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Scientific studies challenge negative image.
• Chocolate, and its possibly beneficial nutritional effects, have long been the subject of
conjecture: is it a nutritious food, a cause of acne, migraine and tooth decay, or benefi-cial for the stomach and digestion? • A thorough search of the literature reveals however that none of these claims, positive or negative, is supported by scientific evidence. Their origin seems to be rather more emotional than scientific. • Scientific research into the nutritional value of chocolate and cocoa is more complete than ever before. The studies reveal the following facts: Cocoa and chocolate: sources of energy and wellbeing.
• Cocoa and chocolate are important sources of energy: with their concentration of calo-
ries in a small volume, cocoa and chocolate are among the most concentrated vegeta-ble energy suppliers. • Chocolate contains a combination of sugars and fats which can produce a positive psy- chological effect during and after consumption. The relevant scientific studies showed increased feelings of satisfaction among the majority of experimental subjects. • Cocoa and chocolate are often consumed after heavy physical or mental effort by wor- kers, sportsmen and so on, as a compensation for the energy expended during their exertions. The macronutrients: fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
Fats, and the effect of cocoa and chocolate on cholesterol
• Cocoa and dark chocolate contain no cholesterol. Milk chocolate and white chocolate
contain only minimal quantities due to the added milk fats. • Cocoa and chocolate contain stearic acid. According to recent studies (see biblio- graphy) this unique saturated fatty acid has a neutral effect on the production of LDL or “bad” cholesterol, even with daily moderate consumption. The same studies show that the stearic acid in chocolate can promote the production of moderate quantities of “good” cholesterol in some test subjects. • The relevant studies conclude from this that regular moderate consumption of choco- late, provided it is in the context of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, should hold no risks of any heart and blood vessel problems. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
- Cocoa beans used in cocoa and chocolate production naturally contain very low levels - Chocolate however contains between 30 and 55% added sugars (sucrose and lac- tose), which are needed to neutralise the bitter taste of cocoa and also act as bulking agents, producing high-quality chocolate with a perfect texture.
- According to scientific research the sugars present in chocolate cause only a moderate rise in blood sugar levels at moderate levels of consumption. Scientists are also con-vinced (in studies carried out on behalf of the WHO) that sugar consumption in itself is not a direct cause of chronic illness like obesity, cardiovascular disease or cancer. Instead, a combination of various unhealthy habits (over-eating, monotonous diet, lack of exercise…) are thought to be the relevant causes. • Fibre- Cocoa mass contains around 15% soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. Dietary fibre has an important function in supporting the passage of food through the gut and keep the gut and stomach walls clean. Proteins• Cocoa and dark chocolate contain very little digestible protein. However, science points to their potential role in improving the taste of protein rich drinks like (soya) milk and other dairy products. These may provide the primary source of protein and calcium for children and the elderly. A single 200ml glass of milk can provide around 13% of the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of protein and 30% of the RDA for calcium. However, milk is declining in popularity among large numbers of growing children and adults. According to scientists, the use of chocolate and cocoa as flavourings can play a role in countering this shift. • Milk chocolate and white chocolate are also regarded as important sources of calcium and proteins. Barry callebaut’s milk and white chocolates contain around 14 – 30% milk solids. This equates to 4 – 8g of protein per 100g of chocolate, or 15% of the RDA. The micronutrients: vitamins, minerals and polyphenols.
Polyphenols and flavonoids
• Cocoa is rich in polyphenols, a subject currently of major interest to many centres of
scientific study. The possible role of polyphenols in the prevention of blood clotting in the blood vessels is under scrutiny. Experimental results show that the substance may be comparable to aspirin in its effects. The potential significance of cocoa polyphenols and their influence on the functions of the human body are still to be confirmed by future scientific research. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
• Certain polyphenols in cocoa are suspected to have an anti-oxidant effect. Studies on this are proceeding apace. We can report the following factual findings: - The naturally present cocoa polyphenols protect dark and milk chocolate from oxida- tion for long periods. They are natural preservatives. - The flavonoids present in cocoa may counteract the oxidation which turns good cho- lesterol (HDL) into bad cholesterol (LDL). This transformation is suspected of causing diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Little is yet known about the effect of these so-called cocoa flavonoids in normal consumption doses. Scientists do predict, on the basis of recent research, that cocoa flavonoids will be found to have a stronger anti-oxidant effect than the flavonoids found in red wine. - Cocoa polyphenols may protect the body against substances which damage the immune system, causing rheumatism and arthritis. Many of these studies were carried out in Japan, and additional in vivo research will be needed before definitive state-ments can be made. - Scientific studies show that certain polyphenols in cocoa may render harmless the free radicals which affect DNA in body cells. In addition, they may neutralise other free radicals which cause cancer. Cocoa polyphenol (epicatechin) may also have an inhibi-tory effect on the development of certain cancers. Only further research will lead to certainty about these scientific indications. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
Vitamins
• Depending on the type and the recipe, Barry Callebaut chocolates may contain several
vitamins which are significant in obtaining the recommended daily allowance. The fol-lowing are the most important: QUANTITY IN
% OF THE RDA IN WHICH
FUNCTIONS?
CHOCOLATE TYPES?
CHOCOLATE
CHOCOLATE
- Helps in balanced growth- Plays a role in maintaining the healthy condition of the skin, the surface of the eye, the gums and the hair. contain a small amount of vitamin B5 and an excep-tionally large amount of B12. Vitamins B5 and B12 come from the addition of milk powders to the recipe. red blood cel s and in building muscle and other tissue. protects poly-unsaturated fatty acids against oxidation. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
Minerals
• Cocoa and chocolate contain a host of minerals. Often working in conjunction with
vitamins, these are indespensible for proper operation of physical functions. Cocoa and chocolate are particularly important sources of certain minerals. The most significant of these are: QUANTITY IN
% OF THE RDA IN WHICH
FUNCTIONS?
100 G CHOCOLATE PER 100 G
CHOCOLATE TYPES?
CHOCOLATE
coagulation of blood (with wounds or haemorrhage). motion of the function of the memory and the brain and in preventing depression. of the richest vegetable sources of copper. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
QUANTITY IN
% OF THE RDA IN WHICH
FUNCTIONS?
100 G CHOCOLATE
CHOCOLATE TYPES?
CHOCOLATE
- The highest concentrations - An important role in the take- - The highest concentrations - Helps in the functioning of the chocolate, and to a lesser extent in milk chocolate.
• Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
Theobromine and caffeine
• Cocoa and chocolate contain minimal quantities of caffeine and theobromine. Scien-
tists believe these substances have a stimulating effect on the operation of the central nervous system, the heart muscles, the production of urine and the relaxation of the respiratory muscles. • In cocoa mass, theobromine is found in the greatest concentrations (1.89 – 2.69 %) while caffeine is present to a far lesser degree (0.16 – 0.31%). A comparison with the amount of caffeine in coffee (between 1 and 2.5%) shows that these amounts, and any effects, are relatively small. In view of the minimal quantities in cocoa and chocolate, most scientific studies point towards a minor or virtually unmeasurable effect. • Many test subjects experience positive effects from the moderate consumption of these substances, such as elevation of mood and improved concentration. • There is very little consistency in scientific findings on the possible negative effects of caffeine. Frequent coffee drinkers also appear to become accustomed to negative symptoms such as nervousness, palpitations or sleeping difficulties. • Research into the consumption of caffeine in cocoa and chocolate by children shows no change whatever in the child’s physiological or cognitive status or behaviour. Some myths
• Chocolate and obesity
- After hundreds of scientific studies there is still no direct evidence that chocolate is an - The total number of calories consumed, the digestion of those calories and the balance in the consumption of proteins, carbohydrates and fats play the predominant role in the prevention of obesity. - Studies show that chocolate, consumed in moderation and as part of a balanced diet, - Scientific analyses of cocoa and chocolate indicate very small concentrations of sub- stances which cause caries or carry out an acidic attack on the tooth enamel. - Cocoa naturally contains substances that combat oral bacteria. Further, when nuts and/or dairy products are added to chocolate, the time taken for salivary enzymes to neutralise oral bacteria decreases. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
• Chocolate and acne- No study has found evidence for chocolate as a cause of acne. While science is still gro- ping in the dark for the precise cause of acne, indications are that this will be found in hormonal changes and bacterial effects. - The American Dietary Association and the American Academy of Dermatology currently discount any link between chocolate and acne. Conclusions
• Cocoa and chocolate contain valuable nutritional elements and may, with regular and
moderate consumption, form part of a healthy and balanced diet. • Neither is in reality the villain or the forbidden fruit portrayed by public opinion. Many of these prejudices belong in the past, or are the result of inexact scientific studies. • Alongside its role as a source of energy and minerals, its taste and its fat/carbohydrate ratio means that chocolate offers positive psychological effects to such an extent that these effects are among its most significant. Sources of further information.
• Rupien John R. (1999) Overview of the Nutritional Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate.
In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
• Burke, L.M. (1999) The role of chocolate in exercise performance. In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Keys, A. (1970) Coronary heart disease in 7 countries. Circulation 41 (Suppl. 1), 1-221.
• Kris-Etherton, P.M., Derr, J. Mustad, V.A. Seligson, F.H. and Pearson, T.A. (1994) Effects of milk chocolate bar per day substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in young men on an NCEP/AHA Step 1 diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60 (Suppl. 6), 1037S-1042S.
• Kritchevsky, D. (1999) Cocoa butter and constituent fatty acids. In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
• Würsch, P en Finot P-A (1999) Carbohydrate and protein. In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
• Brand-Miller, J.C. (1999) Chocolate consumption and glucose response in people with diabetes. In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
• FAO/WHO (1998) Dietary carbohydrate and disease. In: Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66, pp 19-23. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
• Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.
• Valiente, C., Esteban, R.M., Molla, E. and Lopez-Andreu, F.J. (1994) Roasting effects on dietary fiber composition of cocoa beans. J. Food Sci. 59, 123-124.
• Prosky, L., Asp, N.-G., Schweizer, T.F., DeVries, J.W. and Furda, I. (1998) Determination of insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in food products: interlaboratory study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 71, 1017-1023.
• Kondo, K., Hirano, R., Matsumoto, A., Igarashi, O. and Itakura, H. (1996) Inhibition of LDL oxidation by cocoa. Lancet 348, 1514.
• Osawa, T. (1995) Antioxidation and antimutagenic reactions of polyphenols contained in chocolate cocoa. International Symposium on Nutrition of Chocolate and Cocoa, Japan.
• Sanbongi, C., Suzuki, N. and Sakane, T. (1997) Polyphenols in chocolate, which have anti-oxidant activity, modulate immune functions in humans in vitro. Cell. Immunol. 177, 129-136.
• Apgar, J.L. and Tarka jr., S.M. Methylxanthines. In: Chocolate and Cocoa: Health & Nutrition (Ed. By Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.
• Rapoport, J.L., Berg, C.J., Ismond, D.R., Zahn, T.P. and Neims, A. (1984) Behavioral effects of caffeine in children. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 41, 1073-1079 • Stein, M.A., Krasowski, M., Leventhal, B.L., Phillips, W. and Bender, B.G. (1996) Behavi- oral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 150, 284-288 • Relevant studies have been carried out by Stein, M.A., Rapoport, J.L., Mumford, G.K., Evans, S.M. and Griffiths, R.R., Smith, B.D. and Tola, K., and others. • Last update: March 2004.
• No part of this production may be reproduced and/or transmitted without the prior written permission of Barry Callebaut.

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