TECHNICAL INFORMATION HIGH RESOLUTION DIRECT- POSITIVE COLOUR FILM BASED ON SILVER-DYE BLEACH TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM, previously known as CIBACHROME
MICROGRAPHICS FILM, is a direct-positive working colour material based on silver-dye bleachtechnology.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is balanced for tungsten light. Due to its
extremely fine grain it offers very high resolution and acutance. Its contrast and colour saturationare optimised for microfilming or reproducing copies from colour reflection originals such asmaps, drawings, schematics, catalogues, prints, etc.
Two versions exist for specific applications: Type M and Type P which differ in contrast.
Type M, a high contrast film, suitable especially for the reproduction of reflection originalswhereas Type P, with a lower contrast value, is used for reproducing transparent originals or as aduplicating film.
Colour slides can be reproduced at original or reduced scale. For some critical
applications and originals with a large tonal range it may be necessary to apply contrastmasking.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is available on 4-mil (0.10mm) and 7-mil
(0.18mm) polyester base for high flexibility and excellent dimensional stability.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is processed by the user in ILFOCHROME
Process P-5. This relatively uncritical 3-bath process equal sequences for development, bleachand fix. Manual tank or dish processing as well as replenishment machine processing arepossible.
In addition ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM offers extremely high archival
stability resistance to light fading. 2. Applications
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM finds its main application in microfilming of
coloured reflection originals. Contrast and colour saturation have been adjusted to provideoptimum results for this application.
The maximum density of approximately 2.2 was adjusted for optical viewing and
overhead projection. Reproduced on ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM and viewed inprojectors or microfiche readers sustain extremely long projection times due to the excellentresistance to fading. This in turn is due to the use of special image dyes typical for allILFOCHROME products.
Reproduction of coloured catalogues onto microfiche is another frequent application of
this product. The outstanding resolving power allows text and illustrations to be copied in onestep. Artwork and colour line drawings are ideal originals to be reproduced in ILFOCHROMEMICROGRAPHICS FILM.
Colour slide reproduction may require the use of a low-density contrast mask, depending
on the tonal range of the original slide.
Resolution values with ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM surpass those normally
obtained by conventional colour films. The limiting factor in many cases is the optical system.
The numerous applications for ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM can be
• microreproductions of colour documents• micropublishing• catalogues• educational materials• medical illustrations• maps• drawings• diagrams• schematics• advertising• arial photography duplicates• satellite images• colour coded documents• fashion designs• annual reports• lecture slides• computer slides
3. Sensitivity and exposure
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is balanced for a colour temperature of 3200°K,
i.e. for exposure with tungsten-halogen lamps. It must be handled in total darkness.
The appropriate effective speed is rated below 1 ASA. This relatively low speed value is
due to the fact that ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is a silver-dye bleach materialwhere all dyes are incorporated in the emulsion layers during manufacture and to not have to begenerated during processing. During exposure these dyes absorb part of the light. On the otherhand, this layer structure accounts for the high acutance, the excellent archival stability and highresistance to light fading, characteristic of ILFOCHROME material.
In most cases only marginal filtration is required to match the original colours. In addition
to colour filtration, a UV filter should always be used. When exposing with other light sourcesthen tungsten-halogen, higher filterations may be required. Pulsed xenon light, for example, canbe used with equal good results if the filtration is adjusted accordingly.
When reproducing originals of the size DIN A4 (8¼x11¾ inches) they should be
illuminated with about 1500 - 2000 watts of tungsten-halogen light. For larger size originals thewattage should be increased proportionally.
Microfilm or microfiche cameras have to be equipped with a variable-speed shutter to
allow for exposure time adjustment. Under the above-mentioned conditions, exposure timesbetween ½ and 1 second are typical for reproducing a DIN A4 format to a 25x reducedmicrofiche format.
With the recommended exposure and illumination conditions the speed of this film is
such that ideal exposure times results for all reproduction and duplication work.
When preparing masters for subsequent contact duplication onto the same film material,
under-exposure of the master by ½ stop is recommended. Reciprocity correction
As a guide, the following corrections for reciprocity failure should be made:
Storage of unexposed material
All photographic materials undergo undesirable changes of their sensitometric
characteristic if exposed to high temperature and humidity.
Where ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is to be kept for short periods of up to
two months, it should be stored away from chemicals and processing solutions in a well-ventilated room at a temperature not exceeding 20°C (68°F).
If the films are to be kept for longer periods, they should be stored at or below 10°C
(50°F) in a refrigerator, or as low as -18°C (0°F) in a freezer.
Films that have been stored in a freezer or refrigerator must be allowed to equilibrate at
room temperature before opening the sealed plastic envelope, in order to avoid condensation onthe cold film. This adaptation takes 2 to 4 hours or longer, depending on the storagetemperature. It is good practice to let the materials adjust to ambient temperature over night. Never try to accelerate the warming-up process by using a hot air drier or by placing the packsof cold film in a warm drying cabinet. 4. Processing
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM can only be processed in ILFOCHROME
Process P-5. Processing can easily be carried out by the user.
ILFOCHROME Process P-5 is suitable for manual processing in dishes, deep tanks or
trays, as well as for machine processing. It is a 3-bath process consisting of developer, beachand fix, with equal treatment times for each of the three steps. ILFOCHROME P-5 chemicals
This processing kit, containing concentrates to make 5 litres of working solution for thedeveloper, bleach and fix is intended for start-ups and test in customer labs where the regular20-liter size is too large and costly. Mixing instructions
Prepare 3 litres of water. While stirring, add part A (1.25 L) and part B (0.5 L). Add water to make 5 litres and stir to get a homogeneous solution.
Prepare 3 litres of water, add parts A, B and C in this order, add water to make 5 litres and stirto get a homogeneous solution.
Prepare 2.5 litres of water, add the contents of the two bottles (2x1.25L) and stir to get ahomogeneous solution.
For routine operations individual chemical concentrates to make 20 litres of each bath aresupplied. These can be used for one-shot or total loss processing as well as for machineprocessing. In addition, replenish in a pack size to make 50 litres are available for economicaland high-quality machine processing. Mixing instructions
Prepare 10 litres (replenisher: 25 litres) of water at 30 - 40°C. While stirring, add part A, thenpart B, complete with water to 20 litres, resp. 50 litres and stir to get homogenous solution.
Prepare 10 litres (replenisher: 25 litres) of water at 30 - 40°C. Add part A, B and C in this order,fill with water to 20 litres, resp. 50 litres and stir to get a homogenous solution.
Prepare exactly 10 litres (replenish: exactly 25 litres) of water, add an equal volume of fixconcentrate, resp. replenisher concentrate and stir to get a homogenous solution.
Smaller volumes may be prepared as follows:
* For Process P-5 the fix and fix replenisher are identical with the corresponding solution of Process P-3:FX 3.20 and FXR 3.50 respectively. Processing and replenishment
The processing temperature of 24°C is primarily used for manual dish, tray or deep tank
processing, whereas a temperature of 30°C is ideal for machine processing in terms of resultsand access time. Temperatures above 30°C/86°F are not recommended.
With processing drums or low throughput machines, one-shot or total loss processing is
possible. When working with a high-throughput machine, replenishment is indicated. In thiscase, intermediate rinses of about 30 seconds are recommended between developer andbleach and between bleach and fix. This avoids excessive solution carry-over and keep thereplenishment rates at a minimum.
Processor for the ILFOCHROME Process P-5 must be built according to the
specification valid for all ILFOCHROME processes. This implies that all metal parts in the bleachtank must be made of a special grade stainless steel or preferably of titanium. Severalmanufacturers offer suitable machines which can be used as such for Process P-5 or which caneasily be modified.
The data of this table should be taken as a guide. Due to differences in machine
constructions, which may cause different oxidation rates, the actual necessary replenishmentrates may vary slightly.
If the amount of CIBCHROME COPY paper processing (for re-enlargements, see
chapter 8) surpasses 10% as compared to the volume of MICROGRAPHIC FILM, thereplenishment rates should be readjusted to:
Process control with Control Strips TEST T5
Pre-exposed test strip, TEST T5, to control the process activity and the condition of thesolutions, are available on 35 mm film strips of 30 cm length. Colour balance, contrast, Dmin andDmax are measured from a grey step wedge.
To recognise early enough photographic problems due to processing a process control is
• daily processing of P-5 test strips TEST T5;• densitometric evaluation of grey step wedge;• graphic presentation of data on a control chart.
Charting the measured data permits early recognition of possible deviation and thus to
take corrective measures before the quality of the processing begins to suffer. The ILFORDprocess control chart can be used to display the results of Process P-5.
From each grey step three density readings are obtained, i.e. through the blue, the green
and the red filter. These values are then entered in the control chart and the correspondingpoints are connected by colour lines. The resulting curves demonstrates sensitometric trends aswell as sudden changes, and they permit to react accordingly. 5. Handling of the chemicals
The developer and the fixer of the Process P-5 for ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC
FILM are very similar to the corresponding solution of black-and-white photographic process. Donot swallow these solutions, keep them out of reach of children. Avoid spilling and keep theprocessing equipment clean.
The developer is an alkaline solution, the bleach is strong acidic. Both solutions are
harmful to the eyes, goggles are recommended, especially when handling the concentrates. Ifsolution gets into eyes, wash immediately with plenty of running water (eyes have to be forcedopen), then seek medical attention.
If bleach gets onto skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water.
The ready-to-use working solution of the bleach solution contains about 3.4% of
sulphuric acid, the concentrate part A about 29%. This acid must be neutralised before theexhausted bleach is discarded together with wastewater (provided the local laws allow thisprocedure). In a correctly replenished processor the overflows are automatically adjusted toprovide a neutral effluent at a pH value of about 7.0. In tray processing, or when using total lossprocessor the solution can be neutralised by mixing equal volumes of exhausted developer andexhausted bleach solution. The resulting pH will be about 6.6 to 6.7. By adding 35 ml ofNeutraliser NE-22 per litre of solution, a pH value of 7.0 is obtained.
When neutralising in an open container, a vessel with the double content of volumes of
exhausted bleach and developer should be used because the mixture may effervesce. Pour thedeveloper into the neutralising vessel, then add the bleach in small portions under constantagitation with a stirring rod. Harmless carbon dioxide gas is formed under effervescence. Thesolution should be allowed to react under occasional stirring for about one hour. Do not closethe vessel. If the procedure is reversed, i.e. the developer is added to the bleach, lesseffervescence is produced, but there is a risk that, in addition to the harmless carbon dioxide,poisonous sulphur dioxide may be generated.
If there is no developer available to neutralise the bleach, neutralising chemicals can be
added instead. Sodium carbonate (washing soda), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or theliquid Neutraliser NE-22 available from ILFORD can be added. These chemicals are added toneutralising vessel in place of the exhausted developer and the bleach is added as describedabove. When using the chemicals in powder form a reaction time of more then one hour may berequired. The pH of the reaction mixture can be checked with commercially available pH paperand adjusted to pH 7.0 if necessary. To neutralise 1 litre of exhausted bleach the followingamount of chemicals are necessary:
For reasons of environmental protection it is strongly recommended that the exhausted
fix be treated in a silver recovery unit. The de-slivered fix can then be added to the otherneutralised solutions. Under no circumstances must be mixed with un-neutralised bleach. Thiswould generate large amounts of poisonous sulphur dioxide gas and precipitate of solid sulphurwould form. Waste solution data for ILFOCHROME Process P-5
Like all ILFOCHROME processes, Process P-5 comprises a developer which contains
the ecologically well compatible developing agents hydroquinone and phenidone, and not aparaphenylenediamine derivative like the chromogenic developers.
The substance in the leach bath characteristics for ILFOCHROME processes is
sulphuric acid. However, this acid is neutralised by the carbonate and sulphite of the developer,so that the machine effluent has a pH of 6.9 to 7.0 (the pH of the undiluted mixture of the bleachand the developer is 6.6 to 6.7).*
In the tables below, the composition of the individual bath overflows is listed. This may
vary slightly, depending on the working conditions. About 10% of each overflow is carried-overdirectly into the wash water. The total water volume amounts normally to about 100 to 400 litresper square meter (9 to 37 litres per sq. ft.), depending on the machine load** (30 to 40 l/m2 or 3to 4 l/sq.ft. at hypothetical machine load of 100%). This large water volume is necessary for higharchival stability.
In addition, the chemicals and biological oxygen demand, COD and BOD5 respectively,
are listed. This is a measure of the oxygen consumption, which is necessary to decompose thechemicals contained in the effluents.
The fixing bath can be de-silvered with the usual electrolytical silver recovery methods.
On account of its high pH and high iodide content extremely low residual silver values of 2 to 20mg/l, depending on the installation, are obtained. The electrolytical silver recovery is moreefficient with ILFOCHROME fixers then with conventional black-and-white fixing baths.
Volume and composition of the various overflows
* For neutralising the bleach separately see preceding chapter: “Handling of the Chemicals”. **Ration of the actual machine load to the theoretical possible load. In normal operation, the machine loadis between about 10 to 25%.
Silver (in form of a thiosulphate complex)
Chemicals:a) about 40 ml of each bath per square meter, before adding the solution overflows;b) 440 ml of developer + 440 ml of bleach + 540 ml of fix per square meter after adding the
6. Sensitometric and physical data
The following data and curves show typical results for ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC
FILM Type M and Type P, respectively, obtained by exposure with tungsten-halogen light andprocessing in Process P-5.
The sensitometric data may vary slightly from batch to batch. The data below can
therefore not be interpreted as specification or standard which must be met by ILFORD. Productcharacteristic may be changed or improved at any time.
Practical applications under different conditions may also lead to slightly different results.
Decrease of integral density at initialdensity D=1.0 is less then 3% after107 lux-hours of continuous irradiationin a projector.
Decrease of integral density at initialdensity D=1.0 is less then 0.2% unitsafter exposure to radiant energy of5x104 joules/cm2
After 300 days at 77°C/40% RHthe density loss at initial density D=1.0amounts to about 0.02 units, andthe yellow stain increases by about0.03 units
The hysteresis of 0.10 mm (=4 mil)material after a humidity cycleof (40-90-40) percent RH amountsto 0.02%
Characterisitc curves, Type M Characteristic curves, Type P Spectral sensitivity (Type M and Type P) Spectral dye density (Type M and Type P) Modulation transfer function Schematic layer structure (Type M and Type P)
Green sensitive emulsion with magenta dye
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7. Availability Light sensitive materials
RSK30 = 35 mm x 30 m spoolCP2P = 2-inch plastic coreCC76 = 76 mm iner diameter cardboard coreEI- Emulsion-inEO- Emulsion-outUP- UnperforatedDPP- Double Perforated* Special Order only
Processing chemicals Process control strips TEST T5 8. Re-enlargements
Re-enlarged prints from ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM can be produced on
Many applications require blowbacks from either 35 mm roll film or microfiche to the original scale.
ILFOCHROME COPY Paper is suitable for this purpose. It is compatible with ILFOCHROME Process P-5,so that microfilm or microfiches as well as subsequent blowbacks can be processed in the sameequipment.
The compatibility of these two product groups opens a wide variety of practical applications where
storage in microform is required on the one hand and copies in the original scale are desired duringsubsequent steps. Important:
ILFOCHROME COPY paper, normally processed in ILFOCHROME Process P-22, is compatible withProcess P-5, but not vice versa.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM cannot be processed in ILFOCHROME COPY Process
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REPORTAGENS ALÉM-TÚMULO FEDERAÇÃO ESPÍRITA BRASILEIRA F alava-se numa roda espiritual da me-lhor maneira de cultivar a prece, quando um amigo— Uma herança perigosa dos espiritistas é a detransformar a memória de um companheiro desen-carnado numa espécie de culto de falsa santidade. Obom trabalhador do Cristo não faz mais que cumprirum dever, e não é justo se lhe