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Valium depressants cnoa 2011 final

Narcotic Educational Foundation of America
Drug Abuse Education Provider of the:
California Narcotic Officers’ Association VALIUM & OTHER DEPRESSANTS
Drugs that slow down mental and physical functions of the body are known generally as central nervous system (CNS) Depressants. Because these chemical agents tend to produce a calming effect, relax muscles, and relieve feelings of tension, anxiety, and irritability, they are described as having a sedative or sedating effect. There are newer drugs in this classification that are less sedating, much safer, slower to induce tolerance, and demonstrate a greater anti-anxiety effect. However, the newer drugs, over time, are equally prone to result in dependence. Abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Abuse of prescription drugs now ranks second only behind marijuana as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem. DEVELOPMENT OF
“What a drag it is to get old!” This Valium. A supposed panacea for
anxiety, nervous tension and depression, drug has helped millions of sick people, barbiturates officially entered the field p r e s c r i b e d m e d i c a t i o n s . T h e r e q u i r e t h e t y p e o f c h e mi c a l The rather capricious use of the drug led n u m b e r o n e d e p r e s s a n t - t y p e n e w e r m i n o r t r a n q u i l i z e r s active at receptor sites that are sensitive behaviors of their addiction. In essence, generally less sedating, safer, slower to Mothers-
a c c o r d i n g l y . ” T h e i r w a r n i n g c o n tinu e s . . . “p ro lon g ed us e of ♦ ANTIANXIETY TRANQUILIZERS
b eco m e ha b i t u a l us er s. M a ny WITHDRAWAL
them from the stores of health care professionals and pharmacists. t h e r e s u l t s a r e “ wi t hd r a wa l CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Mothers - (continued from page 2, column 1)
ma r i j u an a . Un lik e a l coho l o r For the chronic user, tolerance to these that the user must routinely increase the WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
the drug. This extended “plasma life” uncertain fate caused by the “synergy” is quite varied. For many abusers of other drugs, Valium and its close drug problems during the course of their life. For others, the drugs may be an alternative way to get high. Instead of drinking alcohol, a Valium user can achieve a remarkably similar euphoria, without the tell-tale odor that might alarm the police or others. BENZODIAZEPINES
Soma/Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting Zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox) is a pre- "benzo") is a psychoactive drug. The first skeletal muscle relaxant. Carisoprodol is scription medication used for the b e n z o d i a z e p i n e , c hl or d i az e p o x i d e slightly soluble in water and freely soluble short-term treatment of insomnia, as (Librium), was discovered accidentally by in alcohol, chloroform and acetone. well as some brain disorders. It is a Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available Carisoprodol is manufactured and mar- short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hyp- in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has keted in the United States by Meda Phar- n o tic th at p o ten tiates gamma- maceuticals Inc. under the brand name aminobutyric acid (GABA). It works Soma. The drug is available by itself or quickly (usually within 15 minutes) mixed with aspirin and in one preparation and has a short half-life (2–3 hours). Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the (Soma Compound With Codeine) along Zolpidem has not adequately demon- neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid with codeine and caffeine as well. Cariso- strated effectiveness in maintaining (GABA), which results in sedative, hypnotic prodol was developed on the basis of sleep; however, it is effective in initi- (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), meprobamate, in the hope that it would ating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic have better muscle relaxing properties, less similar to those of the benzodiazepine action. These properties make benzodiazepi- potential for abuse, and less risk of over- class of drugs. Increased doses are nes useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol On March 26, 2010 the DEA issued a No- cinations and amnesia. medical or dental procedures. Benzodiazepi- tice of Hearing on proposed rule making in nes are categorized as either short-, interme- respect to the placement of carisoprodol in Some users have reported unex- diate- or long-acting. Short- and intermedi- schedule IV of the Controlled Substances plained sleepwalking while using ate-acting benzodiazepines are preferred for Act. Because carisoprodol is not a con- zolpidem, and a few have reported the treatment of insomnia; longer-acting trolled substance, many people assume that driving, binge eating, sleep talking, it has no potential for abuse. As with most and performing other daily tasks psychoactive substances, tolerance can while sleeping. The sleepwalker can form very rapidly. This causes the abuser sometimes perform these tasks as In general, benzodiazepines are safe and to continually increase dosage to obtain normally as they might if they were effective in the short term, although cogni- desired effects. As with any drug, this can awake. They can sometimes carry on tive impairments such as aggressive behav- be dangerous for a multitude of reasons. complex conversations and respond ior occasionally occur. Long-term use is For this reason, those with a background of appropriately to questions or state- controversial due to concerns about adverse addiction should not be prescribed cariso- ments so much so that the observer prodol. Because carisoprodol is not a con- may believe the sleepwalker to be creased questioning of effectiveness and trolled substance, people sometimes think awake. This is similar to, but unlike, because benzodiazepines are prone to cause that it will be easier to get a prescription typical sleep talking, which can usu- tolerance, physical dependence, and, upon for carisoprodol, compared to other poten- ally be identified easily and is charac- cessation of use, a withdrawal syndrome. tially addicting medications (such as nar- terised by incoherent speech that of- Due to adverse effects associated with the cotics). However, most healthcare provid- ten has no relevance to the situation ers are quite familiar with the problems or that is so disorganised as to be drawal from benzodiazepines, in general, associated with carisoprodol. Most health- completely unintelligible. Those un- care providers react to a request for cariso- der the influence of this medication health. The elderly are at an increased risk prodol just as they would react for a re- may seem fully aware of their envi- of suffering from both short- and long-term quest for a controlled substance (usually ronment even though they are still for the safety of the sleepwalker and others. It is possible some users be- There is controversy concerning the safety Abusers of carisoprodol usually seek its of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. They are potentially heavy sedating, relaxant, and known to cause withdrawal symptoms in the anxiolytic effects. Also, because of its po- newborn. Benzodiazepines can be taken in tentiating effects on narcotics, it is often less toxic than their predecessors, the barbi- turates, and death rarely results when a ben- zodiazepine is the only drug taken. When skills with a resultant increased risk of combined with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol and opiates, the potential for toxicity increases. Benzodi- in combination with other drugs of abuse. This information is provided free of charge. Please feel free to duplicate it for distribution. For other publications, contact us at 1-877-775-NARC (6272), or visit our web site at



Kidney International, Vol. 67, Supplement 94 (2005), pp. S70–S74 Prevention of renal failure: The Malaysian experience LAI SEONG HOOI, HIN SENG WONG, and ZAKI MORAD Department of Medicine, Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Baru, Johor, Malaysia; and Department of Nephrology, Hospital KualaLumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Prevention of renal failure: The Malaysian experience. Re- the face of

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Wendy Patrick Mazzarella Deputy District Attorney 330 W. Broadway, Suite 1200 San Diego, California 92101 (619) 531-3260 Wendy Patrick Mazzarella is a Deputy District Attorney in the San Diego District Attorney’s Office. Before joining the District Attorney's Office Ms. Mazzarella was a Deputy Public Defender for San Diego County. Most of her

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