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Executive summary

Government of Samoa

FOR Oranges (Citrus sinensis)
FROM the People’s Republic of China
Quarantine Division
Ministry of Agriculture
IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China Table of Contents

This Import Health Standard for oranges (Citrus sinensis)] from the People’s Republic
of China was prepared by the Technical Policy section of the Quarantine Division,
Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Samoa.
This standard was endorsed by the Assistant Chief Executive Officer, Quarantine
Division, MoA, Samoa on 25 August 2010.
Assistant Chief Executive Officer
Samoan Quarantine Service
(acting under delegated authority)
Import Health Standards are distributed by the Technical Policy Section of the Ministry of Agriculture Quarantine Division. They are made available for public access on the Samoan Quarantine Service web site: INTRODUCTION
This Import Health Standard describes the requirements to be met to enable biosecurity
clearance to be given for fresh fruit of Citrus sinensis (oranges) imported into Samoa
from the People’s Republic of China for human consumption. The commodity description
Citrus sinensis fresh fruit from China” includes fruit in their skins with a pedicel attached,
and no leaves.
In this risk analysis the commodity, “Citrus fresh fruit from China” is defined as fresh fruit of orange and includes fruit in their skins with a pedicel attached, and no leaves. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The phytosanitary terms used in this document conform to those officially recognised under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). The taxonomic terms and naming conventions used follow the International Code on Zoological Nomenclature, the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the Bacterial Code. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries. A type of plant, plant product or other article being moved for trade or other purpose. A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots). An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss. Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled. The perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry. Likelihood of the establishment of a pest. Acceptance by MoA that the circumstances relating to the importation of a consignment are such that the health status of the consignment is equivalent to the health status of a consignment that complies with the requirements of the Import Health Standard. A country from which commodities are sent to another country. A country that is the final destination to which commodities are sent. Entry of a pest resulting in its establishment. Likelihood of the introduction of a pest. International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended. National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC. Established, authorized or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization. The route by which a pest could enter an importing country. Eg, via an imported commodity. Any species, strain or biotype of plant or animal, or any pathogenic agent, injurious to plants or plant products. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China The process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest. An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained. A defined portion of a place of production in which as specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period and that is managed as a separate unit in the same way as a pest free place of production. The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it. Evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and of the associated potential economic consequences. Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest. Certificate patterned after the model certificates of the IPPC. any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of pests. Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests, including establishment of procedures for phytosanitary certification. Area in relation to which a pest risk analysis is conducted. A phytosanitary regulation forbidding the importation or movement of specified pests of commodities. The Quarantine (Biosecurity) Act 2003. A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled. Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China A country through which commodities destined for an importing country are transported or in which a stopover is made at a border post. PART B. IMPORTATION PROCEDURE
Obtaining biosecurity clearance for each consignment of oranges (Citrus
) imported into Samoa from the People’s Republic of China is
dependent upon the consignment meeting the requirements of this Import Health
This Import Health Standard may be reviewed, amended or revoked if there are changes in Samoa’s import policy or the health status of the originating country, or for any other lawful reason, at the discretion of the Assistant Chief Executive Officer of the Quarantine Division. 5 IMPORTER’S
The costs of the Samoan Quarantine Service in performing functions relating to
the importation of oranges (Citrus sinensis)] from the People’s Republic of
China may be recovered upon arrival.
All costs involved with documentation, transport, storage and obtaining a biosecurity direction and /or biosecurity clearance shall be borne by the importer or agent. In order to facilitate clearance of the imported commodity at the border, documentation that enables an Inspector to determine that the consignment complies with the conditions outlined in this Import Health Standard should accompany the consignment. 6 EQUIVALENCE
It is expected that the commodity will meet the conditions of this Import Health Standard in every respect. If the consignment does not comply with the requirements, an application for equivalence may be submitted to the Samoan Quarantine Service for consideration. Detailed information supporting the application for equivalence must be forwarded to the Samoan Quarantine Service for a decision prior to the importation of the commodity.
7 Phytosanitary
MAF Samoa Quarantine Service requires the People’s Republic of China NPPO to undertake either cold-disinfestation or pest free area as an efficacious phytosanitary measure for the high impact fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera minax, and Bactrocera tsuneonis associated with oranges from the People’s Republic of China. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China MAF Samoa Quarantine Service requires the People’s Republic of China NPPO to undertake agreed pest control activities for other (non-fruit fly) high risk pest prior to the commodity arriving in Samoa. These high risk pests are: 7.1 IMPORT
7.1.1 The importer must obtain an import permit from the Samoa Quarantine Service 7.1.2 The following MUST BE certified on an International Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO from the country of origin or exporting country; Been inspected in accordance with appropriate official procedures and considered to be free from quarantine pests specified by MAF Samoa Quarantine Service. Undergone appropriate pest control activities that are effective against : Undergone an appropriate treatment that is effective against associated fruit fly species of economic significance.
7.1.3 Additional declarations to the phytosanitary certificate

i. Been inspected in accordance with appropriate official procedures and considered to be free from quarantine pests specified by MAF Samoa Quarantine Service. AND ii. Undergone an appropriate pest control that are effective against AND iii. Undergone appropriate pest control that are effective against the IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China 7.1.4 The Samoan Quarantine Service requires that the People’s Republic of China’s NPPO sample and visually inspect the consignment according to official procedures for all quarantine pests specified in this Import Health Standard prior to exportation, and ensure that the product conforms to import requirements outlined in this Import Health Standard. 7.1.5 Each consignment must have the original packaging still intact upon arrival in 7.1.6 Each consignment must be free of live insects, seeds, soil, mud, clay, animal material (such as faeces), extraneous contamination (such as straw, twigs, leaves, roots, bark) and other debris upon arrival in Samoa. 7.1.7 The consignment is subject to quarantine inspection upon arrival in Samoa by 8 DOCUMENTATION
Each consignment must be accompanied by an appropriately completed International Phytosanitary Certificate that meets the requirements of the following certificate model (appendix 1). A Phytosanitary Certificate should only be issued if live quarantine pest(s) are not detected, or if the consignment is successfully treated in order to eliminate these pests. If pests are found which are not listed in this Import Health Standard, the People’s Republic of China NPPO must ensure that the pest is not of quarantine concern to Samoa. This information can be gained by contacting the Samoa Quarantine Service. The certificate must be signed by a person authorised by the competent authority and bear an impression of the official stamp on each page. The International Phytosanitary Certificate must state the origin of the products, as well as details of any treatments, such as chemical, active ingredient, time and method used. Products certified on the International Phytosanitary Certificate must be: • Identifiable as the same plant species that this Import Health Standard • Obtained from plants that were grown in and sourced from the PFA area relevant for this Import Health Standard. 9 TRANSIT
The oranges (Citrus sinensis) must be packed and shipped in a manner to
prevent possible post-inspection/treatment infestation and/or contamination by
quarantine pests. Where a consignment is split or has its packaging changed
while in another country (or countries) en route to Samoa, the Samoa Quarantine
Service must be contacted and informed.
The Samoa Quarantine Service will check the accompanying documentation on arrival to confirm that it is correct and reconciles with the actual consignment. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China The Samoa Quarantine Service requires, with 95% confidence, that not more than 0.5% of the units in a consignment are infested with visually detectable, quarantine pests. To achieve this, the Samoa Quarantine Service will sample and inspect 600 units with an acceptance level of zero infested units (or equivalent), from the (homogeneous) lot. The consignment may be directed to a Samoa Quarantine Service approved facility for further treatment if required. 11 ACTIONS UNDERTAKEN ON THE INTERCEPTION/DETECTION OF
If regulated pests, extraneous plant material or trash are intercepted/detected with the commodity, or associated packaging, the following actions will be undertaken as appropriate (depending on the pest identified): • Re-sorting (specific conditions apply) of the consignment; Treatment for those pests for which specific pre-export pest control activities are required; The suspension of trade on the detection of pests for which a pest free areas has been implemented. If an organism is intercepted/detected, the consignment will be held (or equivalent) until an assessment is undertaken to determine the organism’s quarantine status and appropriate measures developed if required. Consignments that are contaminated with extraneous material and/or trash in the 600 unit sample will result in the consignment being held until an assessment has been made in comparison with the risk of importing the part(s) of the plant species concerned. 12 BIOSECURITY
If quarantine pests are not detected, or are successfully treated following interception/detection, biosecurity clearance will be given. The Samoa Quarantine Service reserves the right to audit all processes that are undertaken offshore for high impact pests. FEEDBACK ON NON-COMPLIANCE
The People’s Republic of China’s NPPO will be informed by the Samoan Quarantine Service Assistant Chief Executive Officer of the interception (and treatment) of any quarantine pests or non-compliance with measures specified in this Import Health Standard. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China APPENDIX 1. LIST OF QUARANTINE PESTS AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES
Pest/Disease Type
Quarantine Sanitary Measure
IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China APPENDIX 2. MODEL PHTYOSANITARY CERTIFICATION
(i). Name/s and address/es of processing premises: (ii). Processing premises registration number (if applicable): (i). The commodity contained in this consignment is (describe form and packaging): (ii). Amount (in kgs) of the consignment: (i). Name and address of Samoan importer: This is to certify that the plants, plant products or other regulated articles described herein have been inspected and/or tested according to appropriate official procedures and are considered to be free from the quarantine pests specified by the importing contracting party and to conform with the current phytosanitary requirements of the importing contracting party, including those of regulated non-quarantine pests. They are deemed to be practically free from other pests. (i) Disinfestation and/or Disinfection Treatment Date……………………Treatment……………………Chemical (active ingredient)………………………. Duration and temperature……………………………………………………………………………………. Concentration…………………………………………………………………………………………………. Additional information………………………………………………………………………………………. Note: Official stamp of the government authority of the exporting country must be applied to all pages of the Phytosanitary Certification. IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China 1. Anderson AR, Moore LW, 1979. Host specificity in the genus Agrobacterium. Phytopathology, 69(4):320-323. View Abstract 2. Arcelin R, Kushalappa AC, 1991. A survey of carrot diseases on muck soils in the southwestern part of Quebec. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(2):147-153. View Abstract 3. AQSIQ (2007) Technical information for the export of fresh Chinese pears. Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of PRC. 22p. 4. Bao, L; Chen, K S; Zhang, D; Li, X G; Teng, Y W (2008) An assessment of genetic variability and relationships within Asian pears based on AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Scientia Horticulturae 116(4): 374–380. 5. Bazzi C, 1983. Biological control of crown gall in Italy. in Proc. Int. Workshop on Crown Gall. Wadensville, Switzerland.Bazzi C, Mazzucchi U, Boschieri S, 1980. Biological control trial against bacterial tumour of apple in Alto Adige. Informatore Fitopatologico, 30(6):3-6. View Abstract 6. Bélanger C, Canfield ML, Moore LW, Dion P, 1995. Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors. Journal of Bacteriology, 177(13):3752-3757; 22 ref. View Abstract 7. Bishop AL, Burr TJ, Mittak VL, Katz BH, 1989. A monoclonal antibody specific to Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 and its utilization for indexing grapevine propagation material. Phytopathology, 79(9):995-998. View Abstract 8. Bouzar H, Daouzli N, Krimi Z, Alim A, Khemici E, 1991. Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria, characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, and biological control of strains sensitive and resistant to agroxin 84. Agronomie, 11(10):901-908. View Abstract 9. Bouzar H, Jones JB, Hodge NC, 1993. Differential characterization of Agrobacterium species using carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid profiles. Phytopathology, 83(7):733-739. View Abstract 10. Branson, A; Bugang, W; Bean, C (2004) People’s Republic of China: Fresh Deciduous Fruit Annual 2004. GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) Report. United States Department of Agriculture. 11. Brewer, L R; Hilton, V (2005) The status of the pear industry in Australasia. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on pear. Acta Horticulturae 671: 65–71. 12. Chen, P (2000) Pear. United States Department of Agriculture. Available online at: CPC (2007) Crop Protection Compendium on Internet, accessed in 2008. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL. 13. Bouzar H, Moore LW, 1987. Complementary methodologies to identify specific Agrobacterium strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 53:2660-2665.Bouzar H, Moore LW, 1987. Isolation of different Agrobacterium biovars from a natural oak savanna and tallgrass prairie. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53(4):717-721. View Abstract 14. Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB IHS for oranges from the People’s Republic of China 15. Brisbane PG, Kerr A, 1983. Selective media for three biovars of Agrobacterium. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 54(3):425-431; [1 fig., 5 tab.]; 23 ref. View Abstract 16. Buchholz WG, Thomashow MF, 1984. Host range encoded by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmid pTiAg63 can be expanded by modification of its T-DNA oncogene complement. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):327-332. View Abstract 17. Buchholz WG, Thomashow MF, 1984. Comparison of T-DNA oncogene complements of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmids with limited and wide host ranges. Journal of Bacteriology, 160(1):319-326. View Abstract 18. Burr TJ, Norelli JL, Katz BH, Bishop AL, 1990. Use of Ti plasmid DNA probes for determining tumorigenicity of Agrobacterium strains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(6):1782-1785. View Abstract 19. Burr TJ, Katz BH, 1983. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 from grapevine galls and sap, and from vineyard soil. Phytopathology, 73(2):163-165. View Abstract 20. Canfield ML, Kawalek MD, Moore LW, 1990. Colony hybridization with Ti plasmid probes to Agrobacterium isolates from apple rootstock tumors. Phytopathology, 1001.Canfield M, Lu S, Bouzar H, Hodge C, Jones J, Moore LW, 1993. Diversity of Agrobacterium isolates from Rubus species with crown gall. in 6th Intern. Congr. Plant Path. Montreal, Canada: Nat. Res. Council, Ottawa, Canada.Canfield ML, Putnam ML, White T, Moore LW, 1995. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Phytopathology, 1194.Canfield ML, Moore LW, 1991. Isolation and characterization of opine-utilizing strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fluorescent strains of Pseudomonas spp. from rootstocks of Malus. Phytopathology, 81(4):440-443; 24 ref. View Abstract 21. Canfield ML, Moore LW, 1992. Control of crown gall in apple (Malus) rootstocks using Copac E and Terramycin. Phytopathology, 1153.Close TJ, Tait RC, Kado CI, 1985. Regulation of Ti plasmid virulence genes by a chromosomal locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Bacteriology, 164(2):774-781. View Abstract 22. Cooksey DA, 1986. Galls of Gypsophila paniculata caused by Erwinia herbicola. Plant Disease, 70(5):464-468. View Abstract 23. Cooksey DA, Moore LW, 1980. Biological control of crown gall with fungal and bacterial antagonists. Phytopathology, 70(6):506-509. View Abstract


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