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IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Daryl McGregor, dmcgregor@alburycity.nsw.gov.au Manager Albury Water, City of Albury, NSW, Australia Abstract
Daryl McGregor was the 2001 recipient of the Albert Mainerd Scholarship, a studyscholarship awarded by the Local Government and Shires Associations of NSW. TheScholarship is awarded annually and rotated among the five professional stafforganisations in Local Government. The 2001 Award was only available to members ofthe IPWEA.
Mr McGregor's topic was Water Resource Management in Israel addressing thespecific areas of water conservation, salinity management and algae control.
This paper outlines details of the study tour, which was undertaken in March 2002 andsummarises the findings relevant to water resource management in Australia.
Key Words: Israel, water conservation, salinity, blue-green algae,
irrigation, aquifer recharge

The author was fortunate enough to bethe recipient of the 2001 Albert Mainerd Scholarship - to study water resourcemanagement issues in Israel. The issues specifically investigated include:- bounded to the west by theMediterranean Sea, to the north by Syria and Jordan, to the east by Jordanand to the south by Egypt.
the Palestinean territories of the WestBank and the Gaza Strip) is 25,970 square kilometres (less than half thesize of Tasmania!).
All these issues are intrinsically linkedand relate to the way we use water.
Israel's topography is dominated by theRift Valley, which is part of the Syrian- applicability of initiatives to Australian Sea of Galilee, along the Jordan RiverValley to the Dead Sea and into thearid south via the Arava Valley.
IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Jordan River. The Jordan Rivereventually discharges into the DeadSea, which is the lowest area on earth Water Resource Management in
Desert where in the south it joins withthe Negev Desert.
Generally speaking, Israel is a dry landcountry with much of the land mass classified as desert. Rainfall varies fromin excess of 800 mm per year in the parliament, comprising 120 membersdrawn from about a dozen political Most of the Country is classified as arid semi-arid. The dry season fallsbetween April and October and little if Country grew rapidly whilst relying oninjections of cash and aid from expansion of industries like chemicals,minerals, plastics, electronics and military technology. Israel has nowbecome a world leader in a number of Israel followed two significant events.
technology and agricultural genetics.
The first wave of migration occurredfollowing the establishment of the British Mandate at the end of the FirstWorld War when many Jewish The total population of Israel, including and particularly post - 1948 when theState of Israel was created. A third nearly 9.0 million by 2020. Including the the Gaza Strip, the total populationserved by water supplies will probably IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
substantial increases in urban demandfor water, but it is anticipated that groundwater into the system, asrequired. (Details of the National water throughout Israel and particularlysouth to the Negev Desert) began in the Ysrael (Jezreel) Valley conveyed inlarge pipes.
Freshwater sources of water in Israelhave now been almost fully exploited.
Settlement of the Negev Desertcommenced in 1943 with three groundwater wells in the north-westernNegev).
Wastewater from a regional populationof 1.3 million people is treated and then in the "Third Negev Pipeline" for use in 50 x 106 m3/yr Reverse Osmosis Plant.
Beer Sheva. The Carrier is acombination of pipelines, channels, reservoirs, tunnels and local storages,supplying around 400 x 106 m3/yr.
Saline water has been found to besuitable for irrigating a range of then pumped, in stages, to the Negev.
subject to cultivation in mediums otherthan soil or in sandy, sandy/loam soils Aquifer in the north; and the CoastalAquifer) supplement supply to theNational Carrier. The Coastal Aquifer IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Issues of Interest
annum (or more) for an averageconsumption of approximately 200 plants, each of 50 x 106 m3/yr capacity.
native, water efficient and salt tolerant are that the desalinisation program willexpand to a capacity of 500 - 600 x 106 Agricultural irrigation is almost entirely dominated by drip irrigation.
Increasingly, irrigation is sub-surface, concentrate on sea water initially, but it chloride) is ensuring optimum wateruse efficiency.
Currently, Israel uses approximately250 to 300 x 106 m3/yr of reclaimed Increasingly, the use of saline water (up cotton and alfalfa are drip irrigated with as irrigation with fresh water, in manyinstances the product is better quality.
"Sweet" tomatoes, for example, grown also expected to be actively pursued.
3-4 times the price of "normal"tomatoes in European markets. Alfalfa 18% protein, compared to 14% in cropsgrown with fresh water.
Water conservation and water useefficiency are extremely important to The increasing use of "fertigation" and water resource management in Israel.
advances in irrigation technology andrevolutionary agricultural practices.
improvements and local area salariesand overheads, the average cost to allurban consumers is typically A$600 per IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Rainfall runoff in the Negev is also used to recharge aquifers by directing allstormwater to Loess infiltration areas.
The major water resource managementmeasures expected to be implemented impacts are not a major issue in Israel,principally because most aquifers are groundwaters are evident, mitigationmeasures employed include:- engineered bacteria for early toxindetection in all water sources Provision of free drainingsubgrades and underdrainage to blue-green algae in Lake Kinneret andother storages has been of concern to chlorinated hydrocarbons inaquifers (particularly range of re-use options (includingurban use) for reclaimed water • Use of algae eating fish (Tilopia) as These measures appear to have beensuccessful in keeping the blue-greenalgae problem in check.
IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
(particularly) the agricultural sectors isalso considered essential to the on- reduced cost of desalinisation(US$0.527 per kilolitre) Summary and Conclusions
increased use of effluents; even inurban situations Although the trip was marred to someextent by security issues and tensions from visiting sites and talking to experts and sub-surface irrigation results inextremely efficient water use land area of 25,970 square kilometresand a population of 6.5 million (8.0 of tomatoes, melons, flowers,olives, cotton, alfalfa etc Most of the country is desert, with onlythe northern part receiving more than house agriculture, coupled with dripirrigation and "fertigation" and the Country. Renewable freshwaterresources have been fully allocated, extensive use of reclaimed sewageeffluents and desalinisation of sea supplies of "fresh" water will largely rely on desalinisation of Mediterranean Seawater.
IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
efficient, salt tolerant nativespecies, underdrainage, the absence of lawns and garden"beds" and the extensive use of salt The study tour was of considerablebenefit to the author and to enhancing affected, Country. It is hoped that thefindings will be of value to local Acknowledgements
Australia and Israel who assisted witharrangements for the Study Tour.
Particular thanks are extended to thefollowing:- IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Appendix A
IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Appendix B
IPWEA NSW Division Annual Conference 2002
Author Biography
Daryl McGregor graduated from Melbourne University in
1973 with a Degree in Civil Engineering (with honours).
He obtained his Master of Engineering Science degree in
1988 from the University of New South Wales,
specialising in waste management, and completed his
Masters Degree in Business Administration (MBA) in
1992. He is also a qualified Engineer of Water Supply in
Victoria, a qualified Municipal Engineer in both Victoria
and New South Wales, a Fellow of the Institute of
Engineers Australia, a Fellow of the Institute of Public
Works Engineering, Australia and a Member of a further
eight Professional Associations.
His areas of expertise and interest embrace localgovernment management, water supply, water resources,natural resource management, wastewater treatment andmanagement, civil engineering, traffic management,infrastructure development and environmentalmanagement.
Mr McGregor is a Registered Professional Engineer and aChartered Engineer of the International Council ofEngineering Institutions.
He is also an executive of the following professionalCommittees and Working Groups:- • Chairperson, Murray Catchment Management Board • Murray Unregulated River Management Committee • Murray Darling Basin Commission, Community Advisory Committee to the Ministerial Council • Murray Darling Basin Commission, Community • Murray Darling Basin Commission, Rivers Knowledge Postal Address: Manager Albury Water, City of Albury,
553 Kiewa Street, Albury NSW 2640 Australia

Source: http://old.ipwea.org.au/papers/download/McGregor.pdf


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