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ANTRAG Zusammenfassung und HTA-Literatur
ASA
Assoziation Schweizerischer Ärztegesellschaften für Akupunktur
und Chinesische Medizin

Sekretariat:
Postfach, CH-8575 Bürglen
Telefon 071 634 66 19, Telefax 071 634 66 18
E-MaiInterne
Zusatzinformationen im Schlussbericht Programm Evaluation
Komplementärmedizin PEK:

Summary
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was reimbursed by the statutory health insurance in
Switzerland („Obligatorische Krankenpflegeversicherung“ (OKP)) between 2000 and 2005. A
project was set up specifically to evaluate TCM, as well as other 4 systems and methods of
complementary medical care from a scientifically sound perspective. The decision to stop
granting these 5 systems of complementary medical care OKP reimbursement at the end of
the evaluation period after 2005 was not based on scientific facts but was at least in parts
politically motivated. After the referendum decision in favour of anchoring “the duty to
consider complementary medical care approaches” in the constitution, a new application for
automatic reimbursement is being submitted based on new data.
TCM is to be applied exclusively by specially trained and certified doctors (“certificate of
special ability in acupuncture and TCM”) if warranted by the indication, the resulting costs are
to be reimbursed by the OKP. Any indication covering the whole spectrum of medicine may
warrant TCM treatment if treatment by conventional medical practice is not absolutely
necessary. This explicitly excludes diseases which have been proven to respond most
efficiently to conventional treatment or where conventional medical treatment is needed to
prevent damage for the patient. For many diseases, Western medicine is not able to either
supply any treatment which is able to deal with the causes of the disease, or to supply any
treatment which leads to a satisfactory measure of healing or improvement in the patient’s
suffering. The symptomatic pharmacological treatment used by western medicine in this
context is often not well tolerated by the patient or leads to side effects with complications.
Many acute or chronically relapsing infections do not necessarily require an antibiotic
treatment. Considering the global threat of resistance, this is even to be avoided wherever
possible. Due to the different paradigm employed, TCM is often able to offer successful
treatment from its perspective for many diseases.
An update of the literature search shows that by now a great number of recent studies have
been published concerning treatment with TCM drugs. Overall, they appear to point towards
good effectiveness of TCM drug treatment compared to purely conventional treatment or to
placebo.
The safety of TCM drugs is guaranteed by the 4 certified companies in charge of distribution
in Switzerland. These companies are in possession of a provisional SWISSMEDIC license
and are responsible for ensuring that the distributed TCM drugs meet GPN-requirements, as
well as conforming to legal requirements concerning pesticide, heavy metal, bacterial and
other residues, as well as authenticating the contents of the individual drugs and drug
preparations.
Economic studies based on PEK and newer data show that treatment with TCM drugs is
cheaper than conventional medical treatment provided by a general practitioner. Prior
experience with the provisional reimbursement of the five complementary medical
approaches by the OKP in the past shows that this leads to costs shifting from the
supplementary health insurance (“Zusatzversicherung”) to the statutory health insurance. A
model constructed to estimate the cost-consequences (budget impact) of readmitting TCM to
reimbursement within the statutory health insurance shows a comparable development with
additional pointers towards savings on the part of the health care costs paid for by patients
themselves.
Overall, treatment with TCM drugs may be considered an effective and low cost treatment
approach given the appropriate indication which may in many cases present an addition or
an alternative to conventional medical treatment.
Liste der ersten identifizierten Publikationen (Reviews, Meta-Anylsen, klinische Studien)
Aus: Medline, Embase, Cochranre Reviews
(1) Adams D, Wu T, Yang X, Tai S, Vohra S. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of idiopathic chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(4):CD006348. (2) Ahn A, Bennani T, Freeman R, Hamdy O, Kaptchuk T. Two styles of acupuncture for treating painful diabetic neuropathy - A pilot randomised control trial. Acupunct Med 2007; 25(1-2):11-17. (3) Allen J, Schnyer R, Chambers A, Hitt S, Moreno F, Manber R. Acupuncture for depression: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67(11):1665-1673. (4) Asher G, Coeytaux R, Chen W, Reilly A, Loh Y, Harper T. Acupuncture to initiate labor (Acumoms 2): A randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 22(10):843-848. (5) Bian Z, X, Moher D, Dagenais S, Li Y, Liu L, Wu T, X et al. Improving the quality of randomized controlled trials in Chinese herbal medicine, part II: Control group design. J Chin Integr Med 2006; 4(2):130-136. (6) Bian Z, X, Moher D, Li Y, Wu T, X, Dagenais S, Cheng C et al. Precise reporting of traditional Chinese medicine interventions in randomized controlled trials. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(7):661-667. (7) Bian Z, Wu T, Liu L, Miao J, Wong H, Song L et al. Effectiveness of the Chinese herbal formula TongXieYaoFang for irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(4):401-407. (8) Birks J, Grimley EJ. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane (9) Blanke C, Naisabha G, Balema M, Mbaruku G, Heide L, M³ller M. Herba Artemisiae annuae tea preparation compared to sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in adults: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Trop Doct 2008; 38(2):113-116. (10) Cai J, Wang H, Zhou S, Wu B, Song H, Xuan Z. Effect of Sijunzi decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(1):37-40. (11) Cao H, Shang H, Ren M, Zhang J, Gao X, Xiang Y et al. Case recruitment in large-scale clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine. J Chin Integr Med 2007; 5(3):243-246. (12) Cao W, Liu W, Wu T, Zhong D, Liu G. Dengzhanhua preparations for acute cerebral infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(4):CD005568. (13) Cao Y, Pang J, Wang X, Shi Y, Shen W, Zheng Y, X et al. Current status of Chinese herbal therapy for osteoarthritis. Chin J Clin Rehab 2006; 10(35):130-134. (14) Chan C, Kuo M, Shen J, See L, Chang H, Huang J. Ding Chuan Tang, a Chinese herb decoction, could improve airway hyper- responsiveness in stabilized asthmatic children: A randomized, double- blind clinical trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006; 17(5):316-322. (15) Chang TT, Huang CC, Hsu CH. Clinical evaluation of the Chinese herbal medicine formula STA-1 in the treatment of allergic asthma. Phytother Res 2006; 20(5):342-347. (16) Chen HM. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 2008; 22(4):302-304. (17) Chen J, Wu G, Li S, Yu T, Xie Y, Zhou L et al. Shengmai (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine) for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD005052. (18) Chen JX, Hu LS. Traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic prostatitis in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(8):763-769. (19) Chen J, X, Hu L. Traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic prostatitis in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(8):763-769. (20) Chen J, Wu G, Li S, Yu T, Xie Y, Zhou L et al. Shengmai (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine) for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4). (21) Chen N, Li H, Zhao LY, Liu JB, Huang Q, Wang TH et al. [Therapy for clearing heat and resolving phlegm in treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in acute deterioration stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2009; 7(2):105-109. (22) Chen N, Li H, Zhao L, Liu J, Huang Q, Wang T et al. Therapy for clearing heat and resolving phlegm in treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in acute deterioration stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2009; 7(2):105-109. (23) Chen W, Li Z, Liu J. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. (24) Chen X, Zhou M, Li Q, Yang J, Zhang Y, Zhang D et al. Sanchi for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(4):CD006305. (25) Chen XY, Wu TX, Liu GJ, Wang Q, Zheng J, Wei J et al. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD004559. (26) Chen X, Li Y, Zheng H, Hu K, Zhang H, Zhao L et al. A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture and moxibustion to treat Bell's palsy according to different stages: Design and protocol. Contemp Clin Trials 2009; 30(4):347-353. (27) Chen Y, Ma X, Hou W, Cen J, Yu X, Zhang L. Effects of penetrating acupuncture on peripheral nerve conduction velocity in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2009; 7(3):273-275. (28) Chen Z, Wang G, Wang X, Chen R, Wang H, Yang M et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of warm-supplementing kidney yang added to risperidone in improving cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia: An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled clinical trial. CURRENT THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL 2008; 69(2):104-117. (29) Chen Z, Wang G, Wang X, Chen R, Wang H, Yang M et al. Effects of warm-supplementing kidney yang (WSKY) capsule added on risperidone on cognition in chronic schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial. HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL 2008; 23(6):465-470. (30) Cheng C, Bian Z, X, Li Y, Moher D, Wu T, X, Dagenais S et al. Transparently reporting adverse effects of traditional Chinese medicine interventions in randomized controlled trials. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(9):881-886. (31) Cheng C, Bian Z, X, Wu T, X. Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation. WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY 2009; 15(39):4886-4895. (32) Cheng JF, Lu ZY, Su YC, Chiang LC, Wang RY. A traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat dysmenorrhoea among Taiwanese women. J Clin Nurs 2008; 17(19):2588-2595. (33) Cho W, Chen H. Clinical efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine as a concomitant therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Meta-analysis. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2009; 50:1173. (34) Chou PB, Morse CA, Xu H. A controlled trial of Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2008; 29(3):185-192. (35) Chou P, Morse C, Xu H. A controlled trial of chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome. Dtsch Z Akupunkt 2009; 52(1):53-54. (36) Chow S, Pong A, Chang Y. On traditional Chinese medicine clinical trials. Drug Inf J (37) Chu FY, Wang J, Sun XW, Xing YW, Yao KW, Wang SH et al. [A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of Xuefu Zhuyu Capsule on short-term quality of life in unstable anginal patients with blood-stasis syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention.]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2009; 7(8):729-735. (38) Dengfeng W, Taixiang W, Lina H, Marjoribanks J, Guanjian L, Haijun J et al. Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006224. (39) Diener H, Kronfeld K, Boewing G, Lungenhausen M, Maier C, Molsberger A et al. Efficacy of acupuncture for the prophylaxis of migraine: A multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5(4):310-316. (40) Dorn SD, Kaptchuk TJ, Park JB, Nguyen LT, Canenguez K, Nam BH et al. A meta-analysis of the placebo response in complementary and alternative medicine trials of irritable bowel syndrome. NEUROGASTROENTEROLOGY AND MOTILITY 2007; 19(8):630-637. (41) Duan X, Zhou L, Wu T, Liu G, Qiao J, Wei J et al. Chinese herbal medicine suxiao jiuxin wan for angina pectoris. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD004473. (42) Endo S, Nishida T, Nishikawa K, Nakajima K, Hasegawa J, Kitagawa T et al. Dai-kenchu-to, a Chinese herbal medicine, improves stasis of patients with total gastrectomy and jejunal pouch interposition. Am J Surg 2006; 192(1):9-13. (43) Endres H, B÷wing G, Diener H, Lange S, Maier C, Molsberger A et al. Acupuncture for tension-type headache: A multicentre, sham-controlled, patient-and observer-blinded, randomised trial. J Headache Pain 2007; 8(5):306-314. (44) Enrique E, Cistero B. Specific immunotherapy for food allergy: Basic principles and clinical aspects. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 6(6):466-469. (45) Fei Y, Liu J. Improving the quality of reporting Chinese herbal medicine trials: An elaborated checklist. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(3):233-238. (46) Flower A, Liu JP, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(3):CD006568. (47) Flower A, Liu JP, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis - art. no. CD006568. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(3):6568. (48) Flower A, Lewith G, Little P. Seeking an oracle: Using the Delphi process to develop practice guidelines for the treatment of endometriosis with Chinese herbal medicine. J Altern Complement Med 2007; 13(9):969-976. (49) Flower A, Liu J, Chen S, Lewith G, Little P. Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. (50) Fu L, Mao ZX, Wang J, Zhang J, Zheng TR, Wang SL. [Effects of Songling Xuemaikang Capsule on ambulatory blood pressure in treatment of essential hypertension: a single-blind randomized controlled trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2009; 7(6):509-513. (51) FuJuan J, Wang G, Mao B. The assessment of scientificalness and ethic of placebo-controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Evid Based Med 2008; 8(9):781-785. (52) Gao WY, Lin YF, Chen SQ, Lu YP, Yang Z, Gong Y et al. [Effects of Changjishu soft elastic capsule in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome: a randomized double-blinded controlled trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2009; 7(3):212-217. (53) Gao W, Lin Y, Chen S, Lu Y, Yang Z, Gong Y et al. Effects of Changjishu soft elastic capsule in treatment of diarrhea- predominant irritable bowel patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome: A randomized double-blinded controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2009; 7(3):212-217. (54) Gim G, Kim H, Kim J, Kim J, Whang W, Cho S. Antioxidant effect of tianwang buxin pills: A traditional Chinese medicine formula: Double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Chin Med 2009; 37(2):227-239. (55) Goto H, Satoh N, Hayashi Y, Hikiami H, Nagata Y, Obi R et al. A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Tokishakuyakusan, Reduces the Worsening of Impairments and Independence After Stroke: A 1-year Randomized, Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009. (56) Gottschling S, Meyer S, Gribova I, Distler L, Berrang J, Gortner L et al. Laser Acupuncture in children with headache: A double-blind, randomized, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Dtsch Z Akupunkt 2009; 52(1):52. (57) Grant SJ, Bensoussan A, Chang D, Kiat H, Klupp NL, Liu JP et al. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(4):CD006690. (58) Guo HY, Cai Y, Yang XM, Wang ZH, Wang JL, Zhao XM et al. Randomized phase II trial on mitomycin-C/Cisplatin ¦ KLT in heavily pretreated advanced breast cancer. Am J Chin Med 2008; 36(4):665-674. (59) Guo X, Zhou B, Nishimura T, Teramukai S, Fukushima M. Clinical effect of Qigong practice on essential hypertension: A meta- analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med 2008; 14(1):27-37. (60) Haake M, M³ller H, Schade B, Basler H, SchΣfer H, Maier C et al. German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for chronic low back pain: Randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel-group trial with 3 groups. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(17):1892-1898. (61) Haines CJ, Lam PM, Chung TK, Cheng KF, Leung PC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation (Dang Gui Buxue Tang) on menopausal symptoms in Hong Kong Chinese women. Climacteric 2008; 11(3):244-251. (62) Hamazaki K, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Huan M, Shibahara N, Kawakita T et al. No effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, on antibody titer after influenza vaccination in man: A randomized, placebo- controlled, double-blind trial. Phytomedicine 2007; 14(1):11-14. (63) He CY, Wang WJ, Li B, Xu DS, Chen WH, Ying J et al. [Clinical research of Yiqi Sanju Formula in treating central obese men at high risk of metabolic syndrome]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2007; 5(3):263-267. (64) He Y, Lu A, Zha Y, Yan X, Song Y, Zeng S et al. Correlations between symptoms as assessed in traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and ACR20 efficacy response: a comparison study in 396 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TCM or Western medicine. J Clin Rheumatol 2007; 13(6):317-321. (65) Hollifield M, Sinclair L, Warner T, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder - A randomized controlled pilot trial. JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE 2007; 195(6):504-513. (66) Holtmann G, Nandurkar S, Talley N, Moayyedi P. Herbal medicine for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(4):A682-A683. (67) Hon KL, Leung TF, Ng PC, Lam MC, Kam WY, Wong KY et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a Chinese herbal medicine concoction for treatment of atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Dermatol 2007; 157(2):357-363. (68) Hsu C, Wang C, Hwang K, Lee T, Chou P, Chang H. The effect of auricular acupuncture in obese women: A randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health 2009; 18(6):813-818. (69) Huang Y, Xie RM, Lu M, Cai YF, Guo JW, Miao XL et al. [Effect evaluation for comprehensive treatment of acute stage of stroke]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2007; 5(3):276-281. (70) Iwasaki K, Satoh-Nakagawa T, Maruyama M, Monma Y, Nemoto M, Tomita N et al. A randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of the traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Gan San for improvement of behavioral and psychological symptoms and activities of daily living in dementia patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66(2):248-252. (71) Iwasaki K, Kato S, Monma Y, Niu K, Ohrui T, Okitsu R et al. A pilot study of banxia houpu tang, a traditional Chinese medicine, for reducing pneumonia risk in older adults with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55(12):2035-2040. (72) Iwasaki K, Satoh N, Maruyama M, Monma Y, Nemoto M, Tomita N et al. A randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of the traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Gan San for improvement of behavioral and psychological symptoms and activities of daily living in dementia patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66(2):248-252. (73) Jackson A, MacPherson H, Hahn S. Acupuncture for tinnitus: A series of six n=1 controlled trials. Complement Ther Med 2006; 14(1):39-46. (74) Jiang H, Mao B, Zhong Y, Yang H, Fu J. Tanreqing injection for community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review of randomized evidence. J Chin Integr Med 2009; 7(1):9-19. (75) JiGuang, Fan J, Chen J, Lu L, Xing L, Zheng P et al. Effectiveness of Danning Tablet in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver of damp-heat syndrome type: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(2):128-133. (76) Jing Z, Yang X, Ismail KM, Chen X, Wu T. Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD006414. (77) Jing Z, Yang X, Ismail K, Chen X, Wu T. Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1). (78) Jirong Y, Xiaoyan Y, Taixiang W, Defen S, Birong D. Zhiling decoction for vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(4):CD004670. (79) Junhua Z, Menniti I, Xiumei G, Firenzuoli F, Boli Z, Massari M et al. Complex traditional chinese medicine for poststroke motor dysfunction: A systematic review. Stroke 2009; 40(8):2797-2804. (80) Kang J, Li N, Wu B. Therapeutic methods for knee osteoarthritis: Randomized controlled trial and systemic evaluation. Chin J Clin Rehab 2005; 9(30):27-30. (81) Kang L, Li B, Gao L, Li S, Wang D, Hu M et al. Tai-Kang-Ning, a Chinese herbal medicine formula, alleviates acute heroin withdrawal. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2008; 34(3):269-276. (82) Kennedy S. Randomized controlled trial assessing a traditional Chinese medicine remedy in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Fertil Steril 2006; 86(3):762-764. (83) Kum WF, Durairajan SS, Bian ZX, Man SC, Lam YC, Xie LX et al. Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease with Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009. (84) Lam CLK, Wong W, Fong DYT. Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Hong Kong Med J 2009; 15(5):30-34. (85) Leung WK, Wu JC, Liang SM, Chan LS, Chan FK, Xie H et al. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101(7):1574-1580. (86) Leung W, Wu J, Liang SM, Chan LS, Chan F, Xie H et al. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with traditional Chinese herbal medicine: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101(7):1574-1580. (87) Li FL, Li B, Xu R, Song X, Yu Y, Xu ZC. [Qinzhu Liangxue Decoction in treatment of blood-heat type psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized controlled trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2008; 6(6):586-590. (88) Li J, Wu HM, Zhou RL, Liu GJ, Dong BR. Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane (89) Li L, Lu FG, He QH. 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(94) Liang Z, Chen R, Xu Y, Chen Q, X, Dong M. Tiaohe Ganpi Hexin Decoction in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea: A randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2009; 7(9):819-822. (95) LiEdmund K, Tam L, Chun K, Wai C, Lam C, Wachtel G et al. Safety and efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) and San Miao San supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Arthritis Care Res 2007; 57(7):1143-1150. (96) LiFu L, Li B, Xu R, Song X, Yu Y, Xu Z. Qinzhu Liangxue Decoction in treatment of blood-heat type psoriasis vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(6):586-590. (97) LiHao, Yao M, Zhao W, Guan J, Cai L, Cui L. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. J Chin Integr Med 2008; 6(1):25-31. (98) Lim B, Manheimer E, Lao L, Ziea E, Wisniewski J, Liu J et al. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(4):CD005111. (99) Lin A, Qian K, Usami Y, Lin L, Itokawa H, Hsu C et al. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, a clinical trials agent for sickle cell anemia, and its mono/di-glucosides from classically processed steamed Rehmanniae Radix. Journal of Natural Medicines 2008; 62(2):164-167. (100) Lin HS, Li DR. Phase II clinical trial for evaluating the adjuvant chemotherapy for non- small-cell lung cancer with Shen-Dan capsule and related Traditional Chinese Medicines. Chin-J-New-Drug 2007; 16(21, 2007):1791-1795. (101) Lin L, Fu Y, Dunning T, Zhang A, Ho T, Duke M et al. Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Management of Constipation: A Systematic Review. J Altern Complement Med 2009; 15(12):1335-1346. (102) Lin L, Yang M, Kao C, Wu S, Tang S, Lin J. Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: A Cross-over trial. 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Kennzahlen COM-Grundversorgerärzte

Bezeichnung
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Kosten ohne Medikamente (direkt und veranlasst) 1582654867 1661526517 1754563667 1769846597 1884840938 1904595909 1885326885 1929272064 1918459529 Kosten Medikamente (direkt und veranlasst) 1654165864 1786808930 1871367812 1951907343 2103657256 2134464220 2105556233 2119556481 2135240857 Gesamtkosten (direkte und veranlasste Kosten) 3236820733 3448335451 3625931479 3721753939 3988498190 4039060126 3990883117 4048828545 4053700385 Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Arzt Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Erkrankte Durchschnittskosten Medikamente pro Erkrankten Kennzahlen TCM-Ärzte
Bezeichnung
Jahr 2000
Jahr 2001
Jahr 2002
Jahr 2003
Jahr 2004
Jahr 2005
Jahr 2006
Jahr 2007
Jahr 2008
Kosten ohne Medikamente (direkt und veranlasst) Kosten Medikamente (direkt und veranlasst) Gesamtkosten (direkte und veranlasste Kosten) Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Arzt Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Erkrankte Durchschnittskosten Medikamente pro Erkrankten Indizes Vergleich TCM-Ärzte mit COM-Grundversorgerärzten
Bezeichnung
Jahr 2000
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Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Arzt Durchschnittskosten ohne Medikamente pro Erkrankte Durchnittskosten Medikamente pro Erkrankten

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This laboratory considers several concepts in geometrical optics and thin lenses: the assumptionof rectilinear propagation (light as rays) that deÞnes geometrical optics; the mapping from objectspace to image space by a thin lens (including real and virtual images, longitudinal and transversemagniÞcations, and the differential radiometry of the mapping); and the two types of cardinal pointsof l

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