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Host-pathogen interactions: An Overview
Course instructor:
Co-evolution and adaption between viruses and humans are often portrayed as a zero-sum biological arms race. Viruses enter host cells equipped with an array of
mechanisms to evade the host defense responses and replicate. The rapid rate of
mutation of viruses permits evolution of various methodologies for infection. The host
immune system has likewise evolved highly effective mechanisms to deal with the
constant challenge of pathogen invasion and restrict infection. Thus the study of host-
pathogen interactions has illuminated essential functions of the immune system,
particularly in the area of virus infections, antigen presentation and responses by T and
B lymphocytes. In this short course we will cover basic concepts of innate and adaptive
immunity, virology and strategies that viruses have evolved to evade the host immune
9th October; 5:00 – 7:00 p.m.
Basic principles of immunology:
• Concepts of innate and adaptive immune responses
• Role of phagocytes in innate immunity
• Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
• B lymphocytes and production of antibodies
• Professional antigen presenting cells and MHC-II complexes
• Function of helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells
• Role of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells
• Inflammatory responses and cytokine production
Basic concepts in virology
• Discovery of viruses and their classification
• Viral genomes and their organization
• The infectious life cycle of viruses
• Detecting viruses: The plaque assay
• Measurement of viruses by end-point dilution assay
• Multiplicity of infection
• Commonly used techniques for detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA,

10th October; 5:00 – 7:00 p.m.
Pathogenesis and Immunity during viral infections
• Viral pathogenesis and acute infections
• Antigenic variation as a cause for recurring acute infections
• Host innate sensors of viral genomes
• Innate immune defenses
• Adaptive immune defenses: generation of antibodies
• Virus neutralization by antibodies
• The complement system

11th October; 5:00 – 7:00 p.m.

Insights into Influenza virus and its replication
• Structure of the influenza virus
• Influenza virus RNA genome
• Translation of influenza virus RNA into proteins
Entry into cells:
• Influenza virus attachment to cells
• Role of different sialic acids in influenza attachment to cells
• Release of influenza virus ribonucleoproteins into cells
• Influenza virus HA cleavage is required for infectivity
Replication and RNA synthesis:
• Influenza viral RNA synthesis
• The error-prone way of RNA synthesis
• The quasi-species concept
• Viral quasi-species and bottlenecks
12th October; 10 a.m. – 12 noon
Intracellular assembly of Influenza virus:
• Intracellular trafficking of influenza virus proteins
• Packaging of the segmented RNA genome: evidence for selective versus non-
• Consequences of antigenic drift versus antigenic shift
• Reassortment of the influenza virus genome
• Influenza virus reassortment: Past and current species
Propagation and measurement of Influenza:
• Influenza virus growth in eggs
• Influenza hemagglutinin inhibition assay
• Influenza microneutralization assay
• Production of cytokines
• Gut microbes influence defense against influenza
• The D225G change in 2009 H1N1influenza virus
• Transformation of 2009 H1N1 influenza to highly pathogenic strain
• Influenza virus transmission
• Viruses and the respiratory tract
• Seasonality of influenza
• Innate immune defenses against influenza virus
• The inflammatory response against influenza virus
• Adaptive immune defenses: generation of antibodies
• Neutralizing antibodies against influenza

13th October; 10:00 a.m. – 12 noon

Prevention and control
• Efficacy of the influenza vaccine
• Influenza vaccine of 2009: A case study – reasons for its failure and the pandemic • The concept of universal influenza vaccines • Emergence of Oseltamivir resistant influenza virus • Protection against 2009 influenza H1N1 by immunization with 1918-like and classical • Reinfection with 2009 influenza H1N1 • Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors • Tamiflu-resistant pandemic influenza H1N1virus selected by prophylaxis • Ongoing research on H5N1 and H7N9 Reading material: 1. Bouvier, N. M., and Palese, P. (2008) The biology of influenza viruses. Vaccine 26,
Palese, P., and García-Sastre, A. (2002) Influenza vaccines: present and future.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 110, 9–13
Garcia-Sastre, A. (2006) Type 1 Interferons and the Virus-Host Relationship: A
Lesson in Detente. Science 312, 879–882


DE VEZ EN CUANDO Adrede, contra el silencio aleve que no tienen alas los verdaderos ángeles. Carlos Pellicer Por René Rodríguez Soriano | © MEDIAISLA Nada puedo hablar sobre la nada sin rondar la otra orilla. Ya ha dicho el Gabo que su abuelo dijo que no existe, y contundente y sin mitrado confirmó José que virgen y desnuda es un proyecto de ser, lejos de la esencia

Microsoft word - donatus dreher - curriculum vitae - 2013.doc

DREHER Donatus Stefan, MD, PhD, FMH Respiratory Medicine Professional positions Clinical experience Scientific research Education track Personal data Publications 1. Professional positions Co-founder and Owner, TOTZKE & DREHER SCIENTIFIC SA Clinical Consulting and Medical Writing Senior Medical Director, Clinical Group Head, Global Clinical Development Unit, Rh

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