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SYLLABUS
M.Sc CHEMISTRY
SEMESTER – I and II
Department of Chemistry
Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma
Kachchh Universty
Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma
Kachchh Universty
Mundra Road, Bhuj-Kachchh
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
(CHEMISTRY)
M.Sc. Semester – I
C-101: INORGANIC CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Quantum Mechanics and its applications :
Operators, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of operators, Linear Operators, Commutator vector operator, Laplacian operator, Eigen Functions and Eigen values, Hermitian and Unitary operators, Step up and step down operators, Angular momentum in many electron atoms, MO-VB Theory, Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, Hydrogen molecule ion, LCAO-MO and VB treatments of hydrogen molecule, electron density, forces and their role in chemical bonding, Hybridization and valence MOs of H2O, NH3 and CH4, Huckel pi-electron theory and its applications to ethylene, butadiene and benzene. Unit – 2: Reaction Mechanism:
Substitution reactions in square planar complexes, Trans effect, Reactions of Platinum (II) complexes, Trans effect theories – Polarization theory, ∏-Bonding theory and Molecular Orbital theory, Mechanism of substitution. Oxidation – Reduction reactions, Electron transfer, Tunneling effect, Marcus-Hush theory, one and two electron transfer, inner sphere and outer sphere, Effect of ions on rate, electron transfer through extended bridges, unstable oxidation states and hydrated electron. Unit – 3: Spectroscopy:
Moss Bauer Spectroscopy: Introduction of Moss Bauer effect, Isomer
shift, Magnetic hyperfine interactions, Applications of the technique to the
studies of (i) bonding and structures of Fe+2 and Fe+3 compounds
including those of intermediate spin, (ii) Sn+2 and Sn+4 compounds –
nature of M-L bond, co-ordination number, structure and (iii) detection of
oxidation state and inequivalent MB atoms.
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: Introduction
technique of ESR, interaction between nuclear spin and electron spin : hyperfine splitting, calculation and energies of Zeeman levels, ESR spectrum when one electron is influenced by a single proton and one electron delocalized over two equivalent protons, difference between ESR and NMR. Unit – 4: Chemical Bonding and Reagents:
LCAO method, Chemical bonding in Poly atomic molecules, directed valence, Hybridization and geometry, simple Huckel theory of linear conjugated systems, and cyclic conjugated systems, aromaticity, self consistent field method, valence state ionization potentials, Metallic bonding: Band theory, Semiconductors and Insulators. (b) Uses of Reagents in inorganic analysis: General discussion and
uses of reagents like : Potassium bromated (KBrO3), Potassium iodate
(KIO3), ammonium vanadate (NH4VO3), ceric sulphate [Ce(SO4)2],
ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), α-benzoinoxime, α-nitroso-β-
naphthol, diphenyl carbazone, anthranilic acid and pyragallol.

Rerference Books:
1. Cotton F A and Wilkinson G : Advanced inorganic chemistry, 5th Ed, J. Wiley & 2. Concept and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Bodie Douglas, Darl McDaniel, John 3. Chandra A K : Introductory Quantum Chemistry, 3rd Ed Tata Magrow Hill, New 4. Basolo F and Pearson R G : Mechanism of Inorganic Reactions, 2nd Ed, J. Wiley & 5. Chandra M : Atomic structure and Chemical Bonding (including molecular spectroscopy), 3rd Ed, Tata Magrow Hill, New Delhi (1991). 6. Chatwal & Anand : Quantum Mechanics, Himalaya Publishing House. M.Sc. Semester – I
C-102: ORGANIC CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Reaction Pathways and Reaction intermediates:
Homolytic and Heterolytic fission, different types of arrow notation, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Carbonium ion, Carbanion, free radical, carbine, nitrene, benzyne, enamines. Unit – 2: Name Reactions and organic conversions:
(1) Aldol, (2) Baeyer-Villeger, (3) Barbier Weiland, (4) Barton, (5) Bechamp, (6) Birch, (7) Chi Chi Babin, (8) Clemmensen, (9) Dickmann, (10) Darzen, (11)
Dakein (12) Diels Alder,(13) Ene, (14) Elbs Persulphate, (15) Favorskii, (16)
Friedel-Crafts, (17) Grignard, (18) Hofmann Loffler Freytag, (19) Hydroboration
(20) Leukart, (21) Mannich, (22) Meerwin-Pondorf-Verly, (23) Michael addition,
(24) Oppenauer, (25) Perkin, (26) Reimer-Teimann, (27) Reformatsky, (28)
Robinson annulations, (29) Rosenmund, (30) Shapiro, (31) Sharpless Asymmetric
Epoxidation, (32) Stobbe, (33) Storke Enamine, (34) Wittig, (35) Wolff Kishner,
(36) Wilgerodt, (37) Bouveault-Blanc.
Conversions based on Reactions.
Unit – 3: Aromaticity:
Concept of Aromaticity, non-aromaticity and antiaromaticity, NMR in aromatic character, Huckel’s rule and its limitations, non-benzonoid compounds (aromaticity), annulenes, fulvenes, fulvalenes, azulenes. Unit – 4: Theoritical Chemistry
Free Radical Reactions
Types of free radical reactions, free radical substitution mechanism, mechanism at an aromatic substrate, neighbouring group assistance. Reactivity for aliphatic and aromatic substrates at a bridgehead. Reactivity in the attacking radicals. The effect of solvents on reactivity. Allylic halogenations (NBS), oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, auto-oxidation, coupling of alkynes and arylation of aromatic compounds by diazonium salts. Hunskiecker reaction. Elimination Reactions:
The E2, E1 and E1cB mechanisms and their spectrum. Orientation of the double bond. Reactivity – effects of substrate structures, attacking base, the leaving group and the medium. Mechanism and orientation in pyrolitic elimination. Reference Books:
1. Finar I L : Organic Chemistry, Vol 1 (The Fundamental Pinciples) 6th Ed Longman 2. Finar I L : Organic Chemistry, Vol 2 (Stereochemistry and chemistry of Natural 3. March Jerry : Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th Ed, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New 4. V K Ahluwalia, R K Parasar : Organic Reaction Mechanism, 2nd Ed. 5. G R Chatwal : Reaction Mechanism and Reagents in Organic Chemistry. 6. Morrision R T and Boyd R N : Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., 7. J P Trivedi : Reaction Intermediates in Organic chemistry, University Granth M.Sc. Semester – I
C-103: PHYSICAL CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Statistical Thermodynamics:
Basic terms: Probability, cell, phase space, micro and macro states, thermodynamic probability, statistical weight factor, statistical equilibrium, assembly, ensemble and its classification, Derivation of Boltzmann-Maxwell, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics, partition function and derivations of translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic partition functions, thermodynamic functions such as internal energy, heat capacity, entropy, work function, pressure, heat content, etc. Partition function and third law of thermodynamics, applications of partition function to mono atomic gases, diatomic molecules, equilibrium constant and equilibrium constants of metathetic reaction and Numericals. Unit – 2: Polymer and Surface Chemistry
Macromolecules:
Polymer – definition, types of polymers, electrically conducting, fire resistant, liquid crystal polymers, kinetics of polymerization, mechanism of polymerization. Molecular mass number and mass average molecular mass, molecular mass determination (osmometry, viscometry, diffusioin and the light scattering methods), sedimentation, chain configuration of macromolecules, calculation of average dimensions of various chain structures. Adsorption:
Surface tension, capillary action, pressure difference across curved surface (Laplace equation), vapour pressure of droplets (Kelvin equation), Gibbs adsorption isotherm, estimation of surface area (BET equation), surface films on liquids (Electro kinetic phenomenon), catalytic activity at surfaces. Unit – 3:
Fugacity and Activity:
Definition, determination of fugacity by graphical method, equation of state, approximate and generalized methods, variation of fugacity with temperature and pressure, fugacity of solids and liquids, mixture of ideal gases and real gases. Activity and activity coefficients in liquid solutions and Numericals. The Debye-Huckel Theory:
Ionic interactions in solutions, electric potential of ionic atmosphere, electrical free energy and activity coefficients, mean ionic activity coefficients (D-H limiting law), applications of D-H theory, quantitative and qualitative uses, solubility in presence of added electrolyte and osmotic coefficient and Numericals. Unit – 4: Chemical Dynamics:
Dynamic Chain (hydrogen-bromine reaction, pyrolysis of acetaldehyde, decomposition of ethane), photochemical (hydrogen-bromine and hydrogen-chlorine reactions) and oscillatory reactions (Belousov – Zhabotinsky reaction), homogeneous catalysis, kinetics of enzyme reactions, general features of fast reactions, study of fast reactions by flow method, relaxation method, flash photolysis and the nuclear magnetic resonance method. Reference Books:
(1) Barrow G M : Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed, Mcgraw Hill Co. (1968). (2) Atkins P W : Physical Chemistry, 3rd Ed, EIBS (1987). (3) Glasstone S : Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Affiliated East West Press. (4) Glasstone S : Thermodynamic for Chemists, Affiliated East West Press. (5) Gurdeep and Rajesh : Thermodynamics, Goel Publishing House, Meerut. (6) Gowarikar U R, Vishwanathan N V, Shreedhar J : Polymer Science, Wiley Eastern (7) Hennay H B : Solid State Chemistry, Prentice Hall Inc. (8) Laidler K J : Chemical Kinetics, Mcgraw Hill. M.Sc. Semester – I
C-104: ANALYTICAL CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Scope of Analytical Chemistry:
Role of Analytical chemistry. Classification of analytical methods-classical and instrumental. Types of instrumental analysis. Selecting an analytical method. Neatness and cleanliness. Laboratory operations and practices. Analytical balance. Techniques of weighing, errors. Volumetric glassware-cleaning and calibration of glassware. Sample preparations – dissolution and decompositions. Gravimetric techniques. Selecting and handling of reagents. Laboratory notebooks, safety in analytical laboratory, treatment of analytical data, errors, sources of errors, deviation, absolute errors, accuracy and precision, literature of Analytical Chemistry. Types of sampling- probability and non-probability, Sample size, Sampling of solid, liquid and gaseous samples. (a) Food Analysis and Forensic Science:
Moisture, ash, important constituents, protein, fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, Ca, K, Na and PO4, Oil and fat analysis, food adulteration and contamination of food. General Introduction of Forensic Science, its applications in crime scene examination, explosion, fire and arson. (b) Analysis of Body fluids and Drugs:
Clinical Chemistry: Composition of blood-collection and preservation of samples. Clinical analysis. Serum electrolytes, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, albumin, globulins, barbiturates, acid and alkaline phosphatases. Immunoassay: principles of radio immunoassay (RIA) and applications. The blood gas analysis-trace elements in the body. Drug Analysis: Narcotics and dangerous drugs. Classification of drugs. Screening by gas and thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometric measurements. Unit - 3: Fluorimetry and Phosphorimetry:
Principle, origin of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra, types of relaxation processes, Unit – 4: Thermal Methods
Principle, theory, instrumentation and applications of thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and enthalpimetric methods. Reference Books:
(1) Skoog D A, West D M : Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Thomson Asia Pvt (2) Bartt L et al : Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, ELBS 6th Ed. (3) Sharma B K : Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis, Goel Publishing House. (4) Mahindru S N : Food Analysis, Swan Publishing House, 23rd Ed. (5) Khopkar S M: Basics concepts of Analytical Chemistry, Wiley Eastern PRACTICALS SEM I
Inorganic Chemistry:
2. Qualitative Analysis: Six radicals separation with one less common ion. Analytical Chemistry: (ANY ONE IN EXAM)
1. Practicals based on food analysis: Milk, honey, oil, tea-leaves, turmeric powder 2. Drug Analysis: Aspirin, benzyl benzoate etc. 3. Volumetric and gravimetric analysis: Ester, peroxides, etc. Chromatography (Inorganic) 40 marks
Viva Voce Examination:
EXAM PATTERN
Inorganic Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry, chromatography and Viva 120 marks
7 hours on each day.
STYLE OF QUESTION PAPER
Q.1 TO Q.4
Each question from one unit of the syllabus. Each question carries 16 marks, of which
sub question (a) to answer any 2 out of 3/4 questions of 6 marks each, total of (a)
being 12 marks; sub question (b) to answer any 1 out of 2 questions of 4 marks
each, total of (b) being 4 marks. Hence Q.1 to Q.4 will be of 64 marks.
This question will contain 8 sub questions of 2 marks each. The sub questions will
be 2 from each unit. Hence Q.5 will be of 16 marks.
Total 80 marks + 20 marks internal.
400 marks theory and 200 marks of practical and viva.
M.Sc. Semester – II
C-201: INORGANIC CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Magneto Chemistry:
Definition of magnetic properties, types of magnetic bodies, diamagnetism and Pascal’s Constant, Russell-Saunders or LS coupling, multiple width large compared to kT, multiple width small compared to kT, stereochemical applications of magnetic properties of the first transition series, Lanthanides and actinides. Determination of magnetic susceptibility by Gouy’s method, derivation of Van Vleck formula for susceptibility. Unit - 2: Organometallic Compounds.
Introduction and nature of bonding in organometallic compounds of transition metals; σ-bonded organo transition metal compounds, general characteristics, chemical reactions, bonding and structure; π-bonded organometallic compounds: (a) η2-alkene complexes; preparative methods, physical and chemical properties, bonding and structure; (b) η3-allyl (or enoyl) complexes preparation, physical and chemical properties. Unit - 3: Bio Inorganic Chemistry
Introduction to Bio Inorganic chemistry, classification and role of metal ions according their action in biological system, essential trace elements and chemical toxicology, introduction of trace elements, the essential ultra trace metals and non metals, iodine and thyroid hormones, toxic elements, toxicity and deficiency, transport and storage of proteins, metalloporphyrins, oxygen carriers – hemoglobin and myoglobin, physiology of blood. Unit - 4: Symmetry and Group Theory in Chemistry
Representation of groups – some properties of matrices and vectors, the great Orthogonality theory and its consequences, character tables, Wave functions as the basis for irreducible representations, direct product, identifying non-zero matrix elements, application of symmetry to molecular orbitals, hybrid orbitals, and molecular vibrations. Reference Books:
1. Chandra A K : Introductory Quantum Chemistry, 3rd Ed Tata Magrow Hill, New 2. Mehrotra R C and Singh A : Organo Metallic Chemistry, Willey Eastern Pvt. Ltd, 3. K. Hussain Reddy : Bioinorganic Chemistry, New Age International Publishers, 4. Cotton F A : Chemical Applications of group theory, Wiley Estern Pvt. Ltd, New 5. Jaffe H H and Orchin M : Symmetry orbitals and spectra, Wiley Interscience 6. Jaffe H H and Orchin M : Symmetry in Chemistry, Willey Eastern Pvt. Ltd, New 7. Concept and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Bodie Douglas, Darl McDaniel, John 8. Dutta & Shyamal : S. Chand & Co. M.Sc. Semester – II
C-202: ORGANIC CHEMSITRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Rearrangements:
Pinacole-Pinacolone, Wagner-Meerwein, Demjanov, benzyl-Benzilic acid, Favorskii, Arndt Eistert synthesis, Neber, Backmann, Hoffman, Curtius, Schmidt, Baeyer-Villiger, etc. Unit -2: Reagents
(1) Baker-yeast, (2) D.D.Q, (3) Dicyclohexyl carbodimide, (4) 1,3-Dithiane, (5) Gillman’s reagent, (6) Lithium Diisopropylamine (LDA), (7) Lithium dimethyl cuprate, (8) Osmium tetroxide, (9) Selenium dioxide, (10) Trimethyl silyliodide, (11) Tri-n-butylene hydride, (12) Woodward and Prevost hydroxylation, (13) Wilkinson’s catalyst, (14) Phase transfer catalyst, (15) Crown ethers and Merrifield resin, (16) Peterson’s synthesis and other reagents. Unit – 3: Pericyclic Reactions:
(a) Introduction : Types and stereochemistry, (b) Theoretical basis of pericyclic reactions, M O Theory and symmetry property reactant and product orbital, (c) Cyclo addition reactions – [2 + 2] and [4 + 2], (d) Electrocyclic reactions and Sigmatropic rearrangement, (e) group transfer reactions. Organic Photochemistry:
photochemistry of carbonyl compounds, unsaturated system, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Reference Books:
1. Finar I L : Organic Chemistry, Vol 1 (The Fundamental Pinciples) 6th Ed Longman 2. Finar I L : Organic Chemistry, Vol 2 (Stereochemistry and chemistry of Natural 3. March Jerry : Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th Ed, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New 4. V K Ahluwalia, R K Parasar : Organic Reaction Mechanism, 2nd Ed. 5. P S Kalsi : Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds. 6. S M Mukherjee : Pericyclic Reactions. 7. J Coxon and B Halton : Introduction to Photochemistry. M.Sc. Semester – II C-203: PHYSICAL CHEMSITRY
Unit – 1: Electrochemistry: (20 Marks)
Determination of dissociation constants of mono and polybasic acids, conductivity, EMF and spectrophotometric methods, non aqueous titrations, types of solvents, leveling effect, choice of solvent, influence of dielectric constant, polarization and over voltage, theories of hydrogen over voltage. Unit – 2: Polarography: (20 Marks)
Detailed basic principles, origin of different types of current, theory of capacity current, equation of polarographic wave, maxima in polarography, origin and suppression, Ilkovik equation, effect of pH on E1/2, determination of unknown concentration, determination of stability constants of a simple complex which is reversibly or irreversibly reduced. Unit – 3: Nuclear Chemistry:
(20 Marks)
Nuclear properties, binding energies, nuclear force radii, angular momentum in nuclear chemistry, spin magnetic and quantum moments, pairing energy, Square Well and Wood Saxon potentials, Nuclear Models: Fermi, Shell, Collective, nuclear reaction energetic, Q values and thresholds, barriers for charged particles, cross section, partial cross sections, elastic scattering, energy changes in fission and fusion, synthesis of some radioactive elements like Na, P, S, Y and Br, accelerators, use of radioactive isotopes as tracers. Unit – 4: The properties of solutions:
(20 Marks)
Ideal solutions : properties, the Duham Margules equation, vapour pressure curves, compositions of liquid and vapour in equilibrium, influence of temperature on gas solubility, and solid-liquid equlibria, Non ideal solutions: deviation from ideal behavior, vapour pressure curves, liquid and vapour compositions, general equation for liquid mixtures, partially miscible liquids, Dilute solutions : Henry’s law, determinations of molecular weights from freezing and boiling points. Numericals. Reference Books:
(1) Barrow G M : Physical Chemistry, 5th Ed, Mcgraw Hill Co. (1968). (2) Atkins P W : Physical Chemistry, 3rd Ed, EIBS (1987). (3) Glasstone S : Introduction to Electrochemistry, Affiliated East West Press. (4) S Baluja : Nuclear chemistry and Radio activity, Saurashtra Universty, Rajkot. M.Sc. Semester – II
C-204: CHEMISTRY OF SPECTROSCOPY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS
Unit – 1: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy:
General introduction and definition, chemical shift, spin spin interaction, shielding mechanism, mechanism of measurement, chemical shift values and correlation for protons bonded to carbon (aliphatic, olefinic, aldehyde and aromatic) and other nuclei (alcohols, phenols, enols, carboxylic acids, amines, amides and mercapto), chemical exchange, effect of deuteration, complex spin-spin interaction between 2,3,4 and 5 nuclei (first order spectra), virtual coupling. Stereochemistry, hindered rotation, Fourier transform technique, nuclear overhauser effect (NOE). Unit - 2: Infra Red Spectroscopy :
Introduction, basic theory, instrumentation, sample handling. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ethers, phenols and amines. Detailed study of vibrational frequencies of carbonyl compounds (ketones, aldehydes, esters, amides, acids, anhydrides, lactones, lactams and conjugated carbonyl compounds). Effect of hydrogen bonding and solvent effect on vibrational frequencies, overtones, combination bands and Fermi resonance, FT IR. Unit - 3: Mass Spectrometry:
Principle and theory, instrumentation, different ionization techniques (EI, CI, FAB, FD), general modes of fragmentation, fragmentation patterns of various classes of compounds, Mac Laffarty rearrangement with representative compounds, applications. Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy:
General considerations, chemical shift (aliphatic, olefinic, alkyne, aromatic, heteroaromatic and carbonyl carbon), coupling constants. Two dimension NMR spectroscopy – COSY, NOESY, DEPT, INEPT, APT and INADEQUATE techniques. Unit - 4: Ultraviolet Spectroscopy :
Electromagnetic spectrum and its absorption by organic molecules, electronic transitions and selection rules, instrumentation, UV absorption of organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, unsaturated carbonyl compounds, dienes, conjugated polymers, applications. Numericals based on spectroscopy.
Reference Books:
(1) Bartt L et al : Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, ELBS 6th Ed. (2) Sharma B K : Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis, Goel Publishing House. (3) Silverstein R M, Bassler G C : Spectrometric Identification of Organic (4) Sharma Y R : Elementary Organic Spectroscopy, Jallandhar. (5) Kalsi P S : Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, New Age International Ltd. PRACTICALS SEM II
Organic Chemistry:
40 + 40 marks
1. Preparation of organic compounds: 1 and 2 stage preparation 2. Organic spotting with spectral interpretation / 2 component mixture separation. Physical Chemistry: (any two)
Mono and biprotic acids, mixtures of acids against strong / weak bases, argentometric, complexometric, replacement titrations, verification of Onsagar’s equation, dissociation of weak acids. 5. Partition coefficient: Dimerization of acids, I-I2 system, Cu2-NH3 complexes.
6. Potentiometry:
Acid-base, redox and argentometric titrations. 8. Spectrophotometry: Lambert-Beer’s law, binary mixture, kinetics of iodination 9. Chemical Kinetics: Energy coefficient of IInd order reactions. Viva Voce Examination:
EXAM PATTERN
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry and Viva
120 marks
7 hours on each day.
STYLE OF QUESTION PAPER
Q.1 TO Q.4
Each question from one unit of the syllabus. Each question carries 16 marks, of which
sub question (a) to answer any 2 out of 3/4 questions of 6 marks each, total of (a)
being 12 marks; sub question (b) to answer any 1 out of 2 questions of 4 marks
each, total of (b) being 4 marks. Hence Q.1 to Q.4 will be of 64 marks.
This question will contain 8 sub questions of 2 marks each. The sub questions will
be 2 from each unit. Hence Q.5 will be of 16 marks.
Total 80 marks + 20 marks Internal.
400 marks theory and 200 marks of practical and viva.
SYLLABUS
M.Sc CHEMISTRY
SEMESTER – III and IV
Department of Chemistry
Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma
Kachchh Universty
Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma
Kachchh Universty
Mundra Road, Bhuj-Kachchh
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
(CHEMISTRY)
M.Sc. Semester – III
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-301: SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit –1:
Adsorption Chromatography
History, Classification, Definition of terms; Principle and basic theory, Column adsorption chromatography – technique and applications. Partition Chromatography
(i) Column chromatography, (ii) paper chromatography, (iii) TLC – technique Unit –2:
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Instrumentation, Working and Applications Gas Liquid Chromatography
Principle, Instrumentation, Working, Stationary phases, Applications. Unit – 3:
Band broadening and column efficiency
Factors affecting band broadening, Plate theory and Rate theory of chromatography, definition of terms, limitations of theory. Ion Exchange Chromatography
Affinity Chromatography
Principle and Applications.
Unit – 4:
Hyphenated Techniques
GC-MS, GC-TLC, LC-MS etc., Principle and Applications. Reference Books:
1. E Stahl, Thin Layer Chromatography 2. Heptman, Chromatography 3. Sethi P D, HPTLC 4. Sethi P D, High Performance Liquid Chromatography. 5. Skoog D A., Loary J I and Saunder W B, Principles of Instrumental Analysis. 6. Skoog D A, West D M, Holler F J and Saunder W B, Fundamentals of Analytical M.Sc. Semester – III
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-302: ORGANIC SYNTHESIS – A DISCONECTION APPROACH
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
A Disconnection Approach
Introduction to disconnection, concept of Synthon, Synthetic Equivalent, functional group inter conversion, concept and design of synthesis, criteria of good disconnection. Protecting Groups:
Protection of organic functional groups, protecting reagents and removal of protecting groups. Pericyclic reactions:
Disconnections based on Diels-Alder Reaction and its use in organic synthesis. Unit – 2:
One Group disconnection
Disconnection and synthesis of alcohols, olefins, simple ketones, acids and its derivatives. Two Group Disconnection
Disconnection in 1,3-dioxygenated skeletons, preparation of β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, 1,3-dicarbonyls, 1,5-dicarbonyls and use of Mannich Reaction. Unit –3:
Disconnection and Synthesis of acyclic and cyclic heterocompounds
Synthesis of ethers, amines, nitrogen and oxygen containing five and six membered heterocycles. Ring Synthesis
Special methods for small ring preparations, synthesis of 3 and 4 membered ring compounds. Unit – 4:
Illogical two group disconnections
Disconnection and synthesis of 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, 1,2-diols, 1,4 and 1,6-dicarbonyl compounds. Umpolong of Reactivity
Umpolong of carbonyl group, synthesis based on umpoling carbonyl group – synthesis of 1,2 and 1,3-diketones, cyclic ketones etc. Chiron approach to Synthesis
Basic approach and a few examples to illustrate utility of Chiron approach. Reference Books:
1. Warren S, Designing organic synthesis; Wiley. 2. Carruthers W, Some modern methods for organic synthesis. 3. Norman R and Coxon J M, Principles of Organic Synthesis. 4. Carey F A and Sundberg R J, Advanced Organic Chemistry, Part B. 5. Fuhrhop J, Organic synthesis – concept, methods and starting materials. 6. Warren, Disconnection Approach. M.Sc. Semester – III
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-303: ORGANIC AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
History of medicinal chemistry, classification of drugs. Introduction, classification, synthesis and SAR of old and new drugs:
Part I:

General Anaesthetics: Enflurane, isoflurane, halothane, cyclopropane,
thiopentone sodium, ketamine, methohexetal sodium, medazolam, fentanyl,
etomidate.
Local Anaesthetics: Cocaine, cyclomethaycaine sulphate, benzocaine,
procaine hydrochloride, mepivacaine hydrochloride, bupivacaine hydrochloride,
phenacaine hydrochloride, dyclonine, diperodone, lidocaine hydrocholoride,
etidocaine hydrochloride.
Antidipressants:
dibenzocycloheptanes, doxepine, trazodone, fluoxetine. Antianginal: Isosorbiddinatrate, nicorandil, dipyridamol.
Oral Hypoglycemic: meglitinide, siglitazone, linogliride.
Oral anticoagulants: warfarine, dicomarol, indane dione derivatives.
Unit – 2:
Introduction, classification, synthesis and SAR of old and new drugs:
Part-II:

Sedatives, Hypnotics and Anxiolytics: Phenobarbital, hexobarbital,
diazepam, oxazepam, loprazolam, bromazepam, flumazenil, glutethimide,
meprobamate, zaleplan, buspirone.
Anticonvulsants: Hydantoins, oxazolidine diones, succinimides, chlobazam,
vigabatrin, progabide, carbamazepam, sodium valproate, denzimol, denzinamide,
nafimidone, zonisamide.
Antipsychotic: Chlorprothexene, thiothixene, haloperidol, pimozide, loxapine,
chlozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, seretindole.
Antipyretics and NSAIDS drugs: Aspirin, salsalate, diflunisil, paracetamol,
phenylbutazone, oxephenbutazone, flufenamic, indomethacin, sulindac, tolmetin,
ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, ketoprofen, tenoxicam, nambutone, nimesulide,
anlagin, selecoxib, etodolac.
Miscellaneous CNS drugs: Levodopa, carbidopa, benztropine, ethopropazine,
mefanicin, methocarbimol, carisoprodol, fletizipam, baclofen, cyclobenzaprine,
milameline, besiperdine, phenserine, ecopizil.
Antiarrhythmic drugs: Procanamide, tocainide, mexiletine, encainide,
flecainide, amiodarone, acecainide.
Unit – 3:
Introduction, classification, synthesis and SAR of old and new drugs:
Part-III:

Antihistamines and anti ulcer drugs: Diphenhydramine, carbinoxamine,
doxylamine, pyrilamine, pheniramine, pyrobutamine, promithazine, cyclizine,
cyprohepatdine, cetrizine, astemizole, ranitidine, famotidine, roxatidine,
omeprazole, rabiprazole, pantoprazole.
Diuretics: Acetazolamide, methazolamide, thiazide diuretics, amiloride,
triamterene, indapamide, zipamide, bumetanide, chlopamide, metolazone.
Antihypertensive: Prozosin, terazosin, doxazosin, chlonidine, methyldopa,
dioxazide, hydralazine, propanolol, atenolol, labetalol, nifedipine, verapamil,
diltiazem, captopril, analapril, losartan, valsartan.
Antihyperlipidemics: Fluvastatine, dalvastatine, benzafibrate, fenofibrate,
gemfibrosil.
Adrenergics:
xylometazoline, phenoxybenzamine, tolazoline. Cholinergic
isofluorophate, neostigmine, anisotropine methyl bromide, cyclopentolate, dicyclomine, tropicamide. Narcotic Analgesics: Levallorphan, atorphine, mepiridine (pethidine),
nalorphine, diphenoxylate, methadone, pentazocine.
Unit – 4:
Combinatorial Chemistry: Incuiding automation, solid supported and solution
phase of synthesis and related other methodologies, preparation and study of
targeted or focused libraries.
Reference Books:
1. Silverman R B, The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action; 2. Lednicer D, Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design; John Wiley. 3. William Foye, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry; IVth edition, Lippincott, William 4. A Kar, Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry; Asian Age Publication. 5. Sriram D and Yogeshwari P, Medicinal Chemistry; Pearson Education. 6. Ahluwalia V K, Chopra Madhu, Medicinal Chemistry; Ane Books India. M.Sc. Semester – III
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-304: HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
Nomenclature of Heterocycles
Replacement and systematic nomenclature (Hantzsch-Widman system) for monocyclic, fused and bridged heterocycles. Aromatic Heterocycles
General Chemical Behaviour of aromatic heterocycles, classification (structural type), criteria of aromaticity (bond lengths, ring current and chemical shifts in 1H NMR-spectra, empirical resonance energy, delocalization energy and Dewar resonance energy, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltations). Heteroaromatic reactivity and tautomerism in aromatic heterocycles. Non Aromatic Heterocycles
Strain – bond angle and torsional strains and their consequences insmall ring heterocycles. Conformation of 6 membered heterocycles with reference to molecular geometry, barrier to ring inversion, pyramidal inversion and 1,3-diaxial interaction. Stereo-electonic effects – anomeric and related effects. Attractive interactions – hydrogen bonding and intermolecular nucleophilic-electrophilic interactions. Unit – 2:
Heterocyclic analogues of cyclopropane and cyclobutane
Preparation and properties of azirine, oxirane, azitidine, oxetene, oxatane and thietane. Preparation of diazirine and oxaziridine. Heterocyclic analogues of cyclopentane
Preparation and properties of pyrrole, furan and thiophene. Preparation of phosphole, benzaluminol, isoindole, indolizine, dibenzofuran, isobenzofurans, carbazole. Unit –3:
Heterocyclic analogues of benzene and naphthalene
Preparation and properties of pyridine, pyran, quinoline, isoquinoline, acridine andphenanthridine. Preparation of 2-pyrones, 4-pyrones, benzopyran, benzo-2-pyrones and benzo-4-pyrone. Hetero atoms in seven and eight membered rings
Synthesis of azepine, thiepine, diazepine. Unit –4:
Compounds with two hetero atoms in a five membered ring
Preparation and properties of pyrazole, imidazole. Preparation of isoxazole, oxazole, isothiazole, thiazole. Compounds with two hetero atoms in a six membered ring
Preparation of pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, oxazine, thiazine, dioxane, quinazoline, quinaxaline, cinnoline. Compounds containing more than two hetero atoms
Preparation of pteridine, triazenes, sydnones. Reference Books:
1. Bansal R K, Heterocyclic Chemistry.
2. Acheson R H, An introduction to the chemistry of Heterocyclic compounds.
3. Trivedi J J, Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds.
4. Gupta R R, Kumar M amd Gupta V, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Springner.
5. Eicher T and Hauptmann S, The Chemistry of Heterocycles.
6. Joule J A, Mills K and Smith G F, Heterocyclic Chemistry.
7. Gilchrist T L, Heterocyclic Chemistry.
M.Sc. Semester – III
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
PRACTICALS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. Chromatographic Techniques: 40 Marks

(Any One)
Paper
2. Multistep synthesis of organic compounds using TLC and spectral
study. 80 Marks
3. Organic Mixture Separation. 40 Marks
4. Viva Voce 40 Marks

Exam Pattern:
Day 1. Synthesis and Chromatography
Day 2. Separation and Viva.
Time : 7 hours daily.
STYLE OF QUESTION PAPER
Q.1 TO Q.4
Each question from one unit of the syllabus. Each question carries 16 marks, of which
sub question (a) to answer any 2 out of 3/4 questions of 6 marks each, total of (a)
being 12 marks; sub question (b) to answer any 1 out of 2 questions of 4 marks
each, total of (b) being 4 marks. Hence Q.1 to Q.4 will be of 64 marks.
This question will contain 8 sub questions of 2 marks each. The sub questions will
be 2 from each unit. Hence Q.5 will be of 16 marks.
Total 80 marks + 20 marks internal.
400 marks theory and 200 marks of practical and viva.
M.Sc. Semester – IV
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-401: SELECTED TOPICS IN INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
Plant Location and Safety Hazards
Basic concept, factors affecting the plant location, plant layout, main objects of scientific layout, factors affecting layout, management of Human Resources: recruitment and selection, training and development, industrial safety, welfare of employees, Materials Management, Inventory Control. Nano technology and green chemistry
Introduction of nano materials and their size, the fundamental science behind nano technology. Concept of green chemistry and atom economy. Unit – 2:
Drus and Dye Intermediates
Industrial production of aceto acetanilife, β-naphthol, naphthalene, BON-acid, H-acid, G-acid, γ-acid, anthraquinone, alizarine, 1-aminoanthraquinone, 2-aminoanthraquinone, bromamine acid, 5-NIPA, 5-CIPA. Sachharides
Definition, classification according to chemical nature, synthesis and uses, comparative profile with carbohydrates. Unit – 3:
Unit Processes and Operations
Nitration, oxidation, sulphonation, reduction, halogenations,. Filtration, extraction, crystallization, drying, distillation. Synthetic Dyes
Definition, classification, synthesis and uses of : naphthol yellow, naphthol green B, methyl orange, methyl red, metanil yellow, eriochrome black T, diamond black, auramine-o, rusaniline, aurin, phenolphthalein, methylene blue, thio indigo, thioindoxyl. Unit – 4:
Perfumes
Definition, classification, synthesis and uses of : ester of cinnamic acid, linalool, phenyl ethyl alcohol, civetone, musk ambrette, alpha and β-ionones, alpha and β-irones. Explosives
Definition, classification, synthesis and uses of : nitrobenzene, m-dinitrobenzene, TNT, picric acid, mono and di ethylene glycol, glycol dinitrate, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, manitol, RDX, guanidine nitrate. Reference Books:
1. Ratner M, Ratner D, Nanotechnology; Pearson. 2. Groggins P H, Unit Processes in Organic Synthesis; tata Mcgraw Hill. 3. Sharma B K, Industrial Chemistry; Goel Publications. M.Sc. Semester – IV
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-402: CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
Natural Products
Classification, methods of isolation and structure determination. Alkaloids
Chemistry of cinchonine and atropine. Synthesis of morphine, nicotine, colchinine, strychnine. Unit – 2:
Vitamins
Introduction and Chemistry of Vitamine A, E and K. Synthesis of Riboflavin, Pyridoxine, vitamin C, Niacin, Pentothenic acid, Folic acid. Plant Pigments
Porphins and porphyrins, chemistry of Haemin, chemical relationship with chlorophyll. Unit – 3:
Terpenoids
Introduction, classification, chemistry of Farnesol, Zingiberine, Santonine, Phytol and Abietic Acid. Nucleic acid
Introduction, isolation, constitution of nucleic acid, constitution of nucleoside, constitution of nucleotides, final structure of nucleic acid. Chemistry of Non sugars
Steroids
Constitution of cholesterol (with synthesis), chemistry of progesterone, estrone, testosterone, and bile acids. Synthetic Hormones: Hexosterol, stilbosterol and ACTH. Reference Books:
1. Mann J, Davidson R S, Hobbs J B, Natural Products: Chemistry and Biological 2. Finar I L, Organic Chemistry; Vol 2. 3. Alta-Ur-Rehman and Chaudhary M I, New trends in Natural Product Chemistry. 4. Bhat Sujata, Chemistry of Natural Products; Springer-Narosa. 5. Singh Ayodhya, Chemistry of Natural Products Vol 1 and 2. M.Sc. Semester – IV
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-403: STEREOCHEMISTRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Fundamentals of Stereochemistry
Important terminology of stereochemistry, Nomenclature, stereoisomers, optical isomers, Fischer projection formulas, optical isomerism due to asymmetric carbon atoms (1,2 or 3), optical isomerism due to non asymmetric carbon atom, optical activity due to molecular dissymmetry (allenes, spirans, biphenyl system), restricted rotation, obstacle theory, racemic modification, resolution modification, asymmetric synthesis, determination of configuration (D and L, threo-erythro nomenclature etc), absolute configuration, R and S nomenclature. Geometric isomerism: definition and nomenclature, modern interpretation of geometric isomerism, determination of geometric isomerism. Unit – 2:
Conformational Analysis
Chirality, mono, di- and polysubstituted cyclohexane, decaline derivatives, cholesterol. Stereochemistry of N, S, P, As, S and B compounds.
Unit – 3:
Stereochemistry of fused ring and bridge ring systems and spirans.
Unit – 4:
Stereo selective and stereoregulator polymerization and other related
topics.

Reference Books:
1. Finar I L, Organic Chemsitry. 2. Trivedi J P, Stereochemistry. 3. Nasipuri D, Stereochemistry. 4. Kalsi P S, Stereochemistry. 5. Nogradi M, Stereoselective synthesis: A practical approach. M.Sc. Semester – IV
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
C-404: ADVANCED MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
EACH UNIT IS OF 20 MARKS.
Unit – 1:
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
Drug Design
Development of new drugs, procedures followed in drug design, concept of lead identification and lead modification, structure-activity relationship (SAR), factors affecting bioactivity, resonance, inductive effect, isosterism, bioisosterism and spatial consideration. History and development of QSAR, Physiochemical parameters, Lipophilicity, electronic parameters, steric parameters, Shelton and surface activity parameters and redox potentials, Free Wilson and Hansch analysis, other statistical methods. Unit – 2:
Pharmacokinetics
Introduction to drug absorption, disposition, drug metabolism, elimination, important pharmacokinetic parameters in defining drug disposition and in therapeutics, mention of uses of pharmacokinetics in drug development process, concept of pro drug and soft drug. Pharmacodynamics
Introduction, principles of drug action, mechanisms of drug action, introduction to the concept of receptors and drug receptor interactions, dose-response relationships, drug potency and efficacy, combined effect of drugs, introduction to relative terminology like LD50, ED50, MIC, MEC etc. Unit – 3:
Introduction, classification, synthesis and SAR studies of old and new
drugs. Part I:

1. Antibiotics: Introduction, classification. a) β-lactam antibiotics: penicillins –
classification (early, resistant, broad spectrum, antipseudomonal, broad spectrum
ureido, C-6 amidino west end), adverse effects of penicillins. SAR of penicillin.
Synthesis: methicilin, ampicillin, pivampicillins, piperacillin.
b) cephalosporins: classification and SAR
Synthesis: cephalexin, 7-aminocephalosporonic acid, cephadroxil, cephalothin,
cepharoxime.
c) tetracyclines: introduction, mechanis, SAR
Synthesis: methacycline, doxycycline, minocycline
d) macrolides: introduction, chemistry, SAR
Synthesis: azithromycin
e) others: chloramphenicol
f) sulphonamide: classification, SAR
Synthesis: general methods, sulphamethaxazole, sulphadiazine, sulphadoxime.
g) sulphones: synthesis : dapsone
h) DHFR inhibitors: synthesis: trimethoprim, pyrimethamine
i) quinolones: introduction, classification, SAR
synthesis: fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin
2. Anti TB Agents: introduction, classification,
Synthesis: isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutal, PAS, ethioinamide
3. Antifungal: introduction, classification
Synthesis: ketoconazole and terconazole, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine
4. Antiviral : a) anti HIV: classification of reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Synthesis: lamivudine, loviride, trovirdine.
b) anti HSV: introduction, classification, c) miscellaneous: synthesis: ribavirin
Unit – 4:
Introduction, classification, synthesis and SAR studies of old and new
drugs. Part II:

1. Antiprotozoal agents: a) antiamoebic: classification, synthesis:
metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole. b) antimalarial: classification, synthesis:
amodiaquine, pamaquine, proguanil, c) anthrlmintics: classification, synthesis:
mebendazole, thiabendazole.
2. Anti cancer drugs: introduction, classification, synthesis: chlorambucil, uracil,
mustard, 6-mercaptopurine, trimetrexate, fludarabine. 3. Prostoglandins: introduction, functions,
4. Steroids: synthesis: progesterone, testosterone.
Chirality
Chiral synthesis, racemic drug separation and strategies for enantiomeric pure drugs. Reference Books:
1. Grigauge A, Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry; Wiley-VCH. 2. Pandey S S, Dimmock J R, An Introduction to Drug Design; New Age 3. Wolff Ed M EV, Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery (6th Edition); 4. Silverman R B, The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action; 5. William Foye, Lippicott, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (4th Edition); William 6. Kadam S S, Mahadik, Bothera, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (11th Edition); 7. Satoskar R S, Bhandarkar, Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics; Popular M.Sc. Semester – IV
ORGANOPHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
PRACTICALS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1. Multistestep step synthesis 40 Marks
2. Drug Estimation 40 Marks
3. Functional group estimation of organic compounds. 40 Marks
4. Spectral Analysis 40 Marks
5. Viva Voce 40 Marks

Exam Pattern:
Day 1. Synthesis and Drug Estimation
Day 2. Functional Group Estimation, spectral analysis and Viva.
Time : 7 hours daily.
STYLE OF QUESTION PAPER
Q.1 TO Q.4
Each question from one unit of the syllabus. Each question carries 16 marks, of which
sub question (a) to answer any 2 out of 3/4 questions of 6 marks each, total of (a)
being 12 marks; sub question (b) to answer any 1 out of 2 questions of 4 marks
each, total of (b) being 4 marks. Hence Q.1 to Q.4 will be of 64 marks.
This question will contain 8 sub questions of 2 marks each. The sub questions will
be 2 from each unit. Hence Q.5 will be of 16 marks.
Total 80 marks + 20 marks internal.
400 marks theory and 200 marks of practical and viva.

Source: http://kskvku.digitaluniversity.ac/WebFiles/modified_syllabus_chemistry.pdf

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International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1(1): 22-24, 2009ISSN: 2041-2908© M axwell Scientific Organization, 2009 Effect of Aqueous-ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Commiphora Africana on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats 1A.D .T.Goji, 2A.A .U. Dikko, 3A.G . Bakari, 1A. M ohamm ed, 1I. Ezekiel, and 1Y. Tanko¹Departm ent of Hu man ph ysio logy , Ah madu B e

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