Medicamentsen-ligne vous propose les traitements dont vous avez besoin afin de prendre soin de votre santé sexuelle. Avec plus de 7 ans d'expérience et plus de 80.000 clients francophones, nous étions la première clinique fournissant du acheter cialis original en France à vente en ligne et le premier vendeur en ligne de Cialis dans le monde. Pourquoi prendre des risques si vous pouvez être sûr avec Medicamentsen-ligne - Le service auquel vous pouvez faire confiance.

Microsoft word - vlach, bill_08.doc

William Vlach
Assistant Lab/PSD Manager
ADM Cocoa
12500 W. Carmen Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53225-6199
PH: 414-358-5886
William_vlach@admworld.com
Bill graduated from Concordia University with a B.A. in Science. He has been a presenter for ten years at in-house seminars held by ADM Cocoa and has attended workshops and seminars including Penn State Chocolate Manufacturers Short Course, AOCS Short Course for Edible Fats and Oils Processing, Ice Cream Makers Short Course, RCI/Gus Pulakos Short Course in Retail Candy Making, AACC Short Course in Food Chemistry, Cocoa Powder Seminar, and Bakery and Food Service Applications Seminar. Bill has been with ADM Cocoa Technical Services for 3 decades. Previously serving in the Quality Control department for 10 years, Bill currently works in Product Service & Development. Thomas Allen
Sales Manager
TRICOR Systems Inc.
1650 Todd Farm Drive
Elgin, IL 60123
PH: 847-742-5542 ext.140
tomallen@tricor-Systems.com
Thomas graduated from Eastern Illinois University in 1989 with a BS in Since February 1992, Thomas has been employed by TRICOR Systems Incorporated where he currently holds the title of Sales and Marketing Manager. His responsibilities include the sale and education of the confectionery industry regarding TRICOR’s chocolate temper meters and gloss meters. Thomas is also the principle owner and operator of www.candydetective.com, an online directory of candy manufacturers and suppliers. Principles of Chocolate Tempering
Introduction: The Properties of Cocoa Butter

Cocoa butter has very unique properties. It has a melting point of approximately 85 to 90 degrees
Fahrenheit, and therefore it quickly melts at body temperature when eaten. As a result, the flavor
release is quick, and there is a pleasing mouth feel as well.
However, as cocoa butter solidifies, there are 6 possible forms of the cocoa butter crystals. Thus
cocoa butter is known as a polymorphic fat. Unfortunately, only one crystal form out of the 6
produces a stable product. The process of forming the correct crystal structure is referred to as
tempering.” The desired cocoa butter crystal form is called the Beta form.
Tempering chocolate is not an exact science or procedure. Although the general principles are
easy to understand and commonly used by everybody, each manufacturer or person must develop
their own specific instructions and methods depending upon the equipment being used and the
processing conditions. A chocolate company can give general guidelines and temperature ranges
for tempering, but modifications typically must be made to achieve the best possible appearance
of the finished product.
II. Tempering

The Basics of Tempering
The chocolate being used must first be completely melted to 120 degrees Fahrenheit with continuous agitation. At this temperature all of the cocoa butter crystals are in a liquid state. If the chocolate is not completely melted to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, then the un-melted crystals can cause unstable crystals to form in the tempering process, thus causing an un-tempered final product. After heating the chocolate to the proper temperature, it should be cooled down to the appropriate usage temperature. Dark chocolates should be cooled to approximately 86 to 89 degrees Fahrenheit, and milk chocolates should be cooled to approximately 82 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. How the chocolate is cooled and tempered depends on the method and equipment that is available. Melting the Chocolate

First, chop the chocolate into pieces approximately 1 inch square or smaller using either a sharp
chef’s knife or an ice pick on a clean, dry cutting surface.
Typically chocolate is heated in a double boiler or a stainless steel bowl that fits snugly over the
opening of a pot filled with hot water. Adjust heat so that the water is slightly below a simmer.
There are several recommendations to follow for melting chocolate:
1. Never heat the chocolate over a direct source of heat because it is difficult to control the temperature of the chocolate, and you could easily burn the product. NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology 2. Make sure that the pot is approximately half full to ensure that steam does not bubble into the chocolate or the water does not boil. 3. Take care to monitor the level of the water in the pot and replace the water as needed 4. Remember to wipe all instruments dry before introducing them into the chocolate. Chocolate should NEVER mix with water. Water darkens chocolate and causes it to thicken and seize resulting in unusable product. 5. We usually do not recommend melting chocolate in the microwave as the temperatures are hard to control and the heat distribution is uneven. Methods of Tempering
Tempering by Hand
1. Completely melt the chocolate to 120 degrees Fahrenheit*. 2. Cool the chocolate with agitation to approximately 82 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit for milk chocolates and approximately 86 to 89 degrees Fahrenheit for dark chocolates. In order to cool the chocolate, we recommend that you will need to use a cold, water bath or a water-jacketed kettle filled with cold water. Often it helps to cool the chocolate a few degrees below these recommended temperatures listed above to ensure for properly tempered chocolate. Then raise the temperature one to two degrees to eliminate any unstable cocoa butter crystals that may have formed in the tempering process. These steps will take practice in perfecting since we consider hand tempering like an “art form.” *Exceeding 120°F results in a lumpy, burned, unusable product. We recommend using a food or candy thermometer to check temperatures and a heat resistant spoon or spatula to agitate the product. Tempering with “seed”
1. Completely melt the chocolate to 120 degrees Fahrenheit.* 2. Cool the melted chocolate with agitation to approximately 90 to 92 degrees Fahrenheit. Add small chocolate shavings from a solid properly tempered chocolate to the liquid chocolate to “seed” it. The amount of seed shavings should be approximately 5 to 10 percent of the total amount of melted chocolate that you want to temper. Although using seed is a popular method to temper chocolate, the disadvantage is that the shavings used as seed may be difficult to melt. Un-melted shavings may become lumps in the melted chocolate. Although these lumps may not be a problem for molded chocolates, the lumps may not be ideal for the appearance of enrobing or dipping. NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology *Exceeding 120°F results in a lumpy, burned, unusable product. We recommend using a food or candy thermometer to check temperatures and a heat resistant spoon or spatula to agitate the product. The “Mush” Method of Tempering
1. Completely melt the chocolate to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. * 2. Cool the melted chocolate with agitation to approximately 89 degrees Fahrenheit and 3. Remove about 1/3 of this chocolate and pour it onto a marble surface. “Mush” this chocolate by mixing it back and forth with a flat spatula or a flat surface like a bowl scraper until it thickens to a heavier state. It is very important that no hard lumps are formed. 4. Return this thickened mush to the chocolate held at 89 degrees Fahrenheit and mix. Once the chocolate appears uniform, it is tempered. The temperature must be held at 86 to 89 degrees Fahrenheit. Although the mush method is more time consuming and labor intensive, most people prefer to use this method for small batches that require hand tempering. *Exceeding 120°F results in a lumpy, burned, unusable product. We recommend using a food or candy thermometer to check temperatures and a heat resistant spoon or spatula to agitate the product. After tempering the chocolate: Cooling, Handling and Storage
1. Place the coated, enrobed or dipped products in the refrigerator (45-50°F) on a level surface. The time required to solidify depends on the size and thickness of the finished chocolate. The chocolate should appear shiny without streaks or a dull finish on the surface. The texture should not feel granular or gritty when eaten. If removal of the pieces from the tray is difficult, then the chocolate is either not completely solid or it was used at the wrong temperature. 2. Place the finished chocolate on waxed paper or plastic wrap until the chocolate has reached room temperature. Product that has been left in the refrigerator too long will develop condensation of moisture on the surface of the finished chocolate. You can wipe this condensation from the surface; however, the surface may appear dull with excess handling. 3. In order to maintain the appearance of the finished product, handle the product as little as possible to minimize scuffing and fingerprints that could scratch the shiny surface and more importantly could destroy the temper on the chocolate or could cause the chocolate to bloom. 4. Store the coated product and any unused portions of chocolate in a dry airtight container or packaging material at room temperature (60-70°F). We do not recommend storing the chocolate in the refrigerator or the freezer as the moisture affects the chocolate. Do not store chocolate near strong odors like onions, garlic, NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology spices etc. as the chocolate may develop these odors in the chocolate. Plastic containers that have strong odors may also have this effect on the chocolate. Characteristics of Untempered Chocolate
Chocolate that is not in temper will not have a shiny, glossy appearance and may have fat bloom (uneven color resulting from streaks of fat or gray appearances of fat on the surface of the chocolate). Un-tempered chocolate will not easily remove and contract from the mold or any surface it cooled in or on, and it will not have a good snap when cut or bitten into. Finally, the inside will not have a smooth texture and may appear granular, as the crystal structure is unstable. If chocolate is properly tempered and cooled, it will not melt immediately at room temperature (60 - 70°F). NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology Principles of Chocolate Enrobing Laboratory

Objective:
A review of enrobing - the equipment and application possibilities
Materials:
Coating - a dark confectionery coating will be used
Centers - items to be coated will be selected items from the class's previous
labs
Equipment:
A large Hilliard enrober with associated equipment, trays, tables, and racks
to display and store ingredients and product, heat gun to demonstrate
variations
Methods: The coating will be melted prior to the lab to allow immediate
discussion on the enrober and its component parts. After review and
instruction on the enrober and its parts the participants will be encouraged to
experiment with possibilities available on an enrober. Discussion will also
include how these items may be sold.
Observations: List major parts of a basic enrobing system and the purpose
each has in enrobing process.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology Conclusions:

1. What are the advantages and limitations on the use of chocolate for 2. How do these differ from the use of confectionery coatings? 3. How do the coated items ("centers") affect the enrobing process? 4. What parts of an enrobing system change when the volume of NCA Resident Course in Confectionery Technology FINISHED CHOCOLATES - TROUBLE SHOOTING
POSSIBLE CAUSE
HAS MIGRATED THROUGH THE CHOCOLATE.
HAS MIGRATED THROUGH THE CHOCOLATE.
1. BARE HANDED PACKERS (MAYBE SWEATY).
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
4. EXCESSIVELY OILY SURFACE OF CENTER.
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
3. COATING TOO VISCOUS IN PREBOTTOMER.
6. RH TOO HIGH IN TUNNEL OR WRAP ROOM.
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
2. WATER OR STEAM LEAK INTO CHOCOLATE.
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
2. CHOCOLATE YIELD VALUE IS TOO LOW.
FINISHED CHOCOLATES
TROUBLE SHOOTING -
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CRYSTALLIZATIONS, DURING TEMPERING.
CHOCOLATE HAND TEMPERING LABORATORY EXERCISE
NCA RESIDENT COURSE
OBJECTIVES
• HANDS ON DEMONSTRATION FOR TEMPERING MILK AND DARK • KEY TEMPERATURES WHEN WORKING WITH MILK AND DARK • IDENTIFY COMMON PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TEMPERING
GENERAL INFORMATION

PROPER TEMPER IS CRITICAL IN THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH- QUALITY CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS. GLOSSY SURFACES, SMOOTH MELTING PROPERTIES, AND THE CHARACTERISTIC SNAP OF CHOCOLATE ARE ALL THE RESULT OF CONTROLLED TEMPERING PARAMETERS. TEMPERING IS A TIME-TEMPERATURE PROCESS TO ENSURE THE FORMATION OF THE RIGHT CRYSTAL FORM. FAT BLOOM CAN BE PREVENTED BY HAVING THE LARGEST NUMBER OF THE SMALLEST POSSIBLE STABLE CRYSTALS. MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE THE TEMPERING PROCESS, INCLUDING PROPER COOLING, COOLING RATES, STIRRING RATES, FAT CONTENT, HOLDING TIMES AND PROPER TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY. IN THIS LABORATORY EXERCISE, WE WILL TEMPER BOTH MILK AND DARK CHOCOLATE BY HAND AND EVALUATE PRODUCTS.

MATERIALS
(4 GROUPS OF APPROX. 2 PEOPLE EACH)
• 4 BROAD BLADE (3 INCH WIDE) SPATULAS • WORK SURFACE (MARBLE SLAB, STAINLESS STEEL, OR FORMICA) • 4 PLASTIC CAKE-TYPE SCRAPERS • THERMOMETERS PROCEDURE
GROUPS 1&2 – MILK CHOCOLATE
GROUPS 3&4 – DARK CHOCOLATE
1. FULLY MELT 4 LBS. OF UNTEMPERED CHOCOLATE TO 115 F IN AN OVEN. STEP 1 HAS BEEN COMPLETED. BEGIN AT STEP 2. 2. POUR ABOUT ¼ OF THE MELTED MASS ONTO YOUR WORK SURFACE. 3. WORK THE CHOCOLATE BACK AND FORTH ON THE WORK SURFACE 4. CONTINUE WORKING THE CHOCOLATE MASS UNTIL THE MASS THICKENS AND BECOMES MUSHY. WORK UNTIL THE MASS HAS A DULL APPEARANCE AND NO LONGER APPEARS WET. 5. REMOVE THE WORKED CHOCOLATE FROM THE WORK SURFACE AND ADD IT TO THE MELTED CHOCOLATE RESERVOIR THAT IS STILL WARM. STIR COMPLETELY. 6. REPEAT STEPS 2-5 UNTIL THE CHOCOLATE REACHES A 84-86 F - MILK CHOCOLATE 86-88 F - DARK CHOCOLATE 7. POUR THE TEMPERED CHOCOLATE INTO THE MOLDS PROVIDED. 8. VIBRATE MOLDS SLIGHTLY TO REMOVE AIR BUBBLES. 9. CAREFULLY PLACE FILLED MOLDS INTO THE COOLING CABINET.
NOTE: AT STEPS 4 AND 6, REMOVE A SAMPLE FROM THE MASS AND
MEASURE ITS TEMPER USING A TEMPERMETER.

OBSERVATIONS AND QUESTIONS

• DOES THE CHOCOLATE HAVE GOOD CONTRACTION – WILL IT • DOES THE CHOCOLATE HAVE GOOD GLOSS -IS IT SHINY OR DULL? • DOES THE CHOCOLATE HAVE A HARD OR SOFT SNAP? • DOES THE CHOCOLATE HAVE GOOD MELTING PROPERTIES?

Source: http://nca.files.cms-plus.com/ResidentCourse/Week2/Labs/ResCourseWk2LbCH12Chocolate.pdf

Microsoft word - role_of_marketing_chapter.doc

THE ROLE OF MARKETING Once a new drug application (NDA) or biologic license application (BLA) is submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the marketing role in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies becomes more apparent. The traditional roles of product, placement, price and promotion become central to the success of the launch; it typically takes 12-18 months of pl

Nep75

NEPHROLOGY 2001; 6 , 266–269 Nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: current therapeutic strategies University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy is currently the commonest cause of end-stage renal failure inmost countries with a Western lifestyle. In addition to progressing to end-stage renal disease, patientsw

Copyright © 2010-2014 Pharmacy Pills Pdf