IV SEMESTER LL.B COURSE-I: ECONOMICS-III: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Objectives:
1. To know the functioning of the financial institutions in India 2. To know the working of the government financial system 3. To know the influence of international institutions like WTO, IMF and the World Bank and their impact on India 4. To acquire skills in interpreting simple statistical data. The paper also deals with simple tools and techniques, which will help of student in data collection. We would have to provide a variety of teaching methods ranging from lectures to seminar, group discussion, practical workshop, sessions where research work is presented. Course should be assessed in diverse ways to suit course content. Theories of Economic Development
Classical Theories - Adam Smith, Ricardo and Malthus
Karl Marx’s Theory of Economic Development
Shumpeterian Theory of Economic Development
Money and Banking UNIT-III
WTO and its Effects on Indian Industry and Agriculture WTO Basic History WTO Evolution and Functions WTO Implications for India Role of IMF and World Bank fostering the Development of Less Developed Economies
GOVERNMENT BUDGET AND ECONOMY Government Budget-Meaning and its components Objectives of Government budget Classification of receipt-revenue and Capital: Classification of expenditure-revenue and capital, plan and non –plan, Developmental and non- developmental. Different forms of Budgetary Deficits Deficit Financing BUSINESS CYCLES
Meaning of Business Cycles, Phases of Business Cycles, Types of Business Cycles, Theories of Business Cycles and Control of Business Cycles
Prescribed Books: Adelman, I.- Theories of Economic Growth and Development. Behrman, S. and Srinivasan T. N. - Handbook of Development Economics Ghatak, S. - An Introduction to Development Economics. Hayami, Y. - Development Economics. Reference Books: Higgins, B. - Economic Development. Kindleberger, C. P. - Economic Development. Meier, G.M. - Leading Issues in Economic Development Myint, Hla- The Economics of Underdeveloped Countries. Myint, Hla- Economic Theory and Under Developed Countries Thirlwal, A.P. - Growth and Development. COURSE-II: HISTORY-II: LEGAL HISTORY Objectives:
This course deals with history of courts, legislature and legal profession in India.
Course contents: UNIT – I
Administration of justice in the Presidency Towns (1600-1773) and the development of Courts and Judical Institutions under the East India Company. Warren Hastings Plan of 1772 and the Adalat system of Courts - Reforms made under the plan of 1774 and re-organisation in 1980. Regulating Act – 1773 – Supreme Court at Calcutta – Its composition, power and functions – Failure of the Act of 1781 – Supreme Court vis-à-vis Mofussil Courts.
UNIT – II
Judicial measures of Cornwallis 1787, 1793 progress of Adalat system, under Sir John Shore - Conflicts arising out of the Dual Judicial System – Tendency for amalgamation of the two systems of Courts - The Indian High Courts Act, 1861 – The Government of India Act, 1935 - High Courts under the Government of India Act, 1935 - High Courts under the Indian Constitution -Development of Rule of Law - Separation of powers - Independence of Judiciary. Judicial Committee of Privy Council as a Court of Appeal and its jurisdiction to hear appeals from Indian decisions – Abolition of the Jurisdiction of the Privy Council to hear appeals from India - Court system generally under the Constitution of India.
UNIT – III
Legislative authority of the East India Company under the Charter of Queen Elizabeth I, 1601 – (Changes under Regulating Act, 1773- Act of 1781 - Recognition of the powers of the Governor and Council to make regulations by the British Parliament.) Act of 1813 and the extension of the legislative power conferred on all the three councils and subjection of the same to greater control. Act of 1933 – Establishment of a legislature of an all India Character in 1834 -The Indian Council Act, 1861 - Central Legislative Council: its composition, powers and functions - powers conferred on the Governor. Government of India Act of 1909 – Government of India Act, 1919 - Setting up of bicameral system of Legislature at the centre in place of the Imperial consisting of one House.
UNIT – IV
Government of India Act, 1935 – The Federal Assembly and the Council of States: its composition, powers and functions, legislative assemblies in the provinces and the powers and functions - Legislative Councils in the provinces, power and functions. Law Reforms and the Law Commissions. Legal Profession in Pre-British India: Rules, Training and functions - Law practitioners in the Mayor’s courts established under the Charter of 1726 - Organisation of legal profession under the Charter of 1774 - Legal Profession in Company’s Court.
UNIT – V
Provision for Enrolment of Advocates - vakils and attorneys under Legal Practitioner’s Act, 1853. High Courts under the Act of 1861 and provision for the enrolment of the Advocates under the letters patent issued. Legal Practitioners Act, 1879 – Report of the Indian Bar Committee, 1923. The Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 – The All India Bar Committee, 1951. The Advocates Act, 1961. The development of Legal Education - History of Law Reporting in India. Prescribed Book: M. P. Jain - Outlines of India Legal History. Reference Books: Herbert Cowelle - The History and Constitution of the Courts and Legislative Authorities in India. Sir Courtenay Lebert - The Government of India. A. B. Keith - A Constitutional History of India, 1600-1935. Gwyer and Appadori - Speeches and Documents on the Indian Constitution 1945-1947 (2 Vols.) . M. V. Pylee - Constitutional History of India (1600-1950). Kulsreshta .V. L - Indian Legal and Constitutional History. N. R. Madhava Menon - History of Courts. COURSE-III CONTRACT-I Objectives:
Contracts are at the basis of majority of transactions especially transactions dealing with the property. Whether the transaction is in the ordinary course of life or in the electronic world (e-commerce) the general principles governing contracts remain same. For this reason it is very important to introduce the students to the basic principles governing contracts and lay a powerful foundation for their study of other transactional and related laws in higher semesters.
Course contents: UNIT – I
History – Formation of Contract – Agreement and Contract – Definitions – Classification - Offer and Acceptance – Communication – Revocation – Essential elements – Invitation to Offer – Tenders.
Consideration – Nudum Pactum - Essential elements – Privity of Contract and of Consideration – Exceptions – Unlawful Consideration and its effect.
Contractual Ability – Electronic Documents as Web Pages – Digital Certificates as Entry Passes – Time and Place of Contract – Secured Custody of Electronic Records.
UNIT – II
Capacity to Contract – Minor’s Agreements and its effects – Persons of unsound mind – Persons disqualified by Law.
Free Consent – Coercion - Undue influence – Misrepresentation – Fraud – Mistake – Legality of Object – Void Agreements – Agreements against Public Policy – Wagering Agreements – Its exceptions – Contingent Contracts.
UNIT – III
Discharge of Contracts and its various Modes – by performance – Time and place of performance – Performance of reciprocal promises - Appropriation of Payments – Discharge by Agreement – By operation of Law – By frustration (Impossibility of Performance) – By Breach (Anticipatory and Actual).
UNIT – IV
Remedies for Breach of Contracts – Damages – Remoteness of damages – Ascertainment of damages -Injunction – When granted and when refused– Restitution – Specific performance when granted – Quasi Contracts.
UNIT – V
Nature of Specific Relief – Recovery of Possession of movable and immovable Property – Specific performance when granted and not granted – Who may obtain and against
whom – Discretionary remedy – Power of Court to grant relief – Rectification of instruments – Cancellation – Declaratory decrees – Preventive relief – Temporary injunctions – Perpetual and Mandatory Injunctions.
Government as a contracting party: Constitutional provisions – Government powers to contract – Procedural requirements – Kinds of Government Contracts, their usual clauses, performance of such contract, settlement of disputes and remedies.
1. Avtar Singh- Law of Contracts 2. Avtar Singh- Specific Relief Act
1. Pollock & Mulla- Indian Contract Act 2. P. S. Atiya- Introduction to the Law of Contract 3. G. C. Cheshire- Law of Contract 4. William Anson- Law of Contract 5. Henry Maine- Ancient Law
COURSE-IV PSYCHOLOGY Objectives:
Human behaviour is so pervasive that it encompasses every activity of man. The subject, Psychology attempts to understand the nature of behaviour and the mental process of human beings. It becomes essential on the part of the law students to understand and apply the knowledge of Psychology in several aspects of legal implications. Hence the basic principles of Psychology are the contents of this course.
Nature of Psychology, Methods of Psychology, approaches to Psychology, contemporary psychology and its application.
Perceptual Processes- Principles of perceptual organisation, perceptual selectivity, stimulus and personal factors and their implications- cognitive dissonance- perceiving and judging people.
Motivation –needs, content and processes- wants, goals and self, primary and secondary motives, theories of motivation, emotions, emotional intelligence.
Interpersonal behaviour, interpersonal response traits, characteristics of interpersonal response traits, frustration, self and interpersonal response traits, self esteem, principles of self perception,
self regulation and self presentation, interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, developmental process of personality, deviant behaviour.
Attitudes, Nature and measurement of attitudes, formation of attitudes, changing of attitudes, factors influencing the change, implications in the present social context.
Prescribed Books: D.mayers- Introduction to Psychology Hilgard- Atkinson and Atkinson, Introduction to Psychology. Reference Books: Eastwood Atwaters- Psychology for Living. Krech, Crutchfield and Ballachey- An Individual in Society Feldman R.S.- Understanding Psychology.
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