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Balamurugan et al., Jour. Harmo. Res. Pharm., 2013, 2(2), 100-103 Journal Of Harmonized Research in Pharmacy ISSN 2321 – 0958
ANTI-DIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF POLYCARPAEA CORYMBOSA (L.) LAM. WHOLE PLANT
EXTRACTS (CARYOPHYLLACEAE)
Balamurugan K, Sakthidevi G, Mohan V.R.*
Ethnopharmacology unit, Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin-628008, Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of whole plant of
Polycarpaea corymbosa in rats. Anti-diarrhoeal effects of the ethanol extracts at 100, 200 and 400
mg/Kg were evaluated in rats using castor oil induced models. Results showed that the ethanol
extract exhibited significant and dose dependent anti-diarrhoeal activity in the model used. A
percentage diarrhoeal inhibition of extract at 400 mg/Kg was 75.63%. Diarrhoeal protection in the
model used by the extract is dose dependent and the diarrhoeal inhibitory effects of the extract are
comparable to loperamide. Therefore, a result of present study suggests that the ethanol extract of
Polycarpaea corymbosa possesses anti-diarrhoeal activity.
Keywords: Polycarpaea corymbosa, anti-diarrhoea
Introduction:
A vast majority of the people of developing Diarrhoeal diseases are one of the leading countries relies on herbal drugs for the management of diarrhoea. Considering this developing countries and are responsible for the death of millions of people each year 1. constituted a diarrhoeal disease control There are large numbers of epidemiological traditional medicinal practices, together with worldwide acute diarrhoeal disease, which is one of the principal causes of death in the Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam. belongs to ‘Caryophyllaceae” is commonly known as For Correspondence:
“Pallipoondu” in Palliyar tribals of Sirumalai hills, Western Ghats Tamil Nadu. Paste prepared from the leaf is taken once in a day for a period of 2-3weeks to treat jaundice by the Palliyars 4 Biological activities such as 100 | P a g e
Balamurugan et al., Jour. Harmo. Res. Pharm., 2013, 2(2), 100-103 5mg/kg body weight by gastric incubations diarrhoeal activity of Polycarpaea corymbosa and observed for 14 days. If mortality was whole plant has not been reported. Hence the observed in two out of three animals, then the dose administered was assigned as toxic dose. possible anti-diarrhoreal activity of the whole If mortality was observed in one animal then plant extract of Polycarpaea corymbosa to the same dose was repeated again to confirm continue the long-run to the improvement of the toxic dose. If mortality was not observed, the procedure was repeated for higher doses Materials and Methods
such as 50, 100 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Plant materials
Experimental setup
Whole plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam was collected from Sirumalai hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. With the help of Group I: Rats treated with castor oil (10
local flora, voucher specimens were identified and preserved in the Ethnopharmacology Unit, Group II: Rats treated with ethanol extract of
whole plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa, at the V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil dose of 100 mg/Kg body weight daily for 7 Preparation of plant extract
Group III: Rats received ethanol extract of
The whole plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa whole plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa, at the were dried separately under shade and then dose of 200 mg/Kg body weight daily for 7 powdered with a mechanical grinder to obtain a coarse powder, which were then subjected to Group IV: Rats received ethanol extract of
whole plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa, at the dose of 400 mg/Kg body weight daily for 7 concentrated in a rotatory evaporator. The concentrated ethanol extracts of whole plant Group V: Rats treated with Loperamide (2
of Polycarpaea corymbosa were used for anti- The anti-diarrhoeal activity was performed by the method developed by Havagiray et al., 9 . Normal healthy male Wistar albino rats (180- 240g) were used for the present investigation. administration of 10 ml/Kg castor oil to all groups by orally. Animals were fasted for 24hours with free access to water prior to the (25±20C) and light and Dark (12:12h). Rats were fed with standard pellet diet (Goldmohur corymbosa (100, 200 & 400 mg/Kg) and the standard drug (Loperamide) were given orally Acute Toxicity Studies
Results and discussion
Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per The extracts significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes in a dose-dependent method), albino rats of either sex selected by random sampling were used for acute toxicity control. At 400 mg/Kg dose Polycarpaea study 8. The animals were kept fasting for corymbosa showed 75.63% reduction in the overnight and provided only with water, after number of fecal episodes when as loperamide which the extracts were administered orally at (2 mg/Kg) offered 94.84% protection. The 101 | P a g e
Balamurugan et al., Jour. Harmo. Res. Pharm., 2013, 2(2), 100-103 results indicated that the ethanol extract of Polycarpaea corymbosa was higher effective gastrointestinal release of acetyl choline in controlling castor oil induced diarrhoea at by quercetin as possible mode of action of the doses of 100 mg/Kg, 200 mg/Kg and 400 Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Although the extract was found to reduce castor oil induced diarrhoeal episodes but the 3. Das, A.K., Mandal, S.C., Banerjee, S.K., mechanism of its anti-diarrhoeal activity is Sinha, S., Das, J., Saha, B.P. and Pal, M. uncertain. Since castor oil produces diarrhoea 1999. Studies of anti-diarrhoeal activity by preventing fluid and electrolyte absorption of Punica granatum seed extracts. J and thus resulting in intestinal peristalsis 10, Polycarpaea corymbosa may be disability to enhance fluid and electrolytic absorption jaundice by palliyar tribals in Sirumalai hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. diarrhoea by increasing GI mobility 11, the significant inhibition of GI mobility by test extract Polycarpaea corymbosa suggested its V. R. Anti-inflammatory activity of whole probable mode of action to be the prevention plant of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam anticholinergic effect on gastric mucosa. Most plant species that have anti-diarrhoeal 6. Nishanthini A., Mohan V.R. Antioxidant potential confirm tannins as one of the major activity of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Polycarpaea corymbosa also contain tannins. peristaltic movements and intestinal secretion 15. Thus further phytochemical studies are required to isolate anti-diarrhoeal components effect of Polycarpaea corymbosa against from the extract to establish its extract mode CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Int J Acknowledgement
Dr.R.Sampathraj, Honorary Director Samsun chemicals/section 4: Health Effects Test Clinical Research Laboratory, Thiruppur for providing necessary facilities to carry out this 9. Havagiray, R.C., Ramesh, C. and Sadhna, References
activity of Calotropis gigantean R.BR. in Phillips J Microbo Infect Dis 19: 51-53. 102 | P a g e
Balamurugan et al., Jour. Harmo. Res. Pharm., 2013, 2(2), 100-103 10. Goodman, A. and Gillman, A. 1996. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (9th 11. Mycek, M.J., Harvey, R.A. and Champe, 14. Yadav, A.K. and Tangpu, V. 2007. Anti- dealbata and Urnea lobata extracts therapeutic implications. Pharmaceutical N.Y. 2004. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaf etract. Phytother Analysis of anti-diarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine. Rev Saude Publica 29: 428-433. Table 1: Anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanol extract of whole plant of Polycarpaea
corymbosa
% protection
Weight of stools (g)
Each Value is SEM ± 6 individual observations * P < 0.05; ** P<0.01; *** P<0.001 Compared to castor oil induced control vs drug treated rats 103 | P a g e

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