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European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.24 No.3 (2008), pp.326-331 EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2008 Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for
Organisational Effectiveness
D. A. Olaniyan
Department of Educational Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Lucas. B. Ojo
Department of Educational Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract
The need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training is not less apparent. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. Staff training and development are based on the premise that staff skills need to be improved for organizations to grow. Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. New entrants into organizations have various skills, though not all are relevant to organizational needs. Training and development are required for staff to enable them work towards taking the organization to its expected destination. It is against the backdrop of the relative importance of staff training and development in relation to organization effectiveness that this paper addressed.
Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only
the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization. Therefore, training
can be put in a contact relevant to school administrators. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill,
the understanding, the information, which every individual requires acquiring in order to be able to
function effectively and perform efficiently.
Human resources, are the most valuable assets of any organization, with the machines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without man-power. Abiodun (1999) submitted that: Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization. Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, organization like educational institution, conduct final training and development programmes for the different levels of their man-power. Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness Usually, before training or development programmes are organized efforts are being made through individuals and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified. It is worthy of mention that organization development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Training has been observed as part of human development. Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible. According to the concept of human development income is clearly only one option that people would like to have, albeit an important one. Development must therefore be more than just the expansion of income and wealth. (HDR 1990) since administering involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for performance, working closely or in isolation towards the accomplishment of common goals, it is obvious that administrators cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained people. The importance of incorporating training into organizational or institutional roles the staffing of these roles and the entire process of direction and leading people must be premises on knowledge and skills. The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence of these programme often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Oribabor (2000) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth, also Isyaku (2000) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavor’s make staff development a necessity, to keep track with current event and methods. Griffin, (1978) Ajibade, (1993) Adeniyi, (1995) and Arikewuyo (1999) have drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of training and development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. Scholars, experts, social scientist and school administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitate the productive capacity of the workers. Training is not coaxing or persuading people to do what is wanted but rather a process of creating organizational conditions that will cause personnel to strive for better performance. Among other schools that highlighted the usefulness of training are Akintayo (1996), Oguntimehin (2001) and Graig (1976). They identified the functions of training as follow: increase productivity, improves the quality of work; improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise. Pitfield (1982) is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to: provide the skills, knowledge and aptitudes necessary to undertake required job efficiently develop the workers so that if he has the potentials, he may progress, increase efficiency by reducing spoilt work, misuse of machines and lessening physical risks. Chris Obisi (1996) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. Also Akinpeju (1999) postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous
one. The need to perform one’s job efficiently and the need to know how to lead others are sufficient
reasons for training and development and the desire to meet organizations objectives of higher
productivity, makes it absolutely compulsory.
Objectives of Training and Development
The main objectives of staff training and development are to improve the qualities of the trainee,
formulation of objectives for different needs and ways of achieving it. The training objective is very
important because it determines the designed and content of the training programmes. Contents of the
training remain the same no matter the type of training involved. It is to increase personnel efficiency,
professional growth, smooth and more effective organization’s operations.
Methods of Training and Development
This relates to formal training on the job. A worker becomes experienced on the job over time due to modification of job behaviors at the point of training or acquisition of skills. This is carried out for new entrants on the job to make them familiar with the total corporate requirements like norms, ethics, values, rules and regulations. A method of training where an unskilled person understudies a skilled person. Teaching by example, whereby the skilled worker performs the job and the unskilled closely observes so as to understand the job. This is done through industrial attachment for the purpose of skills and technology transfer. It is therefore achieved through placement of an individual within another area of relevant work or organization. The effect is the acquisition of practical and specialized skills. A practical and theoretical teaching process which could be done within or outside an organization. When training is carried out inside an organization, it is called an in-house training. Off-house training is carried out in professionalized training areas like: Universities, Polytechnics and Professional Institutes.
Method of Development
1. Under-study:- This is good for succession planning. This allows for smooth transition of work when one officer leaves a schedule or organization. 2. Job-rotation: - It is necessary for all workers to move from one schedule to the other within the same organization, to allow for competence on all spheres of work. 3. Self-development/Self-assessment:- Self development means a personal desire to improve through an individual’s attempt to embark on study and practical explosive that are independent of an organization’s role and contribution. Self-assessment personal identification of strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and challenges and an attempt to improve and build on current efforts for a more fulfilling corporate movement Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness Approaches to Training
The considerations for training vary in organizations. Some of these considerations are not necessarily
based on need. The various influences of training are summed up as follows:
1. Administrative approach: - This is based on establishment of Budget and policies. Officers are therefore sent for training based on the availability of funds. 2. Welfare approach: - This is based on extraneous considerations. Some organizations send staff on training abroad with a view to improving their financial well being or their skills to enable them secure employment elsewhere. 3. Political approach: - Within the ranks of organization are pressure groups, loyalist and favourites of managers, who use their privileged positions to secure training opportunities over and above their colleagues who in most cases merit the training programmes available. 4. Organizational development approach: - This approach uses departmental training needs as 5. Systematic or need – based training: - This selection process here is based on Identification of training needs. It is used by organizations for growth and development.
Problems Training and Development can Solve in an Organization
Training can solve a variety of manpower problems which militate against optimum productivity.
Included are operating problems having a manpower component. These problems can emerge within
any groups: except non-except, line and staff, unskilled, skilled, paraprofessional, professional and
lower, middle and upper management.
These problems according to Kayode (2001) differ in natures and yet all have a common denominator, the solution required individual to their appreciative backgrounds specific identifiable items of additional knowledge skill or understanding. Organization-wide, these problems include needs to • Increase productivity • Improve the quality of work and raise morale • Develop new skills, knowledge, understanding and attitudes. • Use correctly new tools, machines, processes, methods or modifications thereof. • Reduce waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism, and other overhead costs. • Implement new or changed policies or regulations. • Fight obsolescence in skills, technologies, methods, products, markets, capital management • Bring incumbents to that level of performance which meets [100 percent of the time] the • Develop replacements, prepare people for advancement, improve manpower deployment • Ensure the survival and growth of the organization.
Organization Defined
Mondy, et al (1990) defined an organization as “two or more people workings together in a co-
coordinated manner to achieve group results”. Organization is further defined in Encyclopedia
Britannica (1986) as an arrangement of individuals or groups into a coherent whole, with complex of
function interrelationships and a system of overall administration. Accordiing to Daft (1983)
organization “are social entities that are goal-directed, deliberately structured activity systems with an
identifiable boundary”.
What is Organizational Effectiveness?
Organizational effectiveness was succinctly defined by Daft (1983) as “the degree to which an
organization realized its goals”. However, Mondy et al (1990) defined it aptly as “the degree to which
an organization produce the intended output” As Daft rightly argued. Organizations pursue multiple
goals, and such goals must be achieved in the face of competition limited resources, and disagreement
among interest groups. Oguntimehin (2001) submitted that organizational effectiveness is the ability to
produce desire results.
Staff Training and Development versus Organizational Effectiveness
This final aspect of the paper will examine how staff training and development would enhance
organizational effectiveness. The objectives of training and development are the same. Both enhance
the individual’s capacity to contribute optimally to the development of the organization.
The components of organization and nations revolve around training and development. However, staff training and development meets organizational expansion due to environmental changes and technological innovations. Opportunities for framing are used as responses to organizational expansion and change. In a complex organization, such as educational institutions which comprise basically of human being the level of staff training and development will go a long way in determining the staff
effectiveness and improve productivity. It must be emphasized that most of our teachers have left
school for a long time and have not been given the opportunity for re-training. Teachers should be
encouraged to go for in-service training. This will brighten-up their ideas and it will enable them to
know more about the recent development in their course area. In other professions, post-qualification
examination is mandatory for their upliftment in their areas of specialization.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Staff training and development has been identified by various scholars and anchors to be very crucial
to an organization and its effectiveness. In the light of the above, organizations are therefore
encouraged to train and develop their staff to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their
effectiveness. As training reduces the work of the manager in terms of close supervision it also
improves the drive, initiative and quality of work of the employees thus assist them to be more
committed to achieving the goals and objectives of the organization and this has the tendency of
enhancing effectiveness among workers within the organization.
However, for any organization to succeed, training and re-training of all staff in form of workshops, conferences and seminars should be vigorously pursued and made compulsory. Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness References
Abiodun, E.J.A. (1999) Human Resources management, an overview. Concept Publication, Shomolu, Lagos. P. 110-121. Adeniyi, O.I. (1995) “Staff training and development” in Ejiogu, A; Achumba, I. Asika (eds). Reading in Organizational Behaviour in Nigeria, Lagos. Maltho use Press Ltd, P. 159-167. Ajibade, E.S. (1993) “Staff development and in-service for teachers” in Ajibade (Ed) Emia Nigerian Educational issues policies and practice in the eighties and Beyond. Publication, P. 147-157. Akinpelu, B. (1999), “Educational Technology and teaching – learning process in the 21st century” in Adesomowo, P.O. (Ed), Basic of Education, Lagos Triumph Books publishers. Akintayo, M.O. (1996) “Upgrading the teachers status through in-services training by Distant Learning System" (DLS) Unpublished. A public lecturer at the Second convocation ceremony of NTI, NCE by DLS. Arikewuyo, M.O. (1999), Improving teachers’ productivity in Nigeria, in Adesemowo, P.O. (Ed). Basic of Education, Lagos Triumph Books Publishers, P. 102 – 109. Chris Obisi (1996) “Personnel Management” Jackbod Enterprises. Ojokondo Layout Agbowo, Ibadan. Daft, R. L. (1983) Organization Theory and Design, Minnesota, West Publishing Company. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1986) Mircopaedia (Ready reference and index) Vol.VII. Isyaku, I.A. (2000) Training and retraining of Teachers through Distance Education. Being a paper presented at the National Workshop on Distance Education Held at Abuja Nigeria. 27-29 Kayode, Taiwo (2001) “ The Role of Training in charge Management” Journal of the Institute of Personnel Mangement of Nigeria. Vol. 10, No 7 P. 24 – 31. Mondy, R.W. et al (1990), Management and Organization Behavior. Boston, Allyn and Bacon Publishers. Oguntimehin, A. (2001) “Teacher Effectiveness: Some practical Strategies for Successful implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria” African Journal of Educational Management Vol. 9, No 1 P. 151 – 161 Oribabor, P.E. (2000), “Human Resources Management, A Strategic Approval,." Human Resources Management 9 (4) 21 - 24


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