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Light for ships / licht für schiffe 1.

Light sources
Halogen low voltage incandescent lamps (12 V)
Electrodeless fluorescent lamps
are important elements of modern lighting In traditional fluorescent lamps the electrical Traditional incandescent lamps
architecture. Their small, solid filament in discharge required to create light takes place conjunction with respective reflectors produce between two electrodes the wear and tear of incandescent lamps in lighting systems. They are narrow beams. There are many types available.
which determines the life time of the lamp. The economical to install since they require just a They include those with cold light reflector to way of operation of the electrodeless fluorescent is lampholder and two terminals. Their operating reduce the temperature load on the illuminated totally different. Its discharge has neither position is not critical. They are almost indepen- object. Lifetime of these lamps - depending on the beginning nor end. The closed circle enables a dent on ambient temperature and can easily be discharge process that needs no electrodes. The dimmed by phase control or phase reverse control.
required energy is induced from outside by Luminaires for incandescent lamps may as a Halogen low voltage incandescent lamps must be magnetic fields. A very decisive fact for long standard be operated on 115 V or 230 V by simply powered through either conventional or electronic changing the lamps. The average lifetime is 1000 transformers. There is no problem in dimming The electrodeless fluorescent lamp features Incandescent lamps for navigation lights are a special case. They were developed precisely for - 12000 lumen luminous flux in the 150 watt application within an optical system and thus differ in many aspects from standard lamps: - 8000 lumen luminous flux in the 100 watt - They have a special lampbase to make sure only these especially approved lamps are used in - Extremely long life time of 60,000 hours and this navigation and signalling lights. Moreover the Halogen high voltage incandescent lamps
does not mean the lamp will be defective by particular base ensures the lighting filament are still rather new light sources. They are then but just that the luminous flux will have available as standard with bases E14 and E27.
They don’t need a transformer and may replace - Their maximum light efficiency / minimum traditional incandescent lamps without any aqua signal has succeeded in even improving the power consumption ratio is set to its best.
modifications. Their lifetime is about 2000 hours.
outstanding properties of the electrodeless - Their lighting filament is suspended in a very fluorescent lamp. An optional device extends the special way to prevent screening the filament in admissable temperature range to -50° until +50° C without noteworthy loss of luminous flux.
- Their production process is particularly sophisticated for smallest tolerances with thefilament and its suspension.
- They are approved by the responsible authorities Fluorescent lamps
of almost all important countries in the world.
Their advantage is their excellent economy. Theirlight efficiency per watt of invested power (lumenper watt) is very high. The elongated shape results Neon lamps
in a low luminous density on their surface and There is no other light source that offers to the thus in little glare. Lifetime is about 8000 hours if operated with conventional ballast respectively facilities. Neon lamps are produced by hand to about 12,000 with electronic ballast. Fluorescent customers requirements and are available in each Halogen lamps
lamps may be dimmed down to 1 % of their rated Traditional incandescent lamps lose part of their luminous flux without any problems if operated by Neon lamps are cold cathode lamps which means light intensity in the course of time since tungsten their lifetime is not limited by wear and tear of the evaporates from the filament and condenses on filament. This results in a life expectancy of 60,000 the inside surface of the bulb forming a dark layer.
hours. They need a high operating voltage which In modern halogen lamps they prevent this effect depends on the lamp’s diameter and gas filling.
by adding halogenes to the filling gas. Within the With a diameter of 10 mm it is about 500 V per so-called halogen cycle the halogenes combine meter and with a diameter of 18 mm about 280 V with the evaporated tungsten. This gaseous per meter with discharge in blue. It is by about 50 combination drifting with the heat flow towards Tubular compact fluorescent lamps (TC-lamps)
the hot filament the tungsten will leave the Neon lamps with blue discharge may be dimmed combination and re-join the filament. The released dimensions of fluorescent lamps to almost those down from 100 to 5 % by means of the excellently halogenes are again available for the cycle.
of traditional incandescent lamps by bending the adapted electronic ballasts from aqua signal.
tube and splitting it into a bunch. Compact fluorescent lamps are available in different shapes - equally bright light throughout life time - nice, brilliant light for fresh colours and - increased light output with same power con- - those with E14 or E27 base and internal sumption improves the economy by about 25 % electronic ballast to directly replace traditional LED (light emitting diode)
compared with traditional incandescent lamps An LED is an electronic semi-conductor producing - those with 2 connection pins for operation with light under the influence of electricity. This does conventional ballast with the starter being not happen by heating a filament or by gas discharge but is a result of effects inside the semi- - and those with 4 connection pins for operation conductor. An LED supplies light only within a with electronic ballast. Controllable electronic narrow window of the spectrum i.e. of a precisely ballasts enable dimming down to 10 % of the 126aqua signal – Light for Ships / Licht für Schiffe Technical modifications reserved without prior notice / Technische Änderungen vorbehalten Two processes have been developed to produce Connection diagrams: Fluorescent and
white shining LEDs. One combines several LEDs of compact fluorescent lamps
different colours in a common housing thusmixing the colour fractions into white. The otherone provides an inside layer in a blue LEDtransforming part of the blue light into other High pressure sodium vapour lamps with instant
colours thus providing all fractions of the ignition
spectrum that again add up to white light.
have bases at both ends and need a special It is the long lifetime of more than 100,000 hours, ignitor. In hot condition the lamp requires about little heat production, and mechanical robustness 10 seconds to ignite which is of particular compared with conventional incandescent lamps that disclosed new application fields to the LED.
Metal vapour lamps
High pressure mercury vapour lamps
are similar to high pressure mercury vapour lamps These lamps don’t need an ignitor but a ballast.
concerning design and operation. Light output and There are types with E27 and with E40 base.
colour response have been improved by adding The high pressure mercury vapour lamps contain some halogen combinations. Depending on the a quartz burner as discharge tube. This tube is type they may operate with or without ignitor.
positioned inside a glass bulb on the inner sur- There is a special version with one base at each face of which there is a fluorescent layer.
end of the bulb enabling instant re-igniting in hot Having been switched on the burner slowly gets condition by means of a high voltage puls.
hot thus making more and more mercuryevaporate. The more mercury evaporated thebrighter the light output. All mercury evaporated Ignitors
means the lamp features its rated luminous flux.
Metal vapour halogen lamps and high pressure The average lifetime of this lamp is about 6000 sodium vapour lamps require a voltage of between 800 and 5000 V to start working. There are two Its disadvantage is that it reacts to shortest different igniting device systems. One is based on interruptions of power supply and to severe additional voltage load and the other one on voltage fluctuations by extinguishing and then pulsation technique. aqua signal has decided in needing several minutes to re-ignite.
favour of the modern extra voltage load system. Itsbig advantage is that the ignitor produces theignition voltage without loading it on the ballast.
D) Inductive wiring in series l.p.f.
This is of particular importance towards the end ofthe lamp’s lifetime when the ignitor tries againand again to re-start the exhausted lamp.
Moreover the extra voltage load technique offers Low pressure sodium vapour lamps
reproducible ignition properties independent on have the best efficiency of all conventional light sources i.e. the highest light gain but a restrictedcolour response. They are suitable for all aqua signal’s ignitors for high pressure discharge applications where recognition of colours is of no lamps have currently been improved to adapt E) Capacitive wiring in series l.p.f.
importance. Monochromatic yellow light enables them to the extremely rough operating conditions contrasty seeing also in smoke and fog.
our floodlights have to meet with. They may be You need a ballast. The average lifetime is about called unique since they not only ignite the lamps tenderly but also supervise ignition process andoperation and recognize lamp failures due toageing in which case they carefully switch thelamp off.
High pressure sodium vapour lamps
offer much light output because of their high
efficiency despite of their small dimensions. They
are little sensitive to vibration and have proved as
outdoor floodlights on board of ships.
You need a ballast and an ignitor. The average
lifetime is about 6000 hours.
Technical modifications reserved without prior notice / Technische Änderungen vorbehalten aqua signal – Light for Ships / Licht für Schiffe127


Anexo c4

REGULAMENTO GERAL DE FUNCIONAMENTO FORMAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL O Regulamento apresentado nas páginas a seguir constitui para todos os efeitos um manual de procedimentos para a formação inter-empresas da HIGH SCORE. DISPOSIÇÕES GERAIS Artigo 1.º 1. Objecto e âmbito É aprovado o presente Regulamento de Funcionamento da Formação Inter-Empresas que se aplica


Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics (2001), 15, pp. 201–220. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS: PARAMETRICS TOSEMIPARAMETRICS TO PHARMACOGENOMICSPranab K. SenDepartments of Biostatistics and Statistics, University of North Carolinaat Chapel Hill, USA. Email: pksen@bios.unc.eduSummarySurvival analysis with genesis in biometry and reliability analysis evolved withstatistical modeling and analysis o

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