodes, external beam radiation may be advised to
clean up any remaining cancer cells.
There are some situations where combinations of three treatments are advised. Some
patients receive both hormone therapy and external radiation after a radical
prostatectomy
. Some patients undergoing a seed implant require hormone therapy
and
external beam radiation.
6
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY
Patients who are treated with external beam radiation therapy are treated as an
outpatient, five days a week for 8-9 weeks. Treatments take 10 – 30 minutes per day.
These treatments are painless. It is similar to having an X-ray. There is no nausea.
Patients are able to carry on their normal activities, work full-time, and drive themselves
to and from treatment.
Between the third and fifth weeks, most patients will experience mild to moderate
urinary symptoms. These include urinary frequency (especially at night), burning on
urination, and a weak stream. Very rarely patients will have bleeding. These symptoms
can be partially relieved with medications. They are rarely severe.
During this same time frame, most patients experience mild to moderate anal-rectal
symptoms
. These include frequent small stools, rectal urgency, rectal irritation, excessive
gas, and bleeding. Patients with hemorrhoids are more likely to be bothered, especially
with bleeding and discomfort. There are medications for these symptoms.
Additional complaints include mild to moderate fatigue, hair loss in the irradiated
area
(not on the head), and very mild skin reddening. Patients may need 1-2 hours of
extra sleep or a nap.

Most, if not all, of these symptoms resolve 3 to 6 weeks after completion of radiation.

Long-term complications include erectile dysfunction (20-40%), chronic rectal
bleeding (5-10%), rectal urgency and frequency (5%), hip fracture (1-2%), urinary
bleeding (< 1%), and urinary incontinence (< 1%). Rectal bleeding can usually be
treated successfully with suppositories. HEMORRHOID SURGERY AND
CAUTERY FOR RECTAL BLEEDING MUST BE AVOIDED SINCE MAJOR
COMPLICATIONS MAY OCCUR. NEW LASER TREATMENTS MAY BE
SAFE BUT SHOULD BE USED WITH CAUTION.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common complication following all treatments of
prostate cancer. The good news is that most cases of ED following external beam
radiation can be successfully treated with medication (Viagra, Levitra, or Cialis). If a
patient has good erections
prior to treatment, the probability that he will maintain an
erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse after treatment is about 80%;
however,
many patients will use one of these medications at least some of the time.
If the
erection is already impaired prior to radiation therapy, these drugs are less likely to work.
If they are unsuccessful, other treatments such as penile injections may prove effective.

7
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview


RADIOACTIVE SEED IMPLANTS
(MONOTHERAPY)
Radioactive seed implantation
involves the precise placement of small, rice-sized
radioactive seeds directly into the prostate gland under transrectal ultrasound guidance.
Two radiation isotopes are commonly used: 1) Palladium-103 (Pd-103), which has a
half-life of 17 days and emits most of the radiation over 2 months; and 2) Iodine-125 (I-
125)
which has a half-life of 60 days and emits most of its radiation over 6 months.
During these time periods, the prostate gland receives continuous irradiation. When a
seed implant is performed alone, without external beam radiation, it is called
monotherapy.
PROCEDURE PREPARATION

Approximately two weeks prior to implantation, the patient will have routine blood tests.
and may also undergo an EKG, chest X-ray and a urinalysis. If there is any history of
heart disease or other significant medical problems such as hepatitis, diabetes, or lung
disease, you should let your doctors know as soon as possible, as it may be necessary to
get clearance from your internist, cardiologist, or other medical specialists. Sometimes
this can take several weeks. If you have any history of a heart attack or angina, a thallium
stress test may be required.
All anti-inflammatory medications, such as aspirin, Motrin, Advil, ibuprofen, Aleve,
or naprosyn must be discontinued at least two weeks prior to the implant. It is OK
to take Tylenol for pain.
If you are on Coumadin®, this must be discontinued five to
seven days prior to the implant, under the direct supervision of the physician who
prescribed this medication. In many cases another medication is substituted for
Coumadin.

Prior to the implant, the patient will be instructed to take laxatives or enemas (a
bowel prep). It is very important for the rectum to be empty at the time of seed
placement. Both stool and gas will interfere with ultrasound imaging of the prostate.
If your physician has not given you these instructions, please let us know several
days before the implant.
8

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview


IMPLANT PLANNING
Before an implant can be performed, the patient must undergo a volume study. This
study involves placing a transrectal ultrasound into the rectum and making measurements
and taking pictures. Unlike the biopsy, no needles are used. This procedure takes a few
minutes. This measurement will provide the necessary information so that the radiation
oncologist can order the proper number of seeds for the seed implant.
THE IMPLANT PROCEDURE
The prostate seed implant is performed by a urologist and radiation oncologist, both
of who have undergone special training in prostate seed implantation.
When you
arrive at the hospital, you should have already have completed your bowel prep. After
completing your registration you will go to the pre-op area and will meet with the
anesthesiologist to discuss the kind of anesthesia that is most appropriate for you.
When it is time to start the procedure, you will be taken to an operating room that is
specially equipped for urological procedures. Anesthesia will then be administered. A
Foley catheter will be placed into the bladder. The skin of the perineum, an area located
between the rectum and scrotum, will be cleaned with an antibacterial solution. In order
to further reduce the risk of infection, the hair may be shaved from this area.
The implant procedure is initiated by placing the ultrasound probe into the rectum and
attaching it to a stabilization unit and the seed implantation system. The next step
involves a careful mapping of the prostate gland. This allows your physicians to
determine how many seeds are required and where the seeds are going to be placed.
During the course of the implant, approximately 16 to 26 needles are inserted through the
perineum into the prostate. The implant needles are easily seen on the ultrasound
screen. This allows precise placement into specific locations within the prostate
under direct visualization.
9

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

THE IMPLANT PROCEDURE cont.

A template, or guidance system, is attached to the ultrasound probe outside the patient
next to the perineum. The template is used to guide the needles into precise locations in
the prostate as is called for by the plan. The template (FIGURE 1) has a series of holes,
coded A through G horizontally and 1 through 6 vertically. The dots correspond to
holes in the template, which are used to guide the implant needles into precise locations
within the prostate.

FIGURE 1
TEMPLATE

_______________
_______________
A B C D E F G


10

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

THE IMPLANT PROCEDURE cont.
The template coordinate grid seen above is activated so that it appears on the ultrasound
screen (Figure 2). The prostate is aligned so that it is superimposed onto the template
grid
in such a way that the D row is centered in the central portion of the prostate and the
1 row is aligned along the back edge of the prostate.

FIGURE 2
ULTRASOUND SCREEN
_______________

PROSTATE GLAND
_______________
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview


THE IMPLANT PROCEDURE cont.
Example of how the template is used in a prostate implant:
If the implant is to start at
the location of “F2” on the grid, the needle is placed through the “F2” aperture in the
template and, under the guidance of the ultrasound, is directed into the prostate at the
“F2” location as seen on the ultrasound screen. If the needle does not hit the “F2”
coordinate, it can be easily steered into the proper location. Depending upon the size of
the prostate, 16-26 needles are used to implant 60-140 seeds.
Once the procedure is completed, the patient is transferred to the recovery room. After
the anesthesia has worn off, the patient is discharged to home. In most cases, the Foley
catheter is removed prior to discharge.
FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURE

You will be scheduled to have a CT scan of the prostate so that computerized dose
calculations can be performed. This will allow your radiation oncologist to evaluate the
actual dose delivered to the prostate gland as a result of the implant. These calculations
are called post-implant dosimetry. The post-implant CT scan does not involve the
injection of any dyes or contrast. You will not be required to drink any barium or use any
laxatives or enemas. This test only takes about five minutes.
As part of your follow-up care, you will be instructed to see both your urologist and
radiation oncologist.
They will help you to get through the side effects as comfortably as
possible. After three months they will perform routine DRE’s.
The first PSA test will be drawn about three months after the implant. Bone scans, CT
scans, and MRI scans are not part of the routine follow-up. They may be ordered if your
PSA rises.
12
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

SIDE EFFECTS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY
1) PERINEAL SYMPTOMS
Side effects
of seed therapy vary widely from one patient to the next. Most patients
experience tenderness in the perineum for several days following the implant.
Bruising and discoloration can extend into the scrotum. This should not be alarming.
The perineal discomfort is usually mild to moderate and can be managed with Tylenol,
Aleve, or ibuprofen.
These medications are okay to take after your implant.
2) URINARY SYMPTOMS
In the first 24-48 hours, there may be moderate to severe burning on urination and the
urinary stream may be very weak
. About 5 percent of the patients find it impossible
to urinate
at night and must return to the hospital emergency room for placement of a
Foley catheter. If urinary blockage occurs during the day, please contact your
urologist. He or she may be available to place a catheter in their office.
For several weeks or months after the implant, patients will experience urinary urgency,
frequency, and
irritation. These symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe and tend
to be worse at night. Initially, most men find that they get up at night to urinate 2-4
times more
than they did before the implant. Men who have burning on urination
usually report that this discomfort is felt on the tip of the penis
. This is not the result
of any injury to the penis, but rather these sensations are being referred to the penis from
the prostate.
Medications called alpha-blockers (Flomax, Hytrin, or Cardura) are particularly
helpful in relieving these symptoms. These medications help the prostate to relax,
allowing the urine to pass more freely through the swollen and inflamed gland.
Anti-inflammatory medications such as Aleve or ibuprofen can also be very helpful.
Occasionally, there is bladder irritation. In that case, patients may benefit from
Pyridium, which numbs the bladder.
Urinary urgency can be rather severe for a month or two after the implant, and if
the patient is not careful, an accident might occur. In order to avoid urinary leakage
it is best to set-up a schedule and void every hour while awake. Severe urgency is
often triggered by standing up or touching water. So be prepared to rush to the
bathroom in those situations. Be prepared to quickly find a bathroom when you hop
out of your car. If you have been sitting in a meeting at work for more than an hour,
be prepared to rush to the bathroom when you stand up. Never pass up the
opportunity to use the men’s room.


Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview


SIDE EFFECTS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY cont.
2) URINARY SYMPTOMS cont.
HOW LONG DO THE URINARY SYMPTOMS LAST?
The urinary symptoms can last for many months.
They tend to last longer with I-125
seeds than with Pd-103 seeds. However, at some point, usually 6-8 weeks after the
implant, the symptoms will begin to improve. By three months, most men who have a
Pd-103 prostate seed implant, will say that their urinary function is 90 percent back to
normal, and that they are getting up at night one extra time or the same number of times
as they did before the implant. Urinary burning may last only a few days, however, as
the radiation dose builds up in the prostate, the burning sometimes returns between the
third and sixth week after the procedure. If this is the case, the burning usually resolves
by three months. The last symptom to go away is the weak stream. The strength of the
stream is usually pretty good by three months, but it may take another couple of months
for the stream to fully return to normal. Alpha-blockers are usually discontinued
between the third and fourth month
. Occasionally the urinary stream never fully
recovers and patients may stay on long-term alpha-blocker medication.
URINATION AT NIGHT
The most common urinary complaint is frequent urination at night
, which can
significantly interfere with sleep. Patients report that they will get up many times to
urinate, but that the stream is weak and that they cannot empty their bladder. This will
cause them to get up again soon thereafter. Sometimes patients are unable to get their
stream started for 5-10 minutes. Infrequently patients have severe burning and say that
urination feels like they are “peeing through razor blades.” Alpha-blockers are very
helpful for nighttime symptoms, and unless a patient is instructed otherwise, it is best
to take these medications about one hour after dinner
. It is also helpful to avoid
fluids in the evening to reduce the urination frequency during the night.
14

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

SIDE EFFECTS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY cont.
3) RECTAL SYMPTOMS
Some patients occasionally experience rectal urgency, frequency, discomfort, or
bleeding. Bleeding is more likely to occur in patients with hemorrhoids. Ointments or
suppositories can help with these symptoms. These symptoms are usually mild.
4) SEXUAL FUNCTION
It is not necessary to abstain from sexual activity, however a condom should be used
for the first several sexual encounters or for the first several months to avoid
ejaculating a radioactive seed into another person.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), or difficulty with erection during sex,
may occur
immediately after the implant. This is likely due to bruising of the nerve to erection. This
may recover spontaneously. In the meantime, ED can be treated very successfully with
Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra. Some patients report a mixture of pleasure and pain during
orgasm. Usually the discomfort resolves by 3-4 months. The semen is almost always
discolored (dark) for several months due to the presence of old blood. The ejaculatory
ducts may become blocked, and semen production by the prostate may be impaired,
resulting in a marked diminution in the volume of ejaculatory fluid at the time of orgasm.

5) MISCELLANEOUS SYMPTOMS

Patients usually experience some fatigue. It usually resolves within 3-4 months. Blood
counts are not affected by this treatment. There will be no hair loss.

15

Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview



COMPLICATIONS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY
Complications
refer to long-term or permanent problems. If a complication occurs,
that does not mean that there was an error in the treatment. Whenever cancer cells are
being “killed,” normal healthy cells can be temporarily or permanently damaged. The
same holds true for hormone therapy, external beam radiation, and radical prostatectomy.

1) URINARY INCONTINENCE

After the urinary urgency has resolved, urinary incontinence, the involuntary loss of
urine, is infrequently seen (< 1% of patients). However, patients who have had a prior
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), sometimes called a “roto-rooter job,”
have an increased risk of incontinence of about 5 percent. Patients with large TURP
defects are not implant candidates.
If incontinence develops following a seed implant,
it is usually mild requiring no more than 1-2 pads per day.

2) URINARY STRICTURE

About 5 percent of patients develop a urinary stricture or bladder neck fibrosis.
This means that scar tissue has formed, and has caused narrowing of the urethra, or
scarring of
that portion of the bladder, which is near the prostate. This results in a
weak urinary stream, frequent bathroom visits at night or inability to urinate. Initially the
treatment of choice is alpha-blockers. If the urinary flow is completely blocked, a
temporary catheter is placed. Surgery is not often required, and should be considered
a treatment of last resort
. When surgery is contemplated it is best to wait one year.
The procedures most commonly used are: 1) a “mini-TURP”; 2) a trans-urethral
incision of the prostate (TUIP); 3) a bladder neck incision; or 4) a trans-urethral
needle ablation (TUNA). Before any surgery is contemplated, your urologist should
consult with your radiation oncologist. Experience has shown that in many cases the
blockage will resolve by itself without surgery. The primary risk of these surgical
procedures is permanent and sometimes severe urinary incontinence.

16
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
COMPLICATIONS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY cont.
3) RECTAL INJURY
The most common rectal injury is chronic rectal bleeding.
Rectal bleeding may result
from pre-existing hemorrhoids, a rectal cancer, or from fragile blood vessels that form on
the rectal wall as a result of the radiation. These fragile blood vessels are not dangerous
and can usually be treated successfully with suppositories. If rectal bleeding occurs,
please notify your radiation oncologist. You may need to see a gastroenterologist
(a GI doctor).
IT IS OF THE UTMOST IMPORTANCE THAT YOU INFORM YOUR GI
DOCTOR THAT YOU HAVE HAD A PROSTATE SEED IMPLANT. IT IS NOT
SAFE TO HAVE HEMORRHOID SURGERY OR CAUTERY ON YOUR
RECTUM. THERE HAVE BEEN CASES WHERE SUCH PROCEDURES HAVE
RESULTED IN SEVERE RECTAL INJURIES REQUIRING A COLOSTOMY.
WE ADVISE YOU TO SHOW THIS PAGE TO ANY PHYSICIANS TREATING
YOU FOR RECTAL BLEEDING.
There are new laser therapies, which are very superficial and are more likely to be
safe, but this should only be used in cases of severe rectal bleeding that cannot be
controlled by more conservative means.
Rectal ulcers are very uncommon
. The first sign of an ulcer may be moderate to severe
rectal pain
, which is usually associated with bleeding. However, these symptoms can
also occur with hemorrhoids. RECTAL ULCERS MUST NOT BE CAUTERIZED,
LASERED, OR OPERATED ON.
THE MOST SEVERE RECTAL INJURY IS A FISTULA.
Fortunately fistula are
very uncommon. A rectal fistula is a hole that develops between the rectum, and the
bladder or urethra. The first signs are pain associated with the leakage of urine through
the rectum. Usually a colostomy must be done. FOLLOWING SEED IMPLANTS,
RECTAL FISTULAS CAN BE CAUSED BY CAUTERY FOR RECTAL
BLEEDING, OR HEMORRHOID SURGERY. THESE MUST BE AVOIDED.
17
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview



COMPLICATIONS OF SEED IMPLANT THERAPY cont.
4) ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
Erectile dysfunction (ED)
is the most common complication following all treatments of
prostate cancer. The good news is that most cases of ED following seed implant therapy
can be successfully treated with medication (Viagra, Levitra, or Cialis). If a patient
has good erections
prior to treatment, the probability that he will maintain an erection
satisfactory for sexual intercourse after treatment is about 80 percent;
however, the
majority of patients will use one of these medications at least some of the time.
If the
erection is already impaired prior to the seed implant, these drugs are less likely to work.
If they are unsuccessful, other treatments such as penile injections may prove effective.
For several months following the implant, the ejaculate may be discolored. Usually the
color is very dark as the result of old blood. Eventually, most patients report that the
ejaculate dries out, and that very little semen is ejaculated. Fortunately, the quality
of the orgasm is usually not affected.


18
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY
AND RADIOACTIVE SEED IMPLANTS
(COMBINED THERAPY)
INDICATIONS
Some patients may benefit from the combination of external beam radiation and seed
implant therapy. In this case a reduced-dose of external radiation (5 weeks) and a
reduced-dose implant is used. The goal of the 5 weeks of external radiation is to kill
any cancer cells that are outside the prostate in the surrounding fat and muscle, nerve
bundle area (neuro-vascular bundle), seminal vesicles or lymph nodes. Some or all of
these areas may need to be targeted with the external radiation depending on the risk
factors in your particular case. In general, patients with a PSA >10, a Gleason Score 7 or
higher, a sizeable tumor felt on DRE, extensive cancer seen on the biopsy material
(ie the majority of the biopsy cores involved), or cancer seen outside the prostate on
an MRI, are more likely to be advised to undergo combination therapy.
Studies have shown that 5 weeks of external radiation (45 Gy) is usually sufficient to
destroy small amounts of cancer.
Surgical studies have shown that about half of
patients do have “small fingers” of malignant cells outside the prostate
, and that the
risk factors for extra-prostatic cancer are those described above. Therefore, your
treatment will be custom tailored based on which risk factors you have. For example, if
you have a PSA of 9 and a Gleason score of 7, the external beam radiation treatment
might be limited to the prostatic region. On the other hand, if you have a Gleason score of
8, and a PSA of 15, it is likely that whole pelvic radiation will be recommended.
THE TIMING OF THERAPY
Please keep in mind that the 5 weeks of external radiation is also treating the prostate.
Therefore, the seed implant dose must be reduced to take into account the 45 Gy that you
have already received to the prostate. In most cases, the external radiation is given first.
After a 2-6 week break, the seed implant is performed.
19
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview


COMBINED THERAPY cont.
SIDE EFFECTS

The 5 weeks of external beam radiation is extremely well tolerated. Just as the urinary
and rectal symptoms are getting started, the treatment ends. By the time that the implant
is performed, these side effects will have mostly or completely resolved. The side effects
of the seed implant are virtually identical to those observed when seeds alone are
performed. See a detailed description above under “SEED IMPLANT THERAPY”.

COMPLICATIONS
The long-term complications are similar to those described above under “SEED
IMPLANT THERAPY.”
With combination therapy, we do observe rectal bleeding
more frequently than with monotherapy. Erectile dysfunction may occur more often. As
described above, these two problems can usually be managed successfully with
medications.
FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURE
Refer to this section under PROSTATE SEED IMPLANT THERAPY.


20
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
RADIATION SAFETY
When patients are receiving external beam radiation, as far as the general public goes,
there are no safety procedures that need to be followed. Once the treatment is completed
and the machine is turned off, there is no radiation in the room and no radiation in your
body. Therefore, you do not need to worry about contact with children, pregnant
women or anybody else.

Both Palladium-103 and Iodine-125 emit continuous radiation. Since the radiation is
very low energy, most of the radiation is confined to the prostate gland and the
immediate surrounding area. Parts of the body that are more than a few inches away do
not receive enough radiation to be damaged.
Bodily wastes such as urine and stool are not radioactive unless a seed is present. On rare
occasions, a seed may be lost during urination. If a seed passes, it will most likely occur
in the first week following the implant procedure.
Small amounts of radiation can reach other people. For most people, this is not a cause
for concern. For example, if your significant other sleeps with you every night, they will
get less radiation from you than they would get from a chest x-ray or mammogram.
Therefore, there are no restrictions when it comes to adults.
Growing children and a growing fetus within a pregnant woman are sensitive to the
effects of radiation. Radiation can cause cancer in growing tissues and can cause
birth defects. If such people are exposed to you, we advise that you keep a distance
of 6 or more feet, until about 75% of the isotope has decayed
. Pd-103 has a half-life
of 17 days, and we suggest that you follow these guidelines for 5 weeks. I-125 has a
half-life of 60 days, and therefore decays more slowly. Additionally, the radiation
energy of I-125 is slightly higher and more penetrating than Pd-103; and therefore,
in the case of I-125 we suggest that you follow these guidelines for 41/2 months.

Stricter guidelines are advised for sleeping with pregnant women, or holding infants
or small children in your lap. You should avoid these activities for 2 months with
Pd-103 and 7 months for I-125
. Brief encounters for hugging or saying hello are
allowed.

21
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

RADIATION SAFETY cont.
LEAD-LINED UNDERWEAR

If there are infants at home or if you have frequent contact with grandchildren or other
small children, you may want to consider purchasing lead-lined underwear. These
garments weigh about 1 pound. They can be worn when you plan to have extended
contact with children or kids in your lap. We have taken measurements, and no radiation
could be detected
outside this garment. They are worn over your regular underwear.
Some seed implant patients come into close, frequent contact with pregnant women at
work. The lead-lined underwear may serve to allay any fears that your co-workers may
have. They cost about $100.
CONDOMS
A condom is recommended during sexual intercourse for the first several
encounters or for 3-4 months in the case of Pd-103 and 12 months in the case of
I-125
. Occasionally, seeds that are implanted into the seminal vesicles, may enter the
patient’s semen, and be ejaculated. We have had several patients report that seeds were
found in the semen, but the actual frequency of this event is not known.

22
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview
HORMONE THERAPY
Hormone therapy
is intended to keep male hormones (testosterone) from getting to
prostate cancer cells, thereby stimulating them to grow and spread. There are several
types of hormone therapies, and they will be outlined below. Estrogens are effective
hormone treatments, but are no longer used because of unacceptable side effects.
SURGICAL CASTRATION
Surgical castration or removal of the testicles
is the cheapest of the hormone
treatments. However, it is disfiguring and irreversible. For patients who do not mind
having this done, it may be preferable if permanent hormone ablation is recommended.
LUTEINISING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUES
(LHRH AGONIST)
LHRH agonists
are given in the form of a shot. These shots can be administered every 1-
4 months depending on how much medication is given. Examples of LHRH agonists
include Leuprorelin Acetate (Lupron), and Goserelin Acetate (Zoladex). These
medications act on the brain (pituitary gland), and block the release of a hormone that
normally would go to the testicles and stimulate them to make testosterone. The
testosterone level usually drops to the same very low level that it would after castration.
This treatment is sometimes called “medical castration.”
23
Management of Prostate Cancer: An Overview

HORMONE THERAPY cont.

ANTI-ANDROGENS

Anti-androgens are given in the form of a pill. Casodex is taken once a day. Flutamide
must be taken 3 times each day. They block testosterone from getting to the cancer cells.
In the case of castration and LHRH agonist therapy, small amounts of male hormones are
still made in other organs such as the adrenal glands. Anti-androgens can stop the effects
of these male hormones; and therefore, sometimes they are prescribed along with surgical
or medical castration. Some patients are treated with anti-androgens alone without
castration. The advantage of this is that most men can remain sexually active.
SIDE EFFECTS OF HORMONE THERAPY

Surgical and medical castration almost always causes loss of sex drive and
impotence
. Rarely are men sexually active and usually they don’t care. Most men have
hot flashes, which can be drenching and can interfere with sleep. Usually the hot flashes
become less bothersome over time, but the sex drive does not come back as long as
castration is in effect.
Other possible side effects include anemia, loss of bone (osteoporosis), changes in hair
or skin, fatigue, loss of muscle mass, weakness, increase in body fat (usually around
the waist) and breast enlargement (gynecomastia). Gynecomastia can be painful, but
it can usually be prevented with tamoxifen or 3 radiation treatments to the breast.
These treatments must be given before the breast enlargement occurs.
The anti-androgens, if given alone, have a very high probability of causing painful,
enlarged breasts. It is strongly advised to give tamoxifen or breast radiation in this
situation, and the treatment should be given before the anti-androgens are started.
These medications can cause diarrhea or cramping. Rarely they can cause liver damage.
Liver enzymes (liver function tests), a blood test, should be performed periodically.

24

Source: http://www.chesapeakepotomaccancer.com/Prostate%20Cancer.pdf

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