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Printed in Germany · All rights reserved _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Teaching Cataloguing and Classification at the University of Pretoria: Thinking Preferences of Second Year Students ANN-LOUISE DE BOER, H. S. COETZEE, H. COETZEE Department of Information Science, University of Pretoria, Queenswood, South Africa The information profession has changed drastically in the Pretoria. At the beginning of 2000, funds were obtained to last few years. The core requirements for information work- use the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument to establish the ers have also changed because the workplace needs specific preferences of the second year Library Science students qualities and skills. The necessity of continuing to teach cata- taking cataloguing. The result showed that their preferences loguing and classification is questioned, and many library do not really correspond to those of cataloguers. They schools have discontinued teaching these subjects. Many ex- specifically do not like the analysing and mastering the perts, however, believe that cataloguing and classification technical details required in cataloguing. As these skills are are still among the basics of information work. The subject required for cataloguing, teaching methods will have to be still forms part of the curriculum at the University of adapted to equip students for the workplace. who specialise in IT (information technology) andcomputing are needed. To discover how the The library and information profession as a information professional of the future must be whole and the work of cataloguers in particular educated and trained, it is essential to look at the has changed significantly in the last few years.
environment in which these future professionals There are a number of reasons for these changes.
Among these are the increase in electronicpublishing, What does the workplace require of materials, the advent of the Internet, the availability of information in many new formatsand the extensive use of technology in the Most library and information science students organisation and retrieval of information, as well receive a general undergraduate education, as in most other operations in library and including a variety of subjects and skills, to information organisations (Ayres 1999, 3). All enable them to be able to function adequately in this seems to make cataloguing if not superfluous different environments. Few know at the end of their studies which direction their careers might Information workers also had to adapt to meet take. They therefore need a general background the information needs of a varied clientele. Sheila Corral, as quoted by Garrod (1999, 194) argues development depends on the in-service training that, in the hybrid library of today, “content they receive in the workplace. Thus, when professionals”, who specialise in information handling, as well as “conduit professionals”, education, it is essential that the requirements of Ann-Louise de Boer; H. S. Coetzee, H. Coetzee, Department of Information Science, University of Pretoria, P O Box 12339,Queenswood, South Africa, 0121. E-mail: Ann-Louise de Boer, H. S. Coetzee, H. Coetzee the profession be known and met as far as Hjørland 2000, 502–503, 515; Wojcik 1999, 1).
The aim of this study is to establish whether All prospective information workers should acquire the above-mentioned general skills.
description and access, classification and providing subject access to information) is still a information workers, it is important to realise required skill for library and information workers that many will have to operate within a “hybrid” and if so what consequences this should have for library where a “generalist” information worker, curricula. It is accepted that all students studying as described by Hjørland (2000, 503) is needed.
library and information science, must possess This highlights the need for lifelong learning to certain characteristics and skills but this study will attempt to establish if a specific group of conditions (Garrod 1999, 191). Because the focus students taking courses in cataloguing at the of this study is on the education for cataloguing, University of Pretoria possess the specific skills we will show where cataloguing fits into the bigger picture of education for informationworkers.
Olsson, according to Hjørland (2000, 503) identifies various professional strategies (see Figure 1), giving an indication of the possible Much has been written about the most desirable scenarios in which an information professional characteristics that candidates for information might have to function. Hjørland then uses this work should possess and also which subjects model to group library and information science and skills should be included in a curriculum.
Future information workers should possess the <insert fig. 1 near here -- do we have following characteristics, according to Buttlar & Du Mont (1996, 44) and Wojcik (1999) to enable them to adapt and be successful in most working <insert fig. 2 near here -- do we have permission to re-publish? Author did notrespond> • Integrity when working with information at the request The first dimension (horizontally) is form vs.
of others; sharing information; and providing improved content. This is characterised by a differentiation between technical form on the one side and • Versatility to be able to adapt to different environments content of knowledge, information or subject like public libraries, college/university libraries, matter on the other side. The other dimension school/media centre environments, the private sector attempts to differentiate between specialist and • Mobility/flexibility to apply basic skills and expertise Figure 1 gives an indication of the core subjects in the curriculum according to Olsson. Hjørland(2000, 508) (see Figure 2) is of the opinion that The following skills are identified by some the central subjects are related to both form and authors as essential for information workers: content. Subjects related to cataloguing such as bibliography tends to be form-oriented in anational bibliography, but more content-oriented when it comes to a theory of subject bibliography and search strategies in online retrieval (Hjørland 2000, 508). Classification is form-oriented in • Knowledge of reference and information sources systems, in software for knowledge organisationand in formal kinds of knowledge organisation, but content-oriented in the analysis of subject- • Materials and collection development skills • Critical thinking skills (Abell 1999, 591; Buttlar & Du information structures in disciplines (Hjørland Mont 1989, 13–14; 1996, 44, 47; Garrod 1999, 187; 2000, 508). Reference work is generally more Teaching Cataloguing and Classification at the University of Pretoria content related than bibliography. It is difficult to construct a theory of reference work without deprofessionalisation of cataloguers. She states that the most dominant effect of automation and organisation (Hjørland 2000, 508). According to co-operative networks was on cataloguers. As this model cataloguing deals with both form and result of standardisation, cataloguers were able content and can be regarded as a specialist to use each other’s work. Although their work became more visible, it affected their statusnegatively (Hafter 1986, 1–10). The control ofcataloguing processes shifted to administrators, who insisted that less time be devoted to creating Now we take a brief look at cataloguing and its complex bibliographic records. Consequently a status at present in the workplace. Library large part of cataloguing was left to library schools must take this into account to decide if assistants. Many thought that the need for cataloguing should be a part of present curricula professional cataloguers would become even less as a core competency or as an elective, and how much time should be devoted to this aspect of It became clear that the reduced need for cataloguers in the 1970s and 1980s was not Cataloguing in its broadest sense, including permanent. Vast segments of library collections describing, indexing, classifying and controlling consisted of non-book material, for which library materials bibliographically, is considered part of technical services (Hill & Intner 1999: 1).
perception that the computer “had everything, A century ago it formed the biggest part of library did everything, knew everything” proved not to continuously and the lines between formats were acquisition of other skills, such as computer blurring. The catalogue itself was changing as it skills. These skills were often included as part of contained records for material not owned.
the teaching of cataloguing. As a result, Libraries no longer functioned in isolation, cataloguing changed from a required to an increasing the need for standardisation and good elective course. Information science emerged as a quality bibliographic data. A relatively small number of cataloguers were doing the work to be remained part of the library science curriculum.
used by many institutions. Cataloguing also The division between technical and public became increasingly complex and expensive (Hill services also took place, with cataloguing regarded as part of technical services (Hill & The demise of cataloguers in libraries was differently but the product they create is still heralded in the mid-seventies, and courses in essential for good library services (Steinhagen & cataloguing were cut from library school curricula Moynahan 1998, 3). Catalogue construction is and the content was changed. A perception that now so complex that only a small minority in the the profession itself must train cataloguers in the profession fully understands the standards on workplace emerged. This had a deleterious effect which construction is based or the problems that on the image of cataloguers (Steinhagen & the standards seek to overcome or control. The Moynahan 1998, 5). Even in those courses in need for this complexity has little to do with cataloguing still presented, practical training was requirements of the user (Ayres 1999, 4).
reduced. Fewer and fewer students applied for Steinhagen & Moynahan (1998, 5) declare that cataloguing positions even when they were ”A good catalogue is the foundation of a good qualified (Hill & Intner 1999, 5).
information delivery system.” Pat Oddy (1996, During the 1980s much was written about the x) calls the catalogue “the heart of the library”.
crisis in cataloguing. In her book Academic Because cataloguing is the tool used to organise librarians and cataloging networks: visibility, quality and manage access to library collections, the need control and professional status, Ruth Hafter for knowledge of this aspect of information work, Ann-Louise de Boer, H. S. Coetzee, H. Coetzee will not disappear soon. It can play an important • uniform titles are needed as linking mechanisms (Ayres cataloguers know how to organise knowledge(Hill & Intner 1999, 7–8).
Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee onTraining, developed a training model to support Abilities and skills required of cataloguers their programme. This model assumes that it is Technology and economics have had tremendous impacts on cataloguing operations within recent • maintain an adequate supply of original cataloguing years and on the requisite skills of cataloguingprofessionals. The catalogue requires design, • accept the concept of a national cataloguing standard input and maintenance by professionals with a • increase acceptance of cataloguing copy high level of understanding of bibliographic control and information retrieval skills. Also a • increase timeliness of contributions to national wide range of other skills and qualities, such as cataloguing databases (Swanekamp 1998, 51).
adaptability and problem-solving skills isessential.
To be able to educate and train cataloguers, it prepare learners for specific jobs. It is necessary has to be established which abilities and skills to find a basic set of core competencies, augmented by the possibility of specialisation. In effectively. According to Hill (1997, 75–83), the the article by Birger Hjørland (2000, 503–504), he following skills and abilities are essential for still sees cataloguers in a meaningful role in the profession (see Figures 1 and 2) and in LISeducation. He places cataloguing in the quadrant • Adaptability to new ideas and concepts in of specialists in form, together with other producers of data files. Subject cataloguing is • Ability to use judgement and make decisions placed in the specialist in content quadrant.
• Ability to manage time and prioritise tasks Is it still necessary to include cataloguing in library and information science courses? • Ability to anticipate and appreciate catalogue user Authors like Hill (1997, 75–83) and Spillane(1999, 223) expressed concern because the number of cataloguing courses have been reduced by most library schools during the last number of years. In recent years a number of experts on cataloguing have expressed themselves in favourof the value of retaining cataloguing in the LIS curriculum: Doris Clack as quoted by Saye (1993, 127) declares “cataloging is the centrality, the core, the heart of education for technical service.“According to Spillane (1999, 223), “cataloguing To meet present demands curricula should also take changes in cataloguing practice into account education and remains one today. it is also an that cataloguing functions should be defined by important part of library is the function that creates the bibliographic record, thecore of a library’s catalog.” According to Clack • from the present pre-co-ordinate activity, it should shift (1993, 7), “Cataloguing is one of the primary functions of librarianship. It is the core of the • authority control should shift from the cataloguing profession, the cohesive force that binds the Teaching Cataloguing and Classification at the University of Pretoria “Cataloging has been the core of the library 30 per year. Curricula are revised on a regular education programme. It will remain so in the basis, trying to deliver students able to find jobs future, although not necessarily in the form as we and do the work required of them competently.
Traditional content like cataloguing and reference intelligibility of bibliographic records and the work is still taught although time allotted to findability of material, a study of cataloging is teaching these skills has been reduced. The range beneficial to the success of every library of jobs for which students must be equipped is very wide in a country like South Africa, which is The perception that only cataloguers need to know about cataloguing is also not true. It is sophisticated first world sector as well as a large third world sector. Students have to be prepared customisation of information systems, as well as for the input of data into them (Hill & Intner applications to community information services.
1999, 7). Although the number of people actually doing cataloguing is fewer than before, many retrieval, information organisation, management experts argue that every information worker of information organisations, and user studies are should know how to organise information and taught within the curriculum for a degree course, how retrieval tools work. The information worker with elective modules in more specialised topics will in future not only need the basic core of that could address the various interests of traditional skills and professional knowledge, but students and the needs of the marketplace.
a number of new competencies to be competitivein the changing working conditions (Buttlar & Du Thinking styles of educators and students: Mont 1996, 44; Hjørland 2000, 501–502).
Utilising the Herrmann Brain Dominance Teaching cataloguing at the University of At the beginning of 2000 an experiment wasconducted in which 1000 first-year students in A number of library and information schools in the Human Sciences faculty were tested using the South Africa have closed in the last few years.
Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI).
Some have changed their names, because the It formed part of the Academic Skills Programme inclusion of the word “library” in the name is seen as detrimental to attracting students knowing themselves and their abilities through enrolling for courses in these departments.
discovering their thinking preferences, thus Traditional content, previously regarded as enabling them to improve required skills, if these essential to prepare students for careers in the skills were not part of their thinking preferences.
information world, is gradually being phased out At the beginning of 2000, funds were obtained of courses. Consensus seems to be that the to establish what were the thinking preferences of availability of computer systems has made second-year students enrolled for a degree in knowledge of the traditional skills redundant. It library and information science. The aim of this is a debatable point. Although technology has experiment was to adapt teaching methods to largely eliminated the duplication of effort in the take their thinking preferences into consideration.
field of bibliographic control by taking over many Their preferred thinking styles should be administrative and routine tasks, staff with this addressed by teaching the lesser preferred knowledge and skills is still essential even if thinking styles and skills required by the The Department of Information Science at the University of Pretoria is the department with the thinking styles. As more research in this field largest number of staff and students in this field continues to be published the findings may in South Africa. The number of students enrolling suggest solutions to overcome the difficulty of for a degree in Library and Information Science teaching students in traditional ways (Lumsdaine has remained fairly consistent at between 25 and & Lumsdaine 1995, 193, 202). Educators should Ann-Louise de Boer, H. S. Coetzee, H. Coetzee take the different thinking styles of students into decisions through a structured, logical process, whereas others rely on their values and emotions incorporating a full spectrum of approaches and to guide them to the appropriate action (Leonard acknowledging the diversity in preferences (Leonard & Straus 1997, 111–112).
In their research Leonard & Straus (1997, developed to identify diverse categories of 111–112) point out that the so-called cognitive cognitive approaches. All the instruments agree differences that exist could also be varying on the following (Herrmann 1989, 15–23; approaches to perceiving and assimilating data, Leonard & Straus 1997, 113; Lumsdaine & making decisions, solving problems, and relating synonymous with preferences and should not to • Preferences are neither inherently good nor inherently be confused with skills or abilities. Preferences bad. They are assets or liabilities depending on thesituation.
are not rigid (Lumsdaine & Lumsdaine 1995,193). Most people can draw on a mixture of • Distinguishing preferences emerge early in our lives, and strongly held ones tend to remain relatively stable approaches and do not live their lives within narrow cognitive boundaries. They often stretchoutside the borders of preferred operating modes • We can learn to expand our repertoire of behaviours, to act outside our preferred styles, but that is difficult.
if the conditions are right and the stakes are highenough. People tend to have one or two preferred • Understanding others' preferences helps people to decision-making styles and their interaction with others (Leonard & Straus 1997, 112).
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) or the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) distinction since the early seventies is between help educators not only to understand their own left-brained and right-brained ways of thinking.
thinking style preferences, but that of their students as well. Communications should be physiological evidence, is metaphorical, because tailored to the receiver instead of the sender. In a it captures radically different ways of thinking cognitively diverse environment, a message sent is (Herrmann 1989, 8–15, 31–34). An analytical, not necessarily a message received. Some people logical, and sequential approach to problem respond well to facts, figures, and statistics.
framing and solving (left-brained thinking) clearly Others prefer anecdotes. Still others digest differs from an intuitive, values-based, and non- graphic presentations most easily. Information linear approach (right-brained thinking) (Leonard must be delivered in the preferred "language" of the recipient if it is to be received at all (Leonard Thinking preferences are also revealed in different work styles, including decision-making The study of library and information science and communication activities. Some people competencies by Buttlar & Du Mont (1996, 59) prefer to work in a group to solve problems, identified five areas needing attention in whereas others prefer to gather, absorb, and process information by themselves. Abstractthinkers, for instance, assimilate information • breadth of curriculum and pedagogical technology to from a variety of sources, such as books, reports, broaden the scope of the interest of library and videos, and conversations, and prefer learning • greater attention to the external environment (e.g., experiencing it directly. Experiential people, in government relations, societal trends, legal climate, and contrast, get information from interacting directly international development) that affects the institutions with people and things (Leonard & Straus 1997, 112; Lumsdaine & Lumsdaine 1995, 202–203).
• recognition that libraries are increasingly service- orientated, and that all jobs have service implications, Teaching Cataloguing and Classification at the University of Pretoria • integration of curricula across functional areas, and mode and D quadrants) and lower left (B quadrants). About 16% of the population fall within this profile. This group of students preferto use the Lower Right C quadrant (97) primarily, It is also important to recognise the need for followed by the Lower Left B quadrant (81) and change in the education process (Curran 1998, then the Upper Right C quadrant (68). The 183; Shannon 1998, 172). Teachers must adapt Upper Left A quadrant (55) is the least preferred and change to meet the changing demands of the mode of thinking. Another important aspect new generation of information workers. The concluded obtained from the information is the effective use of the information gathered by the rank order of work elements (see Figure 4). These HBDI can be used to address these issues, such work elements are those elements most preferred as planning and preparation of a “whole brain” lecture, active participation in the class room by learners, delivery and execution of the lecture and the attitude of the teacher to recognise the This profile is characterised by its multi- various personalities “profiles” in the class dominant and “generalized” nature, and fairly (Curran 1998, 185–188). The system must be balanced amount of understanding and ability to harnessed to work to the advantage of the learner use the three primary quadrants – the preferred (Curran 1998, 193). To ensure adherence to this it processing modes being creative and holistic in is important to work from within the framework Upper Right D, interpersonal and feeling in suggested by Herrmann (1989, 419) (see Table 1).
Lower Right C, and planning and organising inthe Lower Left B. The Upper Left Quadrant A is least preferred, but the person is still typically quite functional in their use of the logical andanalytical aspects of this quadrant. This profile Results of the HBDI evaluation of second year students registered for the degree – Bachelor resources professionals, including educators, as in Information Science (Library Science) well as those whose occupations require anunderstanding and ability to function on many From a class of 28 second-year students, 27 levels, such as social workers, executive participated in the experiment. The survey was secretaries, and supervisory nurses (Herrmann completed during a specially scheduled session.
The surveys were processed and scored as a set.
Some results are given in Table 2. The results preference in the C quadrant (97). This implies a were used to draw the group profile in Figure 3, strong preference for the interpersonal, feeling based, emotional and spiritual thinking modes.
preferences of this group of students.
The second most preferred quadrant is the B The scores in Table 2 give an indication of the quadrant (81) with a preference for controlled, structured and organised thinking modes. The D preference codes are identified as follows: quadrant is third most preferred quadrant (68)with creative, holistic and synthesising modes.
• "1" or "Primary" A score of 67 or above indicates a The least preferred quadrant is A (55) with a quadrant which enjoys thinking. A score above 100 preference for analytical, rational, and logical indicates a very strong preference, often visible toothers.
A careful study of the rank order of work • "2" or "Secondary" A score of 34–66 represents thinking elements (Figure 4), together with the specific modes that are comfortable and available as necessarywith relative ease (Overview, 1999:1).
quadrant in which they are to be found, gives aclear indication that the preferences of this group This group profile (Figure 3) is described by of students is writing, interpersonal aspects and Herrmann (1989, 388), as a triple dominant administrative work. It also gives an indication of profile (2111) with two primaries in the right which areas need specific instruction, i.e.
Ann-Louise de Boer, H. S. Coetzee, H. Coetzee technical aspects, financial aspects innovating and can as a result of this engage in constructive dialogue with a reduction in the time needed forlectures and/or meetings (Whole brain 2000, 1).
The new information worker needed is likely to be a mix of skills, which tends to be a generalist The results of the HBDI when applied to the group of students identified previously, indicate competencies (Garrod 1999, 193). By using the that the thinking preferences of these students are HBDI profiles, a team can be put together where not well aligned with those most useful to those the strengths of the individual members are who perform cataloguing and classification. In harnessed to increase productivity, find a many fields of the information profession, their common basis for the meeting and to respect the preferred thinking styles will be an asset. The differences in thinking styles and learn to use the profile of thinking preferences of this group of diversity of the team (Whole brain 2000, 2).
students reveals that their thinking preferencesare mainly associated with the B and C quadrants. Interpersonal skills are importantwhen dealing with information users. What Abell, A. 1999. Carrying change to the core. Library cataloguers and those who do subject cataloguing Association Record 101(10): 590–592.
and classification need are analysing, problem Ayres, F. H. 1999. Time for change: a new approach to solving, implementing and organising. Technical aspects are rated lowest, yet all aspects of Classification Quarterly 28(2): 3–16.
bibliographic control rely heavily on technical Buttlar, L. & R. Du Mont. 1996. Library and knowledge and expertise. Knowledge of how Journal of Education for Library and Information catalogues and indexes work also forms the basis Buttlar, L. & R. Du Mont. 1989. Assessing Library Science competencies: soliciting practitioner input technological proficiency are essential for most for curriculum design. Journal of Education for aspects of information work, but this group of Library and Information Science 30(1): 3–18.
students do not prefer this thinking style, but will Case name: Technical support and communication have to acquire the requisite skills.
From the results obtained in this project above it is clear that quite a few of the thinking preferences need to receive attention in the way Clack, D. H. 1993. Education for cataloging: a the subject is taught. Teaching methods (see symposium paper. Cataloging and ClassificationQuarterly 16(3): 27–37.
Table 1) should be adapted to use preferences to Curran, C. 1998. What sixty-one superior LIS develop needed skills. Attempts must be made to teachers say about superior LIS teaching, plus utilise preferences to master skills related to comments from six knowledgeable observers.
those aspects for which a low preference is Journal of Education for Library and Information shown. During the second year of the library and information science curriculum, more attention Garrod, P. 1999. Survival strategies in the Learning will be given to the less preferred but essential Age – hybrid staff and hybrid libraries. Aslib preferences. The same group will be evaluated again next year, using the HBDI, to establish Herrmann, N. 1989. The creative brain. The Ned Herrmann Group: Lake Lure, North Carolina Hill, D. W. 1997. Requisite skills of the entry-level The dominant quadrant of most of the learners cataloger: a supervisor’s perspective. Catalogingand Classification Quarterly 23(43): 75–83.
must be determined and then from within that Hafter, Ruth. 1986. Academic librarians and framework of how they learn and what they cataloguing networks: visibility, quality and respond to must the information necessary be professional status. New York: Greenwood Press.
given. By doing this, learners can be introduced to Hill, Janet Swan & Sheila S. Intner. 1999. Preparing a new way of seeing things (other quadrants), for a cataloguing career: from cataloguing to Teaching Cataloguing and Classification at the University of Pretoria knowledge management. [Online]. Available at: Classification Quarterly 16(3): 125–141.
Shannon, D. M. 1998. Effective teacher behaviours in intner_print.html [viewed May 31, 2001].
higher education and in LIS education programs: a Hjørland, B. 2000. Library and information science: review of the literature. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 39(3): 163–174.
Information Processing and Management 36: Spillane, J. L. 1999. Comparison of required Leonard, D. & S. Straus. 1997. Putting your company’s Library Resources & Technical Services 43(4): whole brain to work. Harvard Business Review Steinhagen, E. N. & S. A. Moynahan. 1998.
Lumsdaine, M. & E. Lumsdaine. 1995. Thinking Catalogers must change! Surviving between the preferences of engineering students: implications rock and the hard place. Cataloging and for curriculum restructuring. Journal of Engineering Classification Quarterly 26(3): 3–21.
Swanekamp, J. 1998. The changing cataloguing Oddy, P. 1996. Future libraries future cataloguers.
culture: what do we mean when we talk about cataloger values? Cataloging and Classification Overview of the profile sheet. 1999. [Online].
Whole brain technology: Deepen self understanding – improve communication. 2000. [Online]. Available Putting your company’s whole brain to work. 1999.
Wojcik, T. 1999. Librarians and library science. Saye, J. D. 1993. Education for technical services: a summary of the symposium. Cataloging and Figure 1: Library and information science disciplines placed Figure 2: Hjørland’s model (Hjørland 2000, 504) in Olsson’s model for professional strategies (Hjørland 2000, Specialist
Ann-Louise de Boer, H. S. Coetzee *, H. Coetzee Table 2: Average scores of twenty-seven second-year _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Table 1: Learning and Design considerations (Herrmann 1989, 419) • behaviour modification• programme learning• structure• lectures



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