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Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers

Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 68 (5), 1135–1138, 2004 Suppressive Effects of Dietary Fiber in Yogurt on the PostprandialSerum Lipid Levels in Healthy Adult Male Volunteers Shizuki KONDO, Jin-zhong XIAO,y Noritoshi TAKAHASHI, Kazuhiro MIYAJI,Keiji IWATSUKI, and Sadayuki KOKUBO Food Research and Development Laboratory, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Zama 228-8583, Japan Received October 24, 2003; Accepted January 19, 2004 This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation ofpostprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study.
Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly sup- pressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum rem- nant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of Very-low-density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 144:1 Æ 26:6 PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.
dietary fiber; yogurt; triglyceride; remnant- 1 All values were measured for the pre-intake blood sample (n ¼ 11).
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a However, the suppressive effect of PHGG on the positive correlation between the elevated serum total postprandial elevation of serum lipid concentrations cholesterol (TCH) level and risk of emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD).1,2) Previous studies have In the present study, a single-blind, placebo-control- indicated that the magnitude of the postprandial serum led, within-subject crossover study was performed to test triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoprotein responses the suppressive effect of PHGG in yogurt on the after a fat-rich meal were greater in patients with CAD postprandial serum lipid elevation in a fat tolerance than in individuals without CAD.3,4) Postprandial lipe- test. The subjects were all healthy adult males with mia is thus considered to be associated with the development of CAD. Serum remnant-like particle 280 mg/dl). The characteristics of the subjects are cholesterol (RLP-C) and other lipoproteins have recently presented in Table 1. The study was planned and carried been noted as indices of postprandial lipemia.4) Ap- out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and proaches to reduce the postprandial serum concentra- the study protocol was approved and controlled by the tions of RLP-C and TG are thus considered to be local ethics committee of Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Guar gum, a water-soluble dietary fiber, and its A pilot study, using a randomized, single-blind, enzymatic hydrolysate (partially hydrolyzed guar gum, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design, PHGG), have been well demonstrated to be effective in was conducted. Eleven subjects participated in this lowering the serum TCH and TG concentrations.6–8) Irie study. They were instructed not to deviate from normal et al.9) have reported that the intake of a high-fat meal enriched with 8 g of guar gum resulted in lower levels of throughout the experimental period. Each subject was postprandial serum TG concentration at 2 h and 4 h after studied on two occasions, on the same day of the week, food consumption. Yamatoya et al.10) have found that with an interval of one week between the study days.
the intake of 15 g of PHGG resulted in a significant During each study week, the subjects were instructed to suppression of blood glucose in a glucose tolerance test.
follow consistent menus on Monday, Tuesday, and y To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +81-46-252-3033; Fax: +81-46-252-3044; E-mail: j xiao@morinagamilk.co.jpAbbreviations: AUIC, area under the incremental curve; PHGG, partially hydrolyzed guar gum; TG, triglyceride; RLP-C, remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol; CAD, coronary artery disease Postprandial Changes in the Serum Level of TG (a), RLP-C (b), TCH (c), FFA (d), LDL (e) and VLDL (f) after the Administration of Test ) Supplementation of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG, 6 g, n ¼ 11).
Significantly different from the control value at the given time, ÃP < 0:05 determined by a paired student’s t-test.
Wednesday. On each Wednesday evening, each subject Drinking yogurt samples were prepared as described consumed the same defined dinner of sushi. The subjects previously,11) using the three cultures of Streptococcus were then fasted for at least 14 h, but were permitted to thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulga- drink water until the test sample consumption the next ricus, and Bifidobacterium longum, all of which were morning. On Thursday morning, the subjects were given stock cultures of Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., a 300 g portion of test food composed of 200 g of yogurt Japan. PHGG, provided by Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd., with or without 6 g of PHGG mixed with 100 g of a fat- Japan,12) was dissolved in the milk base at a concen- and cholesterol-rich food. After ingesting the test food, tration of 3.0% (w/w) before pasteurization. The the subjects were instructed to rest, not to move much, to fermented milks were then homogenized aseptically to refrain from sleeping, and not to consume anything other make each drinking yogurt sample. A 100-g amount of than water until the end of the study. Before and 2, 4 and each yogurt sample had an energy content of approx- 6 h after consuming the test food, the subjects were imately 50 kcal and contained 3.0 g of protein and 0.6 g interviewed, and blood samples were taken from the of milk fat. The fat- and cholesterol-rich food was prepared from 80 g of milk cream, 12 g of egg yolk powder and 8 g of water. One hundred grams contained Postprandial Changes from the Baseline in the Peak, Time 433 kcal of energy, 5.2 g of protein, 43.5 g of fat and to Peak and Area under Incremental Curve (AUIC) of SerumTriglyceride and RLP-Cholesterol after the Administration of Test Food Containing Yogurt with or without Partially Hydrolyzed Guar The analysis of the blood samples was performed by SRL Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. Serum TCH, free fattyacid (FFA), and TG were measured with a 7450 automatic analyzer (Hitachi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).
Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low- density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured with a 7150 automatic analyzer (Hitachi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan).
Serum RLP-C was measured by the method described Statistical analyses were performed by SAS (version 8.2; SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA), each result being expressed as the mean Æ SEM. Data for the serum 1 Each values is presented as the mean Æ SEM, n ¼ 11.
à lipid parameters obtained from the crossover study were Significantly different from the control value.
fitted to a two-period crossover model. The effects ofsequence, period, and treatment were examined by using AUIC values of serum TG (85%, P ¼ 0:0330) and RLP- two-way crossover ANOVA. The value of each peak C (77%, P ¼ 0:0158) were observed in the 6 g of PHGG and the time required to reach each peak for both group, as compared with the control group. Marked postprandial serum TG and RLP-C were averaged as the increases in serum VLDL (peak value of the control incremental peak and time to the peak, respectively. The group, þ39:5%; and of the 6 g of PHGG group, þ53:3% area under the incremental curve (AUIC) of the against the initial values) and FFA (peak value of the postprandial serum TG and RLP-C concentrations above control group, þ43:5%; and of the 6 g of PHGG group, the baseline plotted 2, 4 and 6 hours after consumption þ62:1% against the initial values), a slight decrease in was geometrically calculated by using the trapezoidal serum LDL (peak value of the control group, À10:5%; rule and is expressed as mgÁh/dl. In this calculation, any and of the 6 g of PHGG, À12:8% against the initial serum concentration that fell beneath the baseline level values), and little change in serum TCH (peak value of was calculated as zero. A two-sided t-test was con- the control group, À2:8%; and of the 6 g of PHGG ducted, with a significance level set at P < 0:05.
group, À4:4% against the initial values) were observed All the subjects were in good health throughout the during the postprandial period; however, PHGG supple- study period, and none complained of diarrhea or other mentation had no statistically significant effect on these discomfort after the consumption of any of the test variables. There was no significant sequential effect or foods. The average body weight of each subject period effect on the incremental peak, time to peak, or measured on each study day did not change significantly AUIC in this study. These results clearly indicate the during the study period (data not shown).
ability of a small quantity of PHGG to reduce the Figure 1 shows the postprandial changes in serum TG postprandial serum TG and RLP-C concentrations.
(a), RLP-C (b), TCH (c), FFA (d), LDL (e) and VLDL In addition, a single-administration study was con- (f) in the crossover study. The serum TG and RLP-C ducted by giving yogurt supplemented with 3 g of concentrations increased markedly during the postpran- PHGG to nine of the eleven subjects employed in the dial period (peak values for the control: þ84:8% and crossover study. A suppressive effect close to that of the þ73:1%; and for 6 g of PHGG: þ84:0% and þ57:9% for 6 g of PHGG administration in the crossover study was TG and RLP-C against the initial values, respectively).
observed on the postprandial elevation of the serum TG Higher peak levels of serum TG and RLP-C were and RLP-C concentrations (data not shown).
observed 2 h after consumption than 4 h after. The intake Postprandial lipemia is generally considered to result of 6 g of PHGG in yogurt resulted in a significant from delayed digestion due to a low level of lipoprotein suppression of the peak levels of serum TG and RLP-C, lipase activity, this causing high levels of serum TG and as compared with the intake of the control yogurt (Figs.
chylomicron; in some cases, the elevated levels will 1a and 1b). The suppressive effect of the 6 g of PHGG continue for hours after food consumption. The sup- was still detectable after 4 h but had disappeared 6 h pressive effect of guar gum on the postprandial serum after the test food consumption. Compared with the TG concentrations is suggested to have been due to the control levels, the incremental peaks of serum TG and influence on the fat absorption rate, the site and route of RLP-C in the subjects consuming 6 g of PHGG were fat absorption, and the formation and removal rates of reduced to 88% (P ¼ 0:0681) and 76% (P ¼ 0:0303), TG-rich lipoproteins.9) In the present study, the effect of respectively (Table 2). The time to the peak value of 6 g of PHGG was evident on the peak levels as well as serum TG in the subjects consuming 6 g of PHGG AUICs of serum TG and RLP-C, and although not tended to be delayed slightly but not significantly in significantly, on the time to peak which were also comparison with the control group. Significantly lower slightly delayed. These results indicate that PHGG affected the rate and speed of fat absorption more than Koskinen, P., and Manninen, V., Helsinki heart study: TG removal from the serum. PHGG has a branched Primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged structure with galactose side chains, and may be men with dyslipidemia. Safety of treatment, changes in involved in interrupting the emulsification and micelle risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease. N.
Engl. J. Med., 317, 1237–1245 (1987).
formation of fat and bile acids. The suppressive effect on Chen, W., and Anderson, J. W., Effects of guar gum and fat absorption in the digestive tract may also have wheat bran on lipid metabolism of rats. J. Nutr., 109, contributed to the serum TCH and TG reduction, as has been observed in continuous intake studies on PHGG.7,8) Ide, T., Moriuchi, H., and Nihimoto, K., Hypolipidemic The results of the present study demonstrate that effects of guar gum and its enzyme hydrolysate in rats PHGG could influence the postprandial serum TG and fed highly saturated fat diets. Ann. Nutr. Metab., 35, 33– RLP-C elevation in healthy male volunteers. Since a high postprandial serum TG level is considered to be a Yamatoya, K., Kuwano, K., and Suzuki, J., Effects of risk factor for CAD,3,14,15) further studies are being hydrolyzed guar gum on cholesterol and glucose in planned to assess the effect of PHGG on serum TG humans. Food Hydrocolloids, 11, 239–242 (1997).
concentrations in volunteers with hypertriglyceridemia.
Irie, N., Hara, T., and Goto, Y., The effects of guar gumon postprandial chylomicronemia. Nutr. Rep., 26, 207– Yamatoya, K., Sekiya, K., Yamada, H., and Ichikawa,T., Effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on We wish to thank K. Yoshida of Nutritional Science postprandial plasma glucose and lipid levels in humans.
Laboratory, Morinaga Milk Industry Co. Ltd. for his Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (in Japanese), 46, 199– help with the statistical analysis and for valuable Xiao, J. Z., Kondo, S., Takahashi, N., Miyaji, K., Oshida,K., Hiramatsu, A., Iwatsuki, K., Kokubo, S., andHosono, A., Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats andhealthy adult male volunteers. J. Dairy Sci., 86, 2452– Lipid research clinics program, The lipid research clinics coronary primary prevention trial results, I: reduction in Yamamoto, T., Tamamoto, S., Miyahara, I., Matsumura, incidence of coronary heart disease. J. Am. Med. Assoc., Y., Hirata, A., and Kim, M., Isolation of a -mannan hydrolyzing enzyme and hydrolysis of guar gum by the Levine, G. N., Keaney, J. F., and Vita, J. A., Cholesterol enzyme isolated. Denpun Kagaku (in Japanese), 37, 99– reduction in cardiovascular disease. Clinical benefits and possible mechanisms. N. Engl. J. Med., 332, 512–521 Nakajima, K., Saito, T., Tamura, A., Suzuki, M., Nakano, T., Adachi, M., Tanaka, A., Tada, N., Patsch, J. R., Miesenbock, G., Hopferwieser, T., Nakamura, H., Campos, E., and Havel, R. J., Cholesterol Muhlberger, V., Knapp, E., Dunn, J. K., Gotto Jr., A.
in remnant-like lipoproteins in human serum using M., and Patsch, W., Relation of triglyceride metabolism monoclonal anti apo B-100 and anti apo A-I immunoaf- and coronary artery disease. Studies in the postprandial finity mixed gels. Clin. Chim. Acta, 223, 53–71 (1993).
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Nakamura, H., Ikewaki, K., Nishiwaki, M., and Shige, Akuzawa, K., Nakano, T., Sekiguchi, I., Shimoyama, M., H., Postprandial hyperlipemia and coronary artery dis- Adachi, M., Tange, S., Tanaka, A., Tada, N., and ease. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 748, 441–446 (1995).
Nakajima, K., Remnant-like particles-cholesterol (RLP- Simpson, H. S., Williamson, C. M., Olivecrona, T., C) assay and its clinical application to lipid tests in a Pringle, S., Maclean, J., Lorimer, A. R., Bonnefous, F., postprandial as well as fasting state. Jpn. J. Clin. Pathol., Bogaievsky, Y., Packard, C. J., and Shepherd, J., Postprandial lipemia, fenofibrate and coronary artery Frick, M. H., Elo, O., Haapa, K., Heinonen, O. P., disease. Atherosclerosis, 85, 193–202 (1990).
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