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Vinkers. social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile antillean immigrants

Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants

Registration form (basic details)

1a. Details of applicant

-Title:
-Address for correspondence (for the period of the Veni-round): -Preference for correspondence in English: No -Telephone:
1b. Title of research proposal
Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants.
1c. Summary of research proposal
The incidence of psychosis and crime in Antillean immigrants is alarmingly high. Earlier
findings suggest that both are related to acculturation problems and social defeat. This
has, however, never been studied directly. The current proposal has a prospective
design and aims to study the approximately 1800 juvenile Antilleans immigrating to
Rotterdam over a two year period, with a follow-up after two years. The main aim of
this study is to understand the causal relationship between acculturation and social
defeat on one hand and psychotic symptoms and crime on the other hand. The
research results contribute to urgently needed possibilities for prevention and early
intervention of psychosis in immigrants. Furthermore, they may increase the
understanding of the acculturation process in Antillean immigrants and decrease their
crime rate.
Key words: Antillean immigrants, acculturation, social defeat, psychotic symptoms,
crime.

1d. Host institution (if known)
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

1e. NWO Division
Interdivisional
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants



1f. NWO Domain
Alfa-Gamma
Research proposal

2a. Scientific/Scholarly quality
Overall aim

The overall aim is to study the prospective relationship between acculturation problems
and social defeat on one hand and psychotic symptoms and crime on the other hand in
the approximately 1800 juvenile Antilleans who immigrate to Rotterdam over a two year
period.

Scientific/scholarly background

Migration has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of psychotic
symptoms since Ødegaard showed in 1932 that Norwegian immigrants to the United
States had a twofold increase of admission rates for psychosis1. The findings of Ødegaard
were replicated in Britain after World War II, when large-scale migration began2 3. Afro-
Caribbean immigrants were found to be especially at increased risk of psychosis4-8. These
findings were replicated in Dutch studies, showing an increased incidence of psychosis in
Antillean, Surinamese, and male Moroccan immigrants9-13. A recent meta-analysis
showed that the relative risk of developing psychosis among immigrants is 2.9 (95%
CI=2.5–3.4)14. In Afro-Caribbean immigrants, this risk is even more increased (RR=4.8,
95% CI=3.7–6.2).
Several findings suggest that the emergence of psychotic symptoms in immigrants is
related to acculturation problems and social defeat15-18. The risk of a full-blown psychosis
is highest in immigrants living in areas where they form a minority of the population13 19.
Negative identification with the own ethnic group and discrimination are associated with
psychosis20 21. The risk for psychosis in immigrants is not increased when adverse social
circumstances are taken into account22 and in Turkish and Asian immigrants, who have
often strong social relationships, the incidence of psychosis is normal or only slightly
rised23 24. Afro-Caribbean immigrants diagnosed with psychosis are often unemployed and
separated early from both parents as compared with other immigrants25. Hitherto, studies
into the relation of social defeat and psychotic symptoms in immigrants have been cross-
sectional4. Psychotic symptoms, however, often lead to severe problems in social
functioning. It therefore remains unclear if social defeat is cause or consequence of the
psychotic symptoms.
Acculturation problems and social defeat have also been linked to the very high crime
rates of Antilleans in the Netherlands26. Antilleans have the highest crime rates of all
Dutch immigrant groups: the number of crimes committed per 1000 persons by
Antilleans in Netherlands is more than 100, compared to less than 20 by Dutch natives27.
Acculturation problems leading to social defeat are highly prevalent among Antilleans,
especially juvenile Antillean immigrants28. Several studies have suggested that social
problems such as unemployment, dropping out of school, financial problems and broken
family structures are causally related to the high crime rates in juvenile Antillean
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


immigrants26 29-31. Currently, the policy of the Dutch government on crime in Antillean
juveniles is directed towards acculturation and social problems32.
The relationship between social defeat and crime may in part be explained by psychotic
symptoms, which are associated with an increased risk of crime too33-35. In line with this
hypothesis, the crime rate of Antilleans living on Curaçao is less than 6 per 1000
persons36, as compared with more than 100 per 1000 persons in Antilleans living in the
Netherlands27. Furthermore, there is a disproportionately high number of psychotic Afro-
Caribbean defendants in secure forensic psychiatric institutions38-42. It is therefore
tempting to speculate that social defeat leads to crime through an increased risk of
psychosis.

Originality and/or innovative elements of the topic

The relationship between social defeat and psychotic symptoms in immigrants has not
been studied prospectively hitherto. All collected data will therefore be novel. There are
also no studies into the relationship of social defeat and psychotic symptoms and crime.
The specific attention for Antillean juvenile immigrants is innovative too, as there is a
paucity of data about this group.
Research plan including practical timetable over the grant period

The study proposal has a time span of four years, from 01-01-2011 until 31-12-2014.
Participants will be included and interviewed immediately after immigration in 2011 and
2012 with a follow-up interview after two years. Statistical analysis and reporting of the
data will take place in the last two years.

Methodology

Each year, approximately 900 Antilleans aged 15 to 24 years immigrate to Rotterdam43.
Permission to obtain data from these persons is granted by the city of Rotterdam. The
1800 juvenile Antillean immigrants in a two year period will be contacted immediately
after immigration to participate in the study. They will be offered an Iris-cheque of 10
euro when they participate. The participants will be invited to have an interview in the
Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology at the Noordsingel in
Rotterdam (nearby the Central Station). In case of no-show, participants will be
interviewed at home. After two years, the participants will be interviewed again. The
items of the interview are acculturation (25 items), social defeat (25 items), psychotic
symptoms (42 items) and crime (33 items).
Acculturation
The dynamic process of becoming part of a new culture is called acculturation. It reflects
the degree in which the original culture is retained while adapting to the new culture44.
Table 1 shows the four different patterns of acculturation. Integration is characterized by
bicultural acculturation and is the most adaptive form of acculturation. Separation and
assimilation are forms of unicultural acculturation. In marginalization, acculturation is
diminished for both the new and original culture.
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants

Table 1. Patterns of acculturation. From the Antilleans living in the Netherlands, approximately one-third is integrated, approximately one-third is separated, and approximately one-third is assimilated44. Acculturation will be assessed with the Lowlands Acculturation Scale (LAS), a 25-item scale which has been validated in the Netherlands45. Scores range from “Strongly disagree” (score 1) to “Strongly agree” (score 6). The LAS assesses both the involvement in the new culture and the involvement in the original culture. The scale has five dimensions: skills, traditions, social integration, moral attitudes, and loss. Skills assesses instrumental skills, e.g. understanding of Dutch language. Traditions assesses the preservation of cultural habits, e.g. celebrating of traditional feasts. Social integration assesses the attitude to Dutch society, e.g. contact with Dutch people. Moral attitudes examines the opinion of the moral attitude in Dutch society, e.g. the position of the elderly. Loss assesses feelings of loss concerning the country of birth and the orientation towards other people with the same background. Social defeat Social defeat is defined as a subordinate position leading to feelings of hostility and despair18 46. Acculturation problems are associated with social defeat47. For assessment of social defeat, questionnaires from the International Comparative Study of Ethnocultural Youth (ICSEY) are used. The ICSEY is an international project studying the adaptation and integration of immigrant juveniles. The ICSEY questionnaires have been validated in the Netherlands44 48. The subscales of perceived discrimination, self esteem, and sense of mastery of the ICSEY are used for assessment of social defeat46. The perceived discrimination subscale consists of 9 items, with five items about the experience of being treated negatively or threatened with responses ranging from “Strongly disagree” (score 1) to “Strongly agree” (score 5), and four items about being treated unfair with responses ranging “Never” (score 1) to “Very often” (score 5). The self esteem subscale consists of 10 items (e.g. “On the whole, I am satisfied with myself”), with responses ranging from “Strongly disagree” (score 1) to “Strongly agree” (score 5). The sense of mastery subscale consists of 6 items, and assesses the feeling of being in control (e.g. “What happens in the future mostly depends on me”), with responses ranging from “Strongly disagree” (score 1) to “Strongly agree” (score 5). Psychotic symptoms Psychotic symptoms will be assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42), a validated 42-item self-report questionnaire49. Each item explores the frequency of the experience on a four-point scale of ‘‘Never’’ (score 1), to ‘‘Nearly always’’ (score 4), and the degree of distress associated with this experience on a four-point scale of “Not distressed” (score 1) to “Very distressed” (score 4). The CAPE-42 has 20 items of positive psychotic experiences, 14 items of negative experiences, and 8 items of depressive experiences50. Positive symptoms reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions, e.g. delusions, hallucinations and disorganized thought. Negative symptoms reflect an absence or loss of normal abilities, such as a flat or blunted affect and emotion, lack of motivation, and poverty of speech. The risk of psychosis in immigrants is especially increased in the first years after immigration51. Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


Crime

Delinquent behaviour is assessed using self report questions about 33 offences. This
questionnaire has been validated in the Netherlands in the WODC study about juvenile
delinquency52. The questionnaire is sensitive for delinquent behaviour in juvenile
Antilleans53. The questions are about minor and frequently occurring offences, e.g. fare
dodging in public transport, vandalism and shoplifting, and also to serious and less
frequent ones, e.g. burglary, robbery and hurting someone with a weapon. The offences
include property offenses, vandalism and violent offences. In addition to the self report
approach, permission to obtain information from the police about delinquency in the
study period will be asked.
Originality and/or innovative elements of the approach

This will be the first study to prospectively assess a large group of juvenile Antillean
immigrants. Data about this group is urgently needed26 32 38. Although the questionnaires
has been used in the past in different groups, this will be the first time that they are used
together to assess the temporal relationship between acculturation and social defeat on
one hand and psychotic symptoms and crime on the other hand.

Local, national and international collaboration


The study will be performed in collaboration with the research group of Prof. Dr. H.W.
Hoek, who has conducted several epidemiological studies on the Netherlands Antilles and
among Antilleans and other immigrants in the Netherlands13 19-21 54-56. He is chairman of
the Postgraduate Course in Psychiatry given annually on Curaçao. Prof. Hoek works also
in collaboration with Prof. dr. E. Susser from Colombia University in New York, and dr.
J.P. Selten from University Utrecht11-13. Prof. Hoek was the supervisor of the doctoral
thesis of Dr. N.D. Veen, psychiatrist, on “Incidence and follow-up of schizophrenia”,
published in 200411 57 58. This thesis describes an increased incidence of schizophrenia in
immigrants to the Netherlands. He was also the doctoral supervisor of Dr. W. A. Veling,
psychiatrist, on “Schizophrenia among ethnic minorities”, published in 200813 19-21. This
thesis described that the increased incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants is
strongly influenced by the social and cultural context in which immigrants live.
2b. Research impact

In immigrants, the incidence of psychotic disorders is alarmingly increased1-14. Psychotic
disorders are devastating for patients who suffer from them, often leading to lifelong
psychiatric treatment and compulsory admissions to psychiatric hospitals. The research
results would contribute to the understanding of the relationship between social defeat
and psychotic symptoms in immigrants. When such a relationship is demonstrated, it
offers urgently needed possibilities for prevention and early intervention of psychosis,
especially in immigrants. The research results may also lead improve the acculturation
policy in the Netherlands28 32. Target groups are immigrants and patients suffering from
psychotic disorders. The benefits of the research results may be implemented by
psychiatric services and the Dutch government. The applicant has close relationships with
several psychiatric services, the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and
Psychology and governemental institutions directed at immigrants.
Second, the crime rate among Antilleans in the Netherlands is alarmingly high27 and this
is an important problem for Dutch society32 38. Several studies have suggested that the
high crime rate in Antilleans are related to acculturation problems and social defeat26 29-
31, but there is a paucity of evidence for this hypothesis. In addition, the acculturation of
Antillean immigrants into Dutch society is known to be problematic59. The research
results would lead to better understanding of this problem, more specifically the role of
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in the acculturation process. This would be
in agreement with the current NWO programme of cultural dynamics60. The research
results may lead to a more effective policy to decrease the crime rate in Antilleans.
Target groups are Antilleans in the Netherlands and Antilleans immigrating from the
Antilles. The applicant has close ties with several Antillean institutions in the Netherlands
and in the Antilles and with the Public Prosecutor in Rotterdam (“Antillianenoverleg”),
which may apply the research results in their services.
2c. Number of words used:
- section 2a: 1690 (maximum number of 2000 words) - section 2b: 304 (maximum number of 1000 words)
2d. Any other important remarks with regard to this application
The applicant speaks Papiamento fluently and knows the Antillean culture thoroughly.
2e. Literature references

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2. Kiev A. Psychiatric morbidity of West Indian immigrants in an urban group practice. Br J
Psychiatry. 1965; 111: 51-56.
3. Hemsi LK. Psychotic morbidity of West Indian immigrants. Soc Psychiatry. 1967; 2: 95-100.
4. Sharpley M, Hutchinson G, McKenzie K, Murray RM. Understanding the excess of psychosis
among the African-Caribbean population in England. Review of current hypotheses. Br J Psychiatry.
2001; 40: s60-68.
5. Bhugra D, Leff J, Mallett R, Der G, Corridan B, Rudge S. Incidence and outcome of schizophrenia
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6. Harrison G, Glazebrook C, Brewin J, Cantwell R, Dalkin T, Fox R, Jones P, Medley I. Increased
incidence of psychotic disorders in migrants from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom. Psychol
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7. Harrison G, Owens D, Holton A, et al. A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-
Caribbean patients. Psychol Med. 1988; 18: 643-657.
8. King M, Coker E, Leavey G, Hoare A, Johnson-Sabine E. Incidence of psychotic illness in London:
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Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1994; 29: 71-77.
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11. Selten JP, Veen N, Feller W, Blom JD, Schols D, Camoenie W, et al. Incidence of psychotic
disorders in immigrant groups to The Netherlands. Br J Psychiatry. 2001; 178: 367-372.
12. Schrier AC, van de Wetering BJ, Mulder PG, Selten JP. Point prevalence of schizophrenia in
immigrant
13. Veling W, Selten JP, Veen N, Laan W, Blom JD, Hoek HW. Incidence of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a four-year first-contact study. Schizophr Res. 2006; 86: 189-193. 14. Cantor-Graae E, Selten JP. Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. Am J Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants

15. Hutchinson G, Haasen C. Migration and schizophrenia: the challenges for European psychiatry and implications for the future. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004; 39: 350-357. 16. Hjern A, Wicks S, Dalman C. Social adversity contributes to high morbidity in psychoses in immigrants – a national cohort study in two generations of Swedish residents. Psychol Med. 2004; 34: 1025-1033. 17. Van Os J, McGuffin P. Can the social environment cause schizophrenia? Br J Psychiatry. 2003; 182: 291–292. 18. Selten JP, Cantor-Graae. Social defeat: risk factor for schizophrenia ? Br J Psychiatry. 2005; 187: 101-102. 19. Veling W, Susser E, van Os J, Mackenbach JP, Selten JP, Hoek HW. Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants. Am J Psychiatry. 2008; 165: 66-73. 20. Veling W, Hoek HW, Wiersma D, Mackenbach JP. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities: a case-control study. Schizophr Bull. 2009 May 8. 21. Veling W, Selten JP, Susser E, Laan W, Mackenbach JP, Hoek HW. Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol. 2007; 36:761-768. 22. Mallett R, Leff J, Bhugra D, Pang D, Zhao JH. Social environment, ethnicity and schizophrenia - A case-control study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2002; 37: 329-335. 23. Weyerer S, Hafner H. The high incidence of psychiatrically treated disorders in the inner city of Mannheim. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1992; 27: 142-146. 24. Bhugra D, Leff J, Mallett R, Der G, Corridan B, Rudge S. Incidence and outcome of schizophrenia in whites, African-Caribbeans and Asians in London. Psychol Med. 1997; 27: 791-798. 25. Boydell J, van Os J, McKenzie K, Allardyce J, Goel R, McCreadie RG, et al. Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment. BMJ. 2001; 323:1336-1338. 26. Van der Hijden S, Smeulders V, Fermin A. State-of-the-Art studie Antilliaanse risicojongeren. QA+, 20 maart 2005. 27. Jenissen, RPW, Blom M. Allochtone en autochtone verdachten van verschillende delicttypen nader bekeken. WODC, Cahier 2007-4, Den Haag. 28. Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau (CPB), Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatie Centrum (WODC), Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS), Jaarrapport Integratie 2005. 29. Van San M, de Boom J, van Wijk A. Verslaafd aan een flitsende levensstijl. Criminaliteit van Antilliaanse Rotterdammers. 2007. RISBO/EUR, Rotterdam. 30. Hulst, H. van, & Bos, J. Pan I Rèspèt: Criminaliteit van geïmmigreerde Curaçaose jongeren. 1993. Onderzoeksbureau OKU, Utrecht. 31. Van San M. Stelen en steken: Delinquent gedrag van Curaçaose jongens in Nederland. 1998. Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam. 32. Van der Laan EE (Minister van Wonen, Wijken en Integratie). Brief aan de Tweede Kamer der Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


Staten-Generaal inzake Kabinetsbeleid Antilliaans Nederlands probleemjongeren vanaf 2010, II-
2009057164, 2 oktober 2009.
33. Brennan PA, Mednick SA, Hodgins S. Major mental disorders and criminal violence in a Danish
birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000; 57: 494-500.
34. Hodgins S, Mednick SA, Brennan PA, Schulsinger F, Engberg M. Mental disorder and crime.
Evidence from a Danish birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996; 53: 489-496.
35. Walsh E, Buchanan A, Fahy T. Violence and schizophrenia: examining the evidence. Br J
Psychiatry. 2002; 180: 490-495.
36. Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles, www.cbs.an.
37. Faber W, Mostert S, Nelen JM, van Nunen A, la Roi C. Baseline study “Criminaliteit en
Rechtshandhaving Curaçao en Bonaire”. 2007. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
38. Albayrak N (Staatssecretaris van Justitie). Brief aan de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal
inzake interculturalisatie in de TBS. 5597883/09, 1 juli 2009.
39. Bhui K, Brown P, Hardie T, Watson JP, Parrott J. African-Caribbean men remanded to Brixton
Prison. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 172: 337-344.
40. Coid J, Kahtan N, Gault S, Jarman B. Ethnic differences in admissions to secure forensic
psychiatry services. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 177: 241-247.

41. McGovern D, Cope R. The compulsory detention of males of different ethnic groups with special
reference to offender patients. Br J Psychiatry 1987; 150: 505-512
42. Leese M, Thornicroft G, Shaw J, et al. Ethnic differences among patients in high-security
psychiatric hospitals in England. Br J Psychiatry. 2006; 188: 380-385.
43. See Rotterdam data, via www.cos.rotterdam.nl. Data from 2000 until 2008, average Antillean
immigrants to Rotterdam in this period was 903 per year.
44. Berry JW, Phinney JS, Sam DL, Vedder P. Immigrant youth in cultural transition. Acculturation,
identity, and adaptation across national contexts. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.
45. Knipscheer JW, Kleber RJ. The relative contribution of posttraumatic and acculturative stress to
subjective mental health among Bosnian refugees. J Clin Psychol. 2006; 62: 339-353.
46. Cantor-Graae E. The contribution of social factors to the development of schizophrenia: a
review of recent findings. Can J Psychiatry. 2007; 52: 277-286.
47. Bhugra D, Becker MA. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity. World Psychiatry.
2005; 4: 18-24.
48. Phinney JS, Horenczyk G, Liebkind K, Vedder P. Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being:
an international perspective. J Social Issues. 2001; 57: 493-510.
49. Konings M, Bak M, Hanssen M, van Os J, Krabbendam L. Validity and reliability of the CAPE: a
self-report instrument for the measurement of psychotic experiences in the general population.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006; 114: 55-61.
50. van Os J, Hanssen M, Bijl RV, Vollebergh W. Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community
level of psychotic symptoms: an urban-rural comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001; 58: 663-668.
51. Cantor-Graae E, Bøcker Perdersen C, McNeil TF, Mortensen PB. Migration as a risk factor for
schizophrenia: a Danish population-based cohort study. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 182: 117-122.
52. Van der Laan AM, Blom M, Verwers C, Essers AAM. Jeugddelinquentie: risico’s en bescherming.
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants

Bevindingen uit de WODC monitor Zelfgerapporteerde Jeugdcriminaliteit. 2005. 53. Bongers IL, Van Nieuwenhuizen C. Crimineel gedrag bij Rotterdamse Antilliaanse jongeren. Een verkennende studie naar de rol van psychische en psychiatrische problematiek. GGzE. 2009. 54. Van Harten PN, Hoek HW, Matroos GE, Koeter M, Kahn RS. The interrelationships of tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia: the Curaçao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study II. Schizophr Res. 1997; 26: 235-242. 55. Van Harten PN, Hoek HW, Matroos GE, Koeter M, Kahn RS. Intermittent neuroleptic treatment and risk for tardive dyskinesia: the Curaçao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study III. Am J Psychiatry. 1998; 155: 565-567. 56. Van Harten PN, Hoek HW, Matroos GE, Van Os J. Incidence of tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia in patients on long term antipsychotic treatment: the Curaçao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study V. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67: 1920-1927. 57. Veen N, Selten JP, Hoek HW, Feller W, Van der Graaf Y, Kahn R. Use of illicit substances in a psychosis incidence cohort: a comparison among different ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002; 105: 440-443. 58. Veen ND, Selten JP, van der Tweel I, Feller WG, Hoek HW, Kahn RS. Cannabis use and age of onset of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 501-506. 59. Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau (CPB), Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatie Centrum (WODC), Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS), Jaarrapport Integratie 2005. 60. “Science valued !”, NWO Policy 2007-2010, p 34. Cost estimates

3a. Budget

Staff costs: (in k€ incl. surcharge)
Non scientific
staff (NWP)
Non staff costs: (k€)


3b.Indicate the time (percentage of fte) you will spend on the research
0,75 fte.
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants



3c. Intended starting date
01-01-2011.
3d. Have you requested any additional grants for this project either from NWO
or from any other institution?

No.
3e. Has the same idea been submitted elsewhere?
No.
Curriculum vitae

4a. Personal details
Title(s), initial(s), first name, surname:

4b. Master's (‘doctoraal’)

University/College of Higher Education: University/College of Higher Education:
4c. Doctorate
University/College of Higher Education:
Atherosclerosis, cognitive impairment, and depression in old age.
4d. Use of extension clause
Yes, because I spent 3 years in training for psychiatry after finishing my thesis, from April
2005 until March 2008.
4e. Current employment
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants

Current position
Fixed term
Permanent

4f. Work experience since graduating

• December 1999 - May 2001: Internships (Co-schappen), St. Elisabeth Hospital, Curaçao, The Netherlands Antilles (1 fte, fixed term). • October 2001 - September 2004: Research-physician (Arts-onderzoeker), Departement of General Internal Medicine, section of Gerontology, Leiden University Medical Center (1 fte, fixed term). • October 2004 – September 2007: Clinical training as psychiatrist (AIOS) at Rivierduinen and Leiden University Medical Center (1 fte, fixed term). • October 2007- March 2008: Emergency psychiatry (AIOS) at Parnassia Psychiatric Hospital, the Hague (1 fte, fixed term). • April 2008 – now: Forensic psychiatrist in Rotterdam, with special interest for Antillean patients (0,5 fte, permanent). • April 2008 – now: Psychiatrist in private practice in Rotterdam, with special interest for Antillean patients (0,5 fte, permanent).
4g. Man-years of research
The applicant started training in psychiatry after obtaining his doctorate. He worked the
last half year of this training in the Hague (“crisisdienst”) to increase his experience with
ethnic minority patients. Thereafter, the applicant started to work as a psychiatrist in
Rotterdam with the largest community of Antilleans in the Netherlands. The applicant
built up working relationships with general practitioners and mental health organisations
to receive referrals of Antillean patients. The applicant works as a forensic psychiatrist in
Rotterdam prisons and in the Pieter Baan Centrum, especially with Antillean patients. The
applicant furthermore participates in meetings of the Public Prosecutor in Rotterdam
about crime in Antilleans (“Antillianenoverleg”).
4h. Brief summary of research over the last five years
The applicant has focussed his research on the relation between psychiatric disorders and
crime in ethnic minorities, especially Antilleans. This topic was studied among others in a
large database of the pre-trial psychiatric reports in the Netherlands in collaboration with
the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. The applicant
collaborates with prof. Doreleijers of the VU Amsterdam in writing a report about
psychiatric disorders in juvenile Antillean defendants for the Ministery of Housing, Spatial
Planning and the Environment.
4i. International activities
From 1999 until 2001, the applicant worked in the St. Elisabeth Hospital, Curaçao, The
Netherlands Antilles, as an intern (co-assistent). In August 2008, the applicant executed
a study of pre-trial psychiatric reports of Antillean defendants on the Antilles in
collaboration with prof. Hoek and Antillean psychiatrists. In November 2008, the
applicant studied the possibilities of forensic psychiatric hospitals (TBS- & PIJ-klinieken)
on the Antilles on behalf of the Ministery of Justice.
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


4j. Other academic activities
The applicant participates in the research group about social psychiatry in Rotterdam at
the Erasmus University about (“o3 onderzoeksoverleg”).
4k. Scholarships, grants and prizes
-

List of publications

5. Publications:

(impact factors from 2008)

Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Westendorp RG. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia.
N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 1290-1292.
Impact factor = 50.0
Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, van der Mast RC, Zitman FG, Westendorp RG.
Benzodiazepine use and risk of mortality in individuals aged 85 years or older.
JAMA. 2003; 290: 2942-2943.
Impact factor = 31.7

Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Stek ML, Westendorp RG, van der Mast RC.
The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) detects changes in depressive
symptoms after a major negative life event. The Leiden 85-plus Study.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004; 19: 80-84.
Impact factor = 2.1

Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Stek ML, Westendorp RG, van der Mast RC.
Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective
population based study.
BMJ. 2004; 329: 881.
Impact factor = 12.8

Vinkers DJ, Stek ML, Gussekloo J, Van Der Mast RC, Westendorp RG.
Does depression in old age increase only cardiovascular mortality? The Leiden 85-plus
Study.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; 19: 852-857.
Impact factor = 2.1

Stek ML, Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Beekman AT, van der Mast RC, Westendorp RG.
Is
Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 178-180.
Impact factor = 10.5

Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Stek ML, van der Mast RC, Westendorp RG.
Does depression specifically increase cardiovascular mortality?
Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 119.
Impact factor = 9.1
Vinkers DJ, Stek ML, van der Mast RC, de Craen AJ, Le Cessie S, Jolles J, Westendorp RG,
Gussekloo J.
Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.
Neurology 2005; 65: 107-112.
Impact factor = 5.7

Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


van Bemmel T, Vinkers DJ, Macfarlane PW, Gussekloo J, Westendorp RG.
Markers of autonomic tone on a standard ECG are predictive of mortality in old age.
Int J Cardiol. 2006; 107: 36-41.
Impact factor = 3.1

Stek ML, Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, van der Mast RC, Beekman AT, Westendorp RG.
Natural history of depression in the oldest old: population-based prospective study.
Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 65-69.
Impact factor = 8.1
Vinkers DJ, van der Mast RC, Stek ML, Westendorp RG, Gussekloo J.
De relatie tussen atherosclerose, cognitieve achteruitgang, en depressie bij ouderen.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006; 21: 2307-2311.
Vinkers DJ, van der Lubbe N, de Reus R, de Ruiter GC, Pondaag W.
A 67-year-old woman who mistook her daughter for a double: differential diagnosis of
misidentification delusion.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007; 151: 2841-2844.
Vinkers DJ, van der Wee NJ.
A case of mania after long-term use of quinagolide.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007; 29: 464.
Impact factor = 2.2

Vinkers DJ, Welschen YP, Keijzers AS, van der Mast RC.
Differential diagnosis of the Ganser syndrome. A case study.
Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2007; 49: 339-342.
Vinkers D, van der Mast R.
Depression and executive dysfunction in old age.
Am J Psychiatry. 2008; 165: 136.
Impact factor = 10.5

Vinkers DJ, van der Wee NJ.
Topiramate augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder
Tijdschr Psychiatr 2008; 50: 747-750.
Vinkers DJ, van Rood YR, van der Wee NJ.
Prevalence and comorbidity of body dysmorphic disorder in psychiatric outpatients.
Tijdschr Psychiatry 2008; 50: 559-565.
Vinkers DJ, van der Mast RC.
Does depression specifically increase cardiovascular mortality ?
Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 1204.
Impact factor = 10.5

Vinkers DJ
Reaction to “The syndrome of Cotard: an overview”
Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2008; 50: 391-392.
Vinkers DJ.
Reaction on “Explaining symptoms: body-object and body-subject”
Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2009; 51: 270.
Vinkers DJ, de Vries SC, van Baars AW, Mulder CL.
Ethnicity and dangerousness criteria for court ordered admission to a psychiatric hospital.
Vernieuwingsimpuls/Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Social defeat, psychotic symptoms and crime in juvenile Antillean immigrants


Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. From 2009 Apr 26 online.
Impact factor = 2.0
Vinkers DJ, de Beurs E, Barendregt M.
Psychiatric disorders and repeat offending
Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166: 489.
Impact factor = 10.5

Vinkers D, Barendregt M, de Beurs E.
Homicide due to mental disorder.
Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 185.
Impact factor = 8.1
Statements by the applicant
My thesis manuscript has been approved and I will send the official
declaration to NWO

(compulsory for applicants for Veni applicants who have not yet received their
doctorates, to be sent by post or as pdf using the Iris system)
I endorse and follow the Code Openness Animal Experiments (if
applicable)
(see Notes)
I endorse and follow the Code Biosecurity (if applicable)
(see Notes)
I have completed this form truthfully

Name: David Vinkers
Place: Rotterdam
Date: 11 november 2009
There is a possibility to send a list of non-referees (maximum of three names).
This is optional for every applicant. The individuals will NOT be asked to assess
your application as referees. Please send the list with your application in a
separate PDF-file.

Please submit the application to NWO in electronic form (pdf format is required!) using
the Iris system, which can be accessed via the NWO website (www.nwo.nl/vi). The only
exception to this rule concerns applications within the Medical sciences. The Medical
sciences division uses a similar system called ProjectNet, to which access is provided via
the division’s own website (www.zonmw.nl). For any technical questions regarding
submission, please contact the Iris helpdesk (iris@nwo.nl).

Source: http://www.vinkers-psychiater.nl/VENI%20voorstel%202010%20Social%20defeat,%20psychotic%20symptoms%20and%20crime%20in%20juvenile%20Antillean%20immigrants.pdf

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