The NCP1800 is a constant current, constant voltage (CCCV) lithium ion battery charge controller. The external sense resistor setsthe full charging current, and the termination current is 10% of theFull−Charge current (0.1 C). The voltage is regulated at ±1% during
the final charge stage. There is virtually zero drain on the battery whenthe input power is removed.
Integrated Voltage and Programmable Current Regulation • Integrated Cell Conditioning for Deeply Discharged Cell PIN CONNECTIONS AND
• Charger Status Output for LED or Host Processor Interface Applications
PMOS/Schottky (FETKYt): NTHD4P02FT1 (ChipFETt)PMOS: NTGS3441T1 (TSOP 6) Shipping
†For information on tape and reel specifications, including part orientation and tape sizes, pleaserefer to our Tape and Reel Packaging Specifications Figure 1. Typical Application
 Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2004 November, 2004 − Rev. 5
Figure 2. NCP1800 Internal Block Diagram
This is one of the inputs to the current regulator and the end−of−charge comparator.
A resistor from this pin to ground pin sets the full charging current regulation level.
This is a multifunctional pin that is used for compensation and can be used to interrupt charge with an opendrain/collector output from a microcontroller. When this pin is pulled to ground, the charge current is interrupted.
This is an input that is used to sense battery voltage and is the other input to the current regulator. It also servesas the input to the battery overvoltage comparator.
An open drain output that indicates the battery charging status.
This is a multifunctional pin that powers the device and senses for over and undervoltage conditions.
This is a current source driver for the pass transistor.
Maximum ratings are those values beyond which device damage can occur. Maximum ratings applied to the device are individual stress limitvalues (not normal operating conditions) and are not valid simultaneously. If these limits are exceeded, device functional operation is not implied,damage may occur and reliability may be affected.
Human Body Model (HBM) per JEDEC standard JESD22−A114 Machine Model (MM) per JEDEC standard JESD22−A114 Latchup Current Maximum Rating per JEDEC standard JESD78 1. For additional information, see Application Note AND8003/D.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C for typical values, −20°C < TA < 85 °C for min/max values, unless otherwise noted.)
VCC = 6.0 V, 3.0 V t VSNS t 4.2 V, RISEL = 60 KW, TA = 25°C Full−Charge Current Reference Voltage Temperature Coefficient VCC = 6.0 V, 3.0 V t VSNS t 4.2 V, RISEL = 60 KW VCC = 6.0 V, VSNS t 3.0 V, RISEL = 60 KW, TA = 25°C Pre− Charge Current Reference Voltage Temperature Coefficient Hysteresis of VCC Undervoltage Lockout (VUVLO), TA = 25°C Hysteresis of VCC Undervoltage Lockout Voltage (VUVLO) Temperature VCC = 6.0 V, VSNS u 4.2 V, RISEL = 60 KW, TA = 25°C End−of−Charge Voltage Reference Temperature Coefficient 2. See the “External Adaptor Power Supply Voltage Selection” section of the application note to determine the minimum voltage of the charger
(TA = 25°C for typical values, −20°C < TA < 85 °C for min/max values, unless otherwise noted.)
Charge Disable Threshold Voltage (ICOMP = 100 mA min.) Hysteresis of VCC Overvoltage Lockout (VOVLO),TA = 25°C Hysteresis of VCC Overvoltage Lockout (VOVLO) Temperature Coefficient Hysteresis of VSNS Overvoltage Lockout (VSOVLO), TA = 25°C Hysteresis of VSNS Overvoltage Lockout (V Full−Charge Current Range with RSNS = 0.4 W Full−Charge Current Range with RSNS = 0.8 W CFLG Pin Output Low Voltage (CFLG = LOW, ICFLG = 5.0 mA)
Figure 3. Pre−Charge Threshold Voltage versus
Figure 4. Pre−Charge Current Reference Voltage
Input Supply Voltage
versus Input Supply Voltage
Figure 5. Pre−Charge Current Reference
Figure 6. Full−Charge Current Reference Voltage
Voltage versus Battery Voltage
versus Battery Voltage
Figure 7. Full−Charge Current Reference
Figure 8. End of Charge Reference Voltage
Voltage versus Input Supply Voltage
versus Input Supply Voltage
RISEL, CURRENT PROGRAMMING RESISTANCE (kW) Figure 9. Battery Drain Current versus
Figure 10. Pre−Charge Current
Battery Voltage
versus Current Programming Resistor
Figure 12. VEOC/VFCHG versus Current
Current Programming Resistor
Programming Resistor
Figure 13. Input Supply Current versus Input
Supply Voltage
Fault Modes:1. Charger Low Output (VCC < VUVLO)2. Runaway Charger (VCC > VOVLO) Figure 14. NCP1800 State Machine Diagram
2. Runaway Charger (VCC > VOVLO)3. Battery Removed (V Figure 15. NCP1800 Charging Operational Flow Chart
Figure 16. Typical Charging Algorithm
Charge Status
Pre−Charge, Full−Charge and Final Charge End−of−Charge, Trickle Charge and Faults
Operation Descriptions
Since the external P−channel MOSFET is used to regulate The NCP1800 is a linear lithium ion (Li−ion) battery the current to charge the battery and operates in linear mode charge controller and provides the necessary control as a linear regulator, power is dissipated in the pass functions for charging Li−ion batteries precisely and safely.
transistor. Designing with a very well regulated external It features the constant current and constant voltage method adaptor (e.g. 5.1 V ±1%) can help to minimize the heat dissipation in the pass transistor. Care must be taken inheatsink designing in enclosed environments such as inside Conditioning and Pre−charge Phase
the battery operated portables or cellular phones.
The NCP1800 initiates a charging cycle upon toggling the The Full−Charge phase continues until the battery voltage COMP/DIS to LOW or application of the valid external reaches VREG. The NCP1800 comes in two options with power source (i.e. VUVLO t VCC t VOVLO) with the Li−ion battery present or when the Li−ion battery is inserted.
Before a charge cycle can begin, the battery conditions are Final Charge (Voltage Regulation) Phase
verified to be within safe limits. The battery will not be Once the battery voltage reaches VREG, the pass transistor charged when its voltage is less than 0.9 V or higher than is controlled to regulate the voltage across the battery and the Final Charge phase (constant voltage mode) begins. Once Li−ion batteries can be easily damaged when fast charged the charger is in the Final Charge phase, the charger from a completely discharged state. Also, a fully discharged maintains a regulated voltage and the charging current will Li−ion battery may indicate an abnormal battery condition.
begin to decrease and is dependent on the state of the charge With the built−in safety features of the NCP1800, the Li−ion of the battery. As the battery approaches a fully charged battery pre−charges (Pre−Charge Phase) at 10% of the full condition, the charge current falls to a very low value.
rated charging current (IREG) when the battery voltage islower than V Trickle Charge Phase
PCTH and the CFLG pin is HIGH. Typically, the During the Final Charge phase, the charging current continues to decrease and the NCP1800 monitors thecharging current through the current sense resistor RSNS.
Full−Charge (Current Regulation) Phase
When the charging current decreases to such a level that ISNS When the battery voltage reaches VPCTH, the NCP1800 < 0.1 X IREG, the CFLG pin is set to LOW and the Trickle begins fast charging the battery with full rate charging Charge phase begins. The charger stays in the Trickle current IREG. The NCP1800 monitors the charging current Charge phase until any fault modes are detected or the at the ISNS input pin by the voltage drop across a current COMP/DIS pin is pulled low to start over the charging cycle.
sense resistor, RSNS, and the charging current is maintainedat IREG by the pass transistor throughout the Full−Chargephase.
IREG is determined by RSNS and RISEL with the following And with RISEL = 60 k and RSNS = 0.4 W, IREG = 0.6 A.
Figure 17. Typical Application Circuit for Lower Capacity Batteries (120 mAh shown here)
Figure 18. Typical Application Circuit for Higher Capacity Batteries (600 mAh shown here)
Selecting External Components
External Adaptor Power Supply Voltage Selection
Since the NCP1800 is using a linear, charging algorithm, the efficiency is lower. Adapter voltage selection must be done carefully in order to minimize the heat dissipation. In general, the power supply input voltage should be around5.0 to 6.0 V. The minimum input voltage should be chosen to minimize the heat dissipation in the system. Excessively 5.0 V * 4.2 V * 0.38 V * (0.6 A) (0.4 W) + 0.18 V high input voltages can cause too much heat dissipation and Maximum RDS(on) should be less than (0.18 V)/(0.6 A) = will complicate the thermal design in applications like cellular phones. With the overvoltage protection feature of the NCP1800, input voltages higher than 7.0 V will activate the overvoltage protection circuit and disconnect the power supply input to the battery and other circuitry.
Dropout across pass element = 5.0 V − 4.2 V − 0.43 V − ) VF of Schottky Diode ) voltage drop of RSNS Therefore, maximum RDS(on) should be less than (0.13 V)/(0.12 A) = 1.08 W at 0.12 A.
External Output Capacitor
Any good quality output filter can be used, independent of the capacitor’s minimum ESR. However, a 10 mF tantalum capacitor or electrolytic capacitor is recommended at the If the output voltage accuracy is 5%, then a typ. 5.2 V output to suppress fast ramping spikes at the V 5% output voltage adaptor must be used.
to ensure stability for 1.0 A at full range. The capacitor And for a very good regulated adaptor of accuracy 1%, should be mounted with the shortest possible lead or track 5.0 V ±1% output voltage adaptor can then be used. It is obvious that if tighter tolerance adaptors are used, heatdissipation can be minimized by using lower nominal Current Sense Resistor
The charging current can be set by the value of the current sense resistor as in the previous formula. Proper de−rating Pass Element Selection
is advised when selecting the power dissipation rating of the The type and size of the pass transistor is determined by resistor. If necessary, RISEL can also be changed for proper input−output differential voltage, charging current, current selection of the RSNS values. Take note of the recommended sense resistor and the type of blocking diode used.
full−charge current ranges specified in the electrical The selected pass element must satisfy the following characteristics section. Also notice the effect of RISEL on the accuracy of pre−charge current and end−of−charge VIN(min) * Li−ion regulated voltage * VF * IREG RSNS
6X 0.0256
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