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Nigerian Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Education (NIJOSTEE), Vol. 3, No. 1, July 2010 ISSN: 0331-9873
In Vitro Determination of Bactericidal Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on
Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichi coli
Medical Microbiology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo. Abstract
Sensitivity patterns of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 227
(35%) males and 418 (65%) females with signs and symptoms suggestive of Urinary
tracts infections (UTls) were determined between May and December 1998 using
garlic extracts. Six hundred and thirty five (98.4%) of the 645 samples were culture
positive while 10 (1.6%) were culture negative. Of the 635 positive cultures, 247
(38.9%) yielded Escherichia coli, 100 (15.7%) were Staphylococcus s, 97 (15.3%)
grew Klebsiella spp, 96 (15.1%) were Streptococcus species, 95 (15.1%) were Candida
species. The potency of garlic extracts were shown by susceptibility of Staphylococcus
aureus and Escherichia colt to it. Zone diameters of 17 - 35mm were obtained from
garlic inhibition against Escherichia coli while that of 16 - 30mm of same were
obtained against Staphylococcus aureus.- The mean zone of inhibition for Escherichia
coli was 29mm and that of Staphylococcus aureus was 20mm. For controls,
Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923),
commercially prepared nalidixic acid (oxoid) and Tetracycline (oxoid) were employed
in the test. On Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) nalidixic acid gave a zone of inhibition
of 20mm while garlic extract gave a zone of inhibition of 25mm, and on
Staphylococcus au reus (ATCC25923) tetracycline gave a zone of inhibition of 20mm
while garlic extracts gave 22mm zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory
concentration of garlic extracts on Escherichia coli was 30mg while that of
Staphylococcus aureus was 50mg. The results of this investigation show that garlic
extract is potent against both E. coli and S.aureaus at concentrations that both naldixc
acid and tetracycline were resisted by these pathogens in vitro. Trials of this extract
can therefore be made in vivo for a possibility of obtaining a cheaper, potent
alternative drug for the treatment of E. coli and S. aureaus infections.

Introduction
counties allover the world. It serves as a In Nigeria, it is believed that garlic has tuberculosis, hypertension, viral, fungal, bacterial, worm infestation and different even when available, it is very costly that afford it. These problems call for a look Nigerian Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Education (NIJOSTEE), Vol. 3, No. 1, July 2010 ISSN: 0331-9873
phosphatase, coagulase tests were used to confirm Staphylococcus aureus- and motility, methyl red, Voges- proskauuer, reach of everybody. Garlic is one of such indole production, citrate utilization and natural herbs that can serve the purpose. This work is intended to authenticate the identification of Escherichia coli. Both Staphylococcus au reus and Escherichia uses of garlic in curing various ailments coli are pinkish on Macconkey agar.
tracts infections (UTIS). Hence this work Escherichia coli. and Staphylococcus quantities before blending. The grounded aureus encountered in the study and to compare this antibacterial activity with water, seeped for 2 -3days before filtering that of known urinary tracts antibiotics paper discs used for the antibiogram of the isolates. The garlic extract yielded Materials And Methods
universal containers containing a little is equivalent to 1,000, 000mcg (s) serial dilution of garlic extracts were made to infection cases such as dysuria, frequent each paper disc was 0.0lml of the garlic garlic extracts, mixed gently, then poured into a clean filter paper to drain excess private hospitals and five private medical Hospital and maternity, Queens Hospital, counted and multiplied by 100 (N x 100), Laboratory and C- fraternity Laboratory, Minimum inhibition concentrations of the collected from patients less than one year to patients as old as 55years of age. Both male and female subjects were used.
subjects were screened for urinary tracts bacterial and antibiotic controls treated as isolate was 247 (38.9%) of Escherichia coli, 100 (15.7%) of Staphylococcus Nigerian Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Education (NIJOSTEE), Vol. 3, No. 1, July 2010 ISSN: 0331-9873
aureus, 97 (15.3%), Klebsiella spp, 96( Table 1: Susceptibility of the isolates to Escherichia coil was shown by zone zone of inhibition of 29mm while that of Staphylococcus aureus of inhibition was sensitivity testing was carried out using inhibition obtained, 20mm by nalidixic acid on Escherichia cole (ATCC 25922), 20mm on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC susceptibility of the isolates to garlic extracts shown by their zone diameters Table 11: MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION (MIC) OF GARLIC EXTRACTS ON THE ISOLATES Mic of Escherichia coli was 30mcgMic of Staphylococcus aureus was 50mcg.
Nigerian Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Education (NIJOSTEE), Vol. 3, No. 1, July 2010 ISSN: 0331-9873
Figure 1 below shows the microbial agents encountered.
FIG. 1. BAR CHART OF THE MICROBIAL AGENTS
ENCOUNTERED
(MICRO-ORGS.) SPP.
Discussion
not affect the potency of the extract.
are potent against Escherichia coli and inhibition on control bacteria Eschericha Staphylococcus aureus isolated from coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC 25923) as well as on the isolated bacteria of the same species.
nalidixic acid and tetracycline gave wider zones of inhibition than the latter.
resisted. This proves that garlic extract is other researchers' interest. Their quest for potent enough against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia co/i in vitro. The diameter which qualifies it to be used as anti bacterial agent against uropathogens to them. Therefore, these workers sought such as Staphylococcus aureus and for an alternative anti bacterial agents Escherichia coli. These findings agree antibacterial agent of garlic (Carvallito et that. Peterson and his colleagues worked extracts of garlic. This work made use of prevention of catheter associated urinary Nigerian Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Education (NIJOSTEE), Vol. 3, No. 1, July 2010 ISSN: 0331-9873
Larry, E. Davis; Jin-Kun, Shen; Van, Cai uropathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus found to Chemotherapy 54 (4): 651 - 653.
observed while using garlic extracts as anti bacterial agent in vitro testing so as and host response in UTls. Sangyolka-diagakuzasshi, 20 (1): 45 – 60 References
Peterson, G. M; Stanton, L. A; Bergin, J.K; Garlic - Facts and Fiction. American Tracts Infections. Journal of Clinical Pharm - Therapy, 22 (2): 147 -153.
Carvallito, C. J; Buck, J. S, and Suiter, CM Shelef, L. A; Naglik, O. A; Bogen, D. W; sage, rosemary and allspice. Journal of food science, 45: 1042 -1044.
(1983) Examination of Urine. Lynch's Medical Laboratory Technology, 4th Edition W. B. Saunders and Company Publishers (philadelphia, London, Toronto, Mexico) 417 422.
Grau, S;Monterde, J; Drobnic, I; Salvado, review. Pharmworld Science19 (5): amino acids. Experimenta 3: 114 -116.
Grau, S., Monterde, J., Drobnic, I., allium leaves. Advanced Enzymology,

Source: http://www.nijostee.net/mydocs/vol3/22.NIJOSTEE%20pp152-156.pdf

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