(b) (No doubt some students will have their own suggestions for simplifying the naming system. Sample answer) The
names for esters should reflect the order in which the components are drawn.
7. presence of length of nonpolar hydrocarbon component: CH CH CH CH CH
8. The products formed are likely to be a mixture of ethylamine, diethylamine, and triethylamine. These amines have
different numbers of NH bonds and different numbers of ethyl groups; thus, they have different intermolecular attrac-tions and different melting points and boiling points. The amines can be separated by fractional distillation.
9. The carboxylic acids such as citric acid in lemons and acetic acid in vinegar react with the amines responsible for the
fishy taste in fish to produce amides. For example,
ethanoic acid + dimethylamine → N,N
-dimethyl ethanamide + water
10. (a) Each small unit must contain an amino group and a carboxyl group, so that an amide bond can form between
(b) With both amino groups and carboxyl groups, amino acids are likely fairly soluble in water; they are capable of
SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1. (a) pentyl ethanoate from ethene and an alcohol
CH COOH + CH (CH ) OH → CH COO(CH ) CH + H O
(b) benzyl ethanoate from an alkene and an alcohol
Ø-CHO + (O) → Ø–COOHØ-COOH + CH OH → Ø–COOCH + H O
(e) sodium salt of butanoic acid from an ester
(f) trimethylamine from ammonia and alkanes
-ethyl-ethanamide from an alkane and ammonia
2. Controlled oxidation of 1-hexanol, using an oxidizing agent such as KMnO
3. (a) 2-methyl-1-butanol + (O) → 2-methylbutanal + water
2-methylbutanal + (O) → 2-methylbutanoic acid
2-methylbutanoic acid + ethanol → ethyl-2-methylbutanoate + water
1. Add 2-methyl-1-butanol to an oxidizing agent such as sodium dichromate or potassium permanganate.
2. Add the acid product to an equal amount of ethanol and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid.
3. Heat the mixture in a hot-water bath. Safety Precautions:
Concentrated sulfuric acid is highly corrosive. Avoid contact with skin and clothing. Wear eye protection and a
lab apron. 2-methyl-1-butanol is flammable, so there should be no open flames in the vicinity. Dispose of mate-
rials in designated labelled containers.
(b) CH COOCH –Ø + NaOH → CH COONa + Ø–CH OH
(c) Hydrogen cyanide poisoning occurs mainly through inhalation, rapidly leading to death in sufficient concentra-
tions. It is a colourless liquid (boiling point 26°C). In the 1980s it was used as a highly toxic chemical warfareagent by Iraq against Iran and the Kurds.
Benzaldehyde (boiling point 179°C) is used primarily as a flavouring chemical and as an intermediate for dyes.
It has the odour of almonds, but inhalation may cause coughing, sore throat, and chest pain; high concentrationshave a narcotic effect. Ingestion may cause sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, central nervous system depres-sion, convulsions, and respiratory failure. Skin contact may cause allergic skin reactions.
Natural products are not always healthier than artificial counterparts; many living organisms produce toxins
as a system of defence against pests or predators.
5. (a) Drinking tonic water to treat malaria would not be effective. The required dosage is 1800 mg/d (6 ϫ 300 mg);
this is equivalent to drinking 90 cans of tonic water per day. (However, there has been some suggestion that thecombination of alcohol with the quinine in tonic water enhances the effects!)
(b) Quinine is water soluble because it contains a hydroxyl group, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds with water
(c) Malaria has been recorded since 6000–5500 B.C. Quinine, a toxic plant alkaloid from the bark of the Cinchona
tree, was used to treat malaria over 350 years ago. Synthetically produced chloroquine was developed in 1934,sold under the names of Resochin and Sontochin, and was later modified and renamed Chloroquine. In 1950,control of malaria was attempted by spraying with DDT to kill the carrier mosquitoes. By the 1960s, chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria appeared, as a result of over usage and under dosage. Quinine was used, as well as asynthetic analogue called mefloquine. Another antimalarial drug, called Qinghaosu, has been used in China forover two thousand years and is effective in treating all forms of malaria.
6. The new career may be in either the organic chemistry field (e.g., plastics, pharmaceuticals) or organically grown
foods (e.g., organic farming, organic produce in supermarkets).
7. (Answers will vary but should include reference to several different products, in a variety of categories. Students
should refer to claims made on the labels, and discuss the meanings of these claims. Some personal opinions aboutthe uses of these terms should also be presented.)
Introduction to a series of articles. First let me introduce myself. My name is Ger Plaatsman. For the last 30 years I have been practising, studying and teaching manual therapy. In 1994 I started the Plaatsman Concept of Evidence based manual therapy in Poland. At first only in corporation with the Katowice branch of PTF and AWF Katowice and later also in city’s like Warsaw and Wroclaw.
Candida glabrata: an emergent opportunist in vulvovaginitis Rafael Buitrón-García-Figueroa,* Javier Araiza-Santibáñez,** Erich Basurto-Kuba,*** and Alexandro Bonifaz-Trujillo** Abstract Background: Candida genus has various species. The incidence of C. glabrata has presented itself with more frequency over the past years with clinical importance. Methods: A case study was made