A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a
living organism, alters normal bodily function. There is no single, precise definition, as there
are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, and colloquial
. When encountered in society, the word 'drug' usually refers to an il egal substance,
although technically caffeine (found in coffee and soda) is a drug.
Although some do not believe it, scientists now consider drug addiction a brain disease
because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain.
Although it is true that for most people the first decision to take drugs is voluntary, over time
the changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can affect a person's self control
and ability to make good decisions. At the same time, drug addiction gives the user intense
impulses to take drugs. It is because of these changes in the brain that it is so challenging
for a person who is addicted to stop abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are treatments that
help people to counteract
addiction's powerful disruptive
effects and regain control.
Drugs are illegal in most places in the world today. For this reason talk of it has had to
. A very effective way of going underground is the development of a secret
code language known and understood only by those who live in that world. In this way people
can talk about illicit drug taking right in front of partners and parents without fear of them catching on
Marijuana is probably the most commonly used recreational drug (drug used for 'fun' or
personal enjoyment) in the world. Although harmful, its effects are not as severe as those of Ecstasy ('E') or Cocaine ('Coke' -'Chalk' – 'Powder') or Heroin ('Dope' – 'Smack' - 'Horse'). Drugs can be sniffed, swallowed, or injected. The problems related to drugs go beyond the damage they do to one's body. What problems arise from drug usage?
Is drug addiction a problem in Russia? What have you personal y seen/experienced
as related to this topic? Do you consider drug addiction a disease or a personal weakness in a person? Alcohol is also a drug – do you consider alcoholism a disease? There is a section of the population that wants to legalize marijuana. What is your take on that? What kind of drugs do you think are most popular? Have you seen the Russian serial “Club” on Russian MTV? What drug usage is shown there? Do you think that it is appropriate for this to be shown on television? What message does that send to viewers? What should be the government's role in regulating drugs? What do you think about Michael Jackson/Elvis Presley?
Acronym of the week: OD = Overdose [Unusual because 'overdose' is technically not an acronym since it is one word][Both Elvis Presley's and Michael Jackson's cause of death was an OD.]
Used in informal conversation, rather that formal writing. [Even though the word 'drug' means any
kind of substance that alters normal body function, Americans col oquial y use this word to describe il egal substances more often than not.]
= To reduce the negative effect of something by doing something that has an opposite effect. [I
counteracted the horrible taste of mushrooms by drinking a glass of water.]
Causing difficulties that interrupt something and prevent it from continuing. [It is very disruptive
when someone answers a telephone cal during class!]
To go underground
= To do something secretly or not openly. [When alcohol was made il egal in the United
States, people went underground to produce and sel it.]
To catch on
= (in this case) To understand [I was only joking, but he didn't catch on at first,
so he was slightly offended.]
((This phrasal very also means “to become popular” [I am
surprised at how much the social website 'Twitter' has caught on in the United States.]
(Decide where each conversation is taking place)
J o e : Hey man, you got
some stuff for me?
Steve: Your English is horrible. Maybe you don't need to smoke any more marijuana.
Joe: Ah, man.c'mon, I'm addicted. I can't live without that Mary Jane!
I need some weed
Steve: Okay, wel if you've got the cash, I've got the stash
Joe: Sweet. You're a lifesaver.
Steve: Alright, here you go. That'll be 2 grand. Just don't OD – I don't need the cops coming after me.
Joe: There's your money. I'll be getting high
Officer Martin: What was your friend doing before he passed out
Josh: I'm not sure. I just found him lying there.
Office Martin: It seems suspicious to me.
Josh: Wel , his girlfriend was here with him, but I'm not sure why she left so quickly.
Officer Martin: I know why. It seems as if your friend OD'd. She was an accomplice
to it, so of course she left
before I got here.
Josh: I didn't even know that they were users.
Officer Martin: If you run into his girlfriend, give me a cal . We have to question her.
Josh: Okay, officer.
You got (something)?
= Grammatical y incorrect, but commonly used slang expression meaning, “Do you have
(something)?' [I was real y embarrassed when my uncultured friend from Texas asked the waitress at a high-end
restaurant 'You got some sugar?']
Mary Jane, Ganja, Grass, Pot, Weed, Chronic, Dope =
Slang terms for marijuana
= Slang term for the quantity of drugs one has. [Oh no! I just bought some marijuana, but then I must
have dropped it somewhere, because I can't find my stash!
To get high
= Slang term describing the process of taking drugs and being in an altered state of mind. [Last
night my friend got high at the party, so I had to drive him home.]
(('To be high' is the slang term describing just
the STATE of being in an altered state of mind due to drugs. [I can't believe you went to a job interview when you
To pass out
= To lose consciousness/faint. [I don't know what happened. I got on the bus and it was real y hot
and crowded. The next thing I know, I was lying on the floor – I must have passed out.]
= Someone who helps another person do something il egal. [Even though she was just an
accomplice to his crime, she was sentenced to 5 years in prison
Artigo de Revisão de Literatura Tratamento da periimplantite: revisão da literatura Periimplantitis treatment: literature review Leonardo FRANCIO*Andrea Maria de SOUSA**Carmen Lucia Mueller STORRER***Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR****Andressa Carla de SOUSA*****Eduardo PIZZATTO******Tertuliano Ricardo LOPES******* Endereço para correspondência: Andrea Maria de Sousa Rua Padre Ag
Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices provide pressurized air via a nasal or full face mask in order to keep the upper airway open during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PAP Machines These machines provide a fixed pressure at a steady rate with the option of a slight drop in pressure during exhalation (CF