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Microsoft word - afl 09-36-1.doc
State of California—Health and Human Services Agency
MARK B HORTON, MD, MSPH
Prophylaxis for Ophthalmia Neonatorum During Erythromycin (0.5%)
The recommended prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum, erythromycin (0.5%)
ophthalmic ointment, has been identified as being in short supply by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
A new CDC web page has been created to provide updates on securing supplies and
recommendations for preventing increases in ophthalmia neonatorum during the
Recommendations as of September 4, 2009 for managing ophthalmia neonatorum
prophylaxis during the shortage are outlined below. Also provided is a review of the
guidelines for chlamydia and gonorrhea screening in pregnancy as well as empiric
management for exposed neonates. This shortage can also serve to underscore the
importance of screening during pregnancy and timely treatment prior to delivery as they
are the most effective measures to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum . Secure supplies:
1. Review your supplies of erythromycin ophthalmic ointment (0.5%) routinely. 2. Reserve current supplies of erythromycin ophthalmic ointment (0.5%) for
neonatal prophylaxis use. - Health care providers should check with their pharmacies to ensure they are
aware of the shortage, are monitoring supplies and only using erythromycin ophthalmic ointment (0.5%) for newborns.
Licensing and Certification Program, MS 0512, P. O. Box 997377, Sacramento, CA 95899-7377
3. For severely low supplies (i.e., depletion within a week), contact your wholesale
distributor or call Bausch and Lomb customer service at 1-800-323-0000 directly. Notify the FDA drug shortage e-mail account (email@example.com ), if supplies are not available.
Status of erythromycin (0.5%) ophthalmic ointment production and availability:
We have received reports that Bausch and Lomb has increased production and are
shipping as they manufacture to three wholesalers, AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal
Health and McKesson. Since Bausch and Lomb does not sell directly to hospitals, it
would be better to call one of these three wholesalers. As of today, none of the
wholesalers currently have it in stock. Bausch and Lomb reports they anticipate
shipping to wholesalers in mid September and they expect it will take 30 to 60 days to
meet market demand.
Valencia: (800) 648-4026
Corona: (800) 252-8773
Sacramento: (800) 635-4907
(800) 482-3784 Alternatives if erythromycin (0.5%) ophthalmic ointment is unavailable
1. AzaSite® (Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution 1%, Inspire Pharmaceuticals) is the
CDC recommended substitute. - Recommend dose is 1-2 drops placed in the conjunctival sac of each eye. Because this is a solution rather than an ointment, it is important that drops are placed properly. Consider a two person administration approach– one to hold the eye lids open and the other to administer the medication. Use is recommended whether the infant is delivered vaginally or by cesarean section.
2. Other alternatives include: Gentak® (Gentamicin Ophthalmic Ointment 0.3%,
Akorn) or Tobrex® (Tobramycin Opththalmic Ointment 0.3%, Alcon Laboratories).
3. California laws do not prohibit the use of these alternatives. 4. Since efficacy data are not available for any of the alternate regimens, providers
should be alert to the possibility of failure of prophylaxis and follow the AAP recommendation that infants be seen for their first postnatal office visit 48-72 hours post discharge from the hospital. At this visit, examine closely for ophthalmia neonatorum. Testing for N. gonorrhoeae
should be included for all
infants with ophthalmia neonatorum and reports of prophylaxis failure sent to local health departments and to CDC.
5. Tetracycline ophthalmic ointment and silver nitrate are no longer available in the
6. Betadine (povidone iodine) is not recommended.
California Law regarding ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis and treatment
Under California law (Business and Professions Code, Section 551), it is the duty of any
physician, surgeon, obstetrician, midwife, nurse, maternity home or hospital of any
nature, parent, relative, and any person or persons attendant upon, or assisting in any
way whatsoever, either the mother or child, or both, at
childbirth, to treat both eyes of the infant within two hours after birth with a prophylactic
efficient treatment, and in all cases where the child develops within two weeks after its
birth ophthalmia neonatorum, and such person knows it to exist, to report the case
within 24 hours after knowledge, in such form as the department directs, to the local
health officer of the county or city within which the mother of any such infant resides.
• For infants exposed to untreated gonorrhea, empiric treatment is recommended:
Ceftriaxone 25-50mg/kg IV or IM, not to exceed 125 mg, in a single dose
• For infants exposed to untreated chlamydia, monitoring for development of
symptoms prior to initiating treatment is recommended. Treatment includes Erythromycin base or Ethylsuccinate 50mg/kg/day orally divided into 4 doses daily for 14 days.
Guidelines for chlamydia and gonorrhea screening in pregnancy
• All pregnant women should be routinely tested for Chlamydia trachomatis
first prenatal visit. Women aged <25 years and those at increased risk for chlamydia (i.e., women who have a new or more than one sex partner or partner with other partners) also should be retested during the third trimester.
• All pregnant women at risk for gonorrhea or living in an area in which the
prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
is high should be tested at the first prenatal visit for N. gonorrhoeae
. State guidelines further clarify that pregnant women at risk for gonorrhea include those < 25 years of age, with a history of gonorrhea in the previous two years, with more than one sex partner in the previous 12 months or a partner with other partners. Prevalence of gonorrhea may be high among African American women over the age or 25, thus screening these women above the age of 25 may be indicated. A repeat test should be performed during the third trimester for those at continued risk.
• Pregnant women who did not receive appropriate screening as part of prenatal
care should be tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea prior to delivery, and results obtained as soon as possible.
September 8, 2009
Our Center for infectious Diseases (CID) encourages you to monitor the CDC web site
for future information on the shortage of erythromycin (0.5%) ophthalmic ointment.
Please feel free to contact Dr. Gail Bolan if you have any questions or have severely
low supplies at firstname.lastname@example.org or at (510) 620-3400.
Sincerely, Original Signed by Kathleen Billingsley, R.N.
Kathleen Billingsley, R.N.
Center for Health Care Quality
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2011), 61, 2338–2341Glaciecola arctica sp. nov., isolated from Arcticmarine sedimentYan-Jiao Zhang,1 Xi-Ying Zhang,1 Zi-Hao Mi,1 Chun-Xiao Chen,1Zhao-Ming Gao,1 Xiu-Lan Chen,1 Yong Yu,2 Bo Chen21The State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Marine Biotechnology Research Center,Shandong University, Jinan 250100, PR China2
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