No. 29 (2/00) PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATION FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTSPART II: TYPES OF MEDICATIONS
Psychiatric medications can be an effective part of the treatment for psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. In recent years there have been an increasing number of new and different psychiatric medications used with children and adolescents. Research studies are underway to establish more clearly which medications are most helpful for specific disorders and presenting problems. Clinical practice and experience, as well as research studies, help physicians determine which medications are most effective for a particular child. Before recommending any medication, the psychiatrist (preferably a child and adolescent psychiatrist) should conduct a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of the child or adolescent. The youngster=s presenting psychiatric symptoms along with past response to medications and also consideration of possible side effects will determine the choice of medication. Psychiatric medication should only be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Stimulant Medications: Stimulant medications are often useful as part of the treatment for attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Examples include: Dextroamphet- amine (Dexedrine, Adderal), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Pemoline (Cylert). Antidepressant Medications: Antidepressant medications are used in the treatment of depression, school phobias, panic attacks, and other anxiety disorders, bedwetting, eating disorders, obsessive- compulsive disorder, personality disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. There are several types of antidepressant medications (tricyclics, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and atypical). Examples of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA=s) include: Amitriptyline (Elavil), Clomipramine (Anafranil), Imipramine (Tofranil), and Nortriptyline (Pamelor). Examples of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI=s) include: Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), Paroxetine (Paxil), Fluvoxamine (Luvox), Venlafaxine (Effexor), and Citalopram (Celexa). Examples of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI=s) include: Phenelzine (Nardil), and Tranylcypromine (Parnate). Examples of atypical antidepressants include: Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Nefazodone (Serzone), Trazodone (Desyrel), and Mirtazapine (Remeron). Antipsychotic Medications: Antipsychotic medications can be helpful in controlling psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) or disorganized thinking. These medications may also help muscle twitches (Atics@) or verbal outbursts as seen in Tourette=s Syndrome. They are occasionally used to treat severe anxiety and may help in reducing very aggressive behavior. Examples of traditional antipsychotic medications include: Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Trifluoperazine (Stelazine), Thiothixene (Navane), and Haloperidol (Haldol). Newer antipsychotic medications (also known as atypical or novel) include: Clozapine (Clozaril), Risperidone (Risperdal), Quetiapine (Seroquel), Olanzapine (Zyprexa), and Ziprasidone (Zeldox).
PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATION FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS PART II: TYPES OF MEDICATIONS, “Facts for Families,” No. 29 (2/00) Mood Stabilizers and Anticonvulsant Medications: Mood stabilizers may be helpful in treating manic-depressive episodes, excessive mood swings, aggressive behavior, impulse control disorders and severe mood symptoms in schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia. Lithium (lithium carbonate, Eskalith) is an example of a mood stabilizer. Some anticonvulsant medications can also help control severe mood changes. Examples include: Valproic Acid (Depakote, Depakene), Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Gabapentin (Neurontin), and Lamotrigine (Lamictil). Anti-anxiety Medications: Anti-anxiety medications may be helpful in the treatment of severe anxiety. There are several types of anti-anxiety medications: benzodiazepines; antihistamines; and atypicals. Examples of benzodiazepines include: Alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), Diazepam (Valium),and Clonazepam (Klonopin). Examples ofantihistamines include: Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and Hydroxizine (Vistaril). Examples of atypical anti-anxiety medications include: Buspirone (BuSpar), and Zolpidem (Ambien). Sleep Medications: A variety of medications may be used for a short period to help with sleep problems. Examples include: SRI anti-depressants, Trazodone (Desyrel), Zolpidem (Ambien), and Diphenhydramine (Benadryl). Miscellaneous Medications: Other medications are also being used to treat a variety of symptoms. For example: clonidine (Catapres) may be used to treat the severe impulsiveness in some children with ADHD and guanfacine (Tenex) for Aflashbacks@ in children with PTSD. When prescribed appropriately by an experienced psychiatrist (preferably a child and adolescent psychiatrist) and taken as directed, medication may reduce or eliminate troubling symptoms and improve daily functioning of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. For additional information see Facts for Families: #21 Psychiatric Medication for Children and Adolescents: Part I - How Medications Are Used, #51 Psychiatric Medication for Children and Adolescents: Part III - Questions to Ask. See also: Your Child (1998 Harper Collins)/Your Adolescent (1999 Harper Collins). # # #
The Development of the Facts for Families series is a public service of the AACAP. If you would like to support expanded distribution of the series, please make a tax deductible contribution to the AACAP Campaign for America's Kids. By supporting this endeavor, you will support a comprehensive and sustained advocacy effort on behalf of children and adolescents with mental illnesses.
Please make checks payable to AACAP, and send to: AACAP, Campaign for America's Kids, P.O. Box 96106, Washington, D.C. 20090
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) represents over 6,000 child and adolescent psychiatrists who are physicians with at least five years of additional training beyond medical school in general (adult) and child and adolescent psychiatry.
Facts for Families is developed and distributed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). Facts sheets may be reproduced for personal or educational use without written permission, but cannot be included in material presented for sale. To purchase full sets of FFF, contact the AACAP Publications Clerk at: 1.800.333.7636, ext. 131.
Nelson A. Tejada, American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Operations Department, Phone: 202-966-7300 ext. 131, Main Fax: 202-966-2891, Publication Fax: 202-464-9980
MICHELANGELO’S SISTINE CHAPEL CLEANED WITH AN OVEN CLEANER How ironic that of the greatest single handed artistic achievements of our civilization was stripped clean by restorers for reasons of a miss guided analysis, using a soda reactant equivalent to an oven cleaner. This fracas is the result of a long awaited cataclysm between advances in restoration and technology conflicting with artist
FINANCIERA UNIVERSAL S.A. Oficina: RUC. 20521308321 HOJA RESUMEN Y CRONOGRAMA DE PAGOS CRONOGRAMA DE PAGOS N° Cuota Fecha Pago (Vencimi.) Amortización Capital CREDITOS QUE SE CANCELAN CON LA OPERACIÓN Ante el incumplimiento del pago según las condiciones pactadas se procederá a realizar el reportecorrespondiente a las centrales de riesgo, con la clasificación que corre