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The format of this leaflet was determined by the Ministry of Health and its content was
checked and approved by it in September 2012.
NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
calendar pack 26 hormone-containing film-coated tablets in the following order: 2 dark yellow tablets each containing 3 mg estradiol valerate 5 medium red tablets each containing 2 mg estradiol valerate and 2 mg dienogest 17 light yellow tablets each containing 2 mg estradiol valerate and 3 mg dienogest 2 dark red tablets each containing 1 mg estradiol valerate Excipient: lactose monohydrate 48.36, 47.36, 46.36, 50.36 mg, respectively. 2 hormone-free white film-coated tablets. Excipient: lactose monohydrate 52.1455 mg. For a full list of excipients, see ‘Pharmaceutical Particulars’
Treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in women without organic pathology who desire oral contraception.
Dosage and method of administration
How to take Qlair
Combined oral contraceptives, when taken correctly, have a failure rate of approximately 1% per year. The failure rate may increase when pills are missed or taken incorrectly.
Tablets must be taken in the order directed on the package every day at about the same time with some liquid as needed. Tablet taking is continuous. One tablet is to be taken daily for 28
consecutive days. Each subsequent pack is started the day after the last tablet of the previous calendar pack. Withdrawal bleeding usually starts during the intake of the last tablets of a wallet and may not have finished before the next wallet is started. In some women, the bleeding starts after the first tablets of the new wallet are taken.
How to start Qlair
No preceding hormonal contraceptive use (in the past month)
Tablet-taking has to start on day 1 of the woman’s natural cycle (i.e. the first day of her menstrual bleeding). Changing from a combined hormonal contraceptive (combined oral contraceptive /COC),
vaginal ring, or transdermal patch
The woman should start with Qlair on the day after the last hormone containing tablet of her
previous COC. In case a vaginal ring or transdermal patch has been used, the woman should start
using Qlair on the day of removal.
Changing from a progestogen-only method (minipill, injection, implant) or from a
progestogen-releasing intrauterine system (IUS)
The woman may switch any day from the minipill (from an implant or the IUS on the day of its
removal, from an injectable when the next injection would be due), but should in all of these
cases be advised to additionally use a barrier method for the first 9 days
Following first-trimester abortion
The woman may start immediately. When doing so, she needs not take additional contraceptive
Following delivery or second-trimester abortion
For breastfeeding women see section ‘Pregnancy and lactation’.
Women should be advised to start at day 21 to 28 after delivery or second-trimester
abortion. When starting later, the woman should be advised to additionally use a barrier method
for the first 9 days
of tablet-taking. However, if intercourse has already occurred, pregnancy
should be excluded before the actual start of COC use or the woman has to wait for her first
Management of missed tablets
Missed hormone-free white film coated tablets can be disregarded. However, they should be
discarded to avoid unintentionally prolonging the hormone-free white tablet phase. The following
advice only refers to missed hormone-containing
If the woman is less than 12 hours
late in taking any tablet, contraceptive protection is not
reduced. The woman should take the tablet as soon as she remembers and should take further
tablets at the usual time.
If she is more than 12 hours
late in taking any tablet, contraceptive protection may be reduced.
The woman should take the last missed tablet as soon as she remembers, even if this means
taking two tablets at the same time
. She then continues to take tablets at her usual time.
Depending on the day of the cycle on which the tablet has been missed (see chart below for
details), back-up contraceptive measures
(e.g. a barrier method such as a condom) have to be
used according to the following principles:
Principles to follow if missing one tablet for more than 12 hours:
Dark yellow tablets
- Take missed tablet immediately and the following tablet as usual
(even if this means taking two tablets on the same day)
Medium red tablets
- Continue with tablet-taking in the regular manner
- Back-up contraception for the next 9 days
Light yellow tablets
mg EV + 3.0 mg DNG)
Light yellow tablets
Discard current calendar packcalendar pack, and start immediately
with the first pill of a new calendar packcalendar pack
Continue with tablet-taking in the regular manner
Back-up contraception for the next 9 days
Dark red tablets
Take missed tablet immediately and the following tablet as usual
(even if this means taking two tablets on the same day)
Discard missed tablet and continue tablet-taking in the normal way
Not more than two tablets are to be taken on a given day.
If a woman has forgotten to start a new calendar pack, or if she has missed one or more tablets
during days 3 -9 of the calendar pack, she may already be pregnant (provided she has had
intercourse in the 7 days before the oversight). The more tablets (of those with the two combined
active ingredients on days 3 – 24) that are missed and the closer they are to the placebo tablet
phase, the higher the risk of a pregnancy.
If the woman missed tablets and subsequently has no withdrawal bleed at the end of the calendar
pack /beginning of new calendar pack, the possibility of a pregnancy should be considered. Paediatric population
No data available for use in adolescents below 18 years.
Advice in case of gastro-intestinal disturbances
In case of severe gastro-intestinal disturbances, absorption may not be complete and additional contraceptive measures should be taken.
If vomiting occurs within 3-4 hours after active tablet-taking, the next tablet should be taken as soon as possible. This tablet should be taken within 12 hours of the usual time of tablet-taking, if possible. If more than 12 hours elapse, the advice concerning missed tablets, as given in section 4.2 “Management of missed tablets”, is applicable. If the woman does not want to change her normal tablet-taking schedule, she has to take the corresponding tablet(s) needed from another pack.
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) should not be used in the presence of any of the conditions listed below. Should any of the conditions appear for the first time during COC use, the product should be stopped immediately.
Presence or a history of venous or arterial thrombotic/thromboembolic events (e.g. deep
venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction) or of a cerebrovascular accident.
Presence or history of prodromi of a thrombosis (e.g. transient ischaemic attack, angina
History of migraine with focal neurological symptoms. Diabetes mellitus with vascular involvement. The presence of a severe or multiple risk factor(s) for venous or arterial thrombosis such as:
diabetes mellitus with vascular symptoms
may also constitute a contraindication (see SPECIAL WARNINGS AND SPECIAL
PRECAUTIONS FOR USE
Pancreatitis or a history thereof if associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Presence or history of severe hepatic disease as long as liver function values have not returned
Presence or history of liver tumors (benign or malignant). Known or suspected sex-steroid influenced malignancies (e.g. of the genital organs or the
Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding. Known or suspected pregnancy. Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients. Hereditary or acquired predisposition for venous or arterial thrombosis, such as APC-
resistance, antithrombin-III-deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and antiphospholipid-antibodies (anticardiolipin-antibodies, lupus anticoagulant).
Special warnings and precautions for use
If any of the conditions/risk factors mentioned below are present, the benefits of COC use should be weighed against the possible risks for each individual woman and discussed with the woman
before she decides to start taking it. In the event of aggravation, exacerbation or first appearance of any of these conditions or risk factors, the woman should contact her physician. The physician should then decide whether COC use should be discontinued.
No epidemiological studies on the effects of estradiol/ estradiol valerate-containing COC’s exist. All the following warnings and precautions are derived from clinical and epidemiological data of EE-containing COCs. Whether these warning and precautions apply to Qlair is unknown.
Epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of VTE in users of oral contraceptives with low oestrogen content (<50 µg ethinylestradiol) ranges from about 20 to 40 cases per 100,000 woman-years, but this risk estimate varies according to the progestogen. This compares with 5 to 10 cases per 100,000 woman-years for non-users.
The use of any combined oral contraceptive (including Qlair) carries an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with no use. The excess risk of VTE is highest during the first year a woman ever uses a combined oral contraceptive. The incidence of VTE associated with pregnancy is estimated as 60 cases per 100,000 pregnancies. VTE is fatal in 1-2% of cases.
The risk of VTE during use of Qlair is currently unknown.
Epidemiological studies have also suggested an association between the use of EE-containing COCs and an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombotic and thromboembolic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. These events occur rarely.
The risk for venous thromboembolism is highest during the first year a woman ever uses a COC.
Extremely rarely, thrombosis has been reported to occur in other blood vessels, e.g. hepatic, mesenteric, renal, cerebral or retinal veins and arteries, in COC users. There is no consensus as to whether the occurrence of these events is associated with the use of COCs.
Symptoms of venous or arterial thrombotic/thromboembolic events or of a cerebrovascular accident can include: • unilateral leg pain and/ or swelling; • sudden severe pain in the chest, whether or not it radiates to the left arm; • sudden breathlessness; • sudden onset of coughing; • any unusual, severe, prolonged headache; • sudden partial or complete loss of vision; • diplopia; • slurred speech or aphasia; • vertigo; • collapse with or without focal seizure; • weakness or very marked numbness suddenly affecting one side or one part of the body; motor disturbances; • "acute" abdomen.
The risk of venous or arterial thrombotic/thromboembolic events or of a cerebrovascular accident increases with:
increasing age; smoking (with heavier smoking and increasing age the risk further increases, especially in
a positive family history (i.e. venous or arterial thromboembolism ever in a sibling or parent at
a relatively early age). If a hereditary predisposition is suspected, the woman should be referred to a specialist for advice before deciding about any COC use;
obesity (body mass index over 30 kg/m );
dyslipoproteinaemia; hypertension; migraine; valvular heart disease; atrial fibrillation; prolonged immobilization, major surgery, any surgery to the legs, or major trauma. In these
situations it is advisable to discontinue COC use (in the case of elective surgery at least four weeks in advance) and not to resume until two weeks after complete remobilization. Antithrombotic treatment should be considered if the pills have not been discontinued in advance.
There is no consensus about the possible role of varicose veins and superficial
thrombophlebitis in the onset or progression of venous thromboembolism.
The presence of one serious risk factor or multiple risk factors for venous or arterial disease, respectively, can also constitute a contra-indication. The possibility of anticoagulant therapy should also be taken into account. COC users should be specifically pointed out to contact their physician in case of possible symptoms of thrombosis. In case of suspected or confirmed thrombosis, COC use should be discontinued. Adequate alternative contraception should be initiated because of the teratogenicity of anticoagulant therapy (coumarins).
The increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the puerperium must be considered (for
information on “Pregnancy and Lactation” see PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Other medical conditions which have been associated with adverse circulatory events include diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic uremic syndrome, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) and sickle cell disease.
An increase in frequency or severity of migraine during COC use (which may be prodromal of a cerebrovascular event) may be a reason for immediate discontinuation of the COC.
An increased risk of cervical cancer in long-term users of COCs (> 5 years) has been reported in some epidemiological studies, but there continues to be controversy about the extent to which this finding is attributable to the confounding effects of sexual behaviour and other factors such as human papilloma virus (HPV).
A meta-analysis from 54 epidemiological studies reported that there is a slightly increased relative risk (RR = 1.24) of having breast cancer diagnosed in women who are currently using COCs. The excess risk gradually disappears during the course of the 10 years after cessation of COC use. Because breast cancer is rare in women under 40 years of age, the excess number of breast cancer diagnoses in current and recent COC users is small in relation to the overall risk of breast cancer. These studies do not provide evidence for causation. The observed pattern of increased risk may be due to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer in COC users, the biological effects of COCs or a combination of both. The breast cancers diagnosed in ever-users tend to be less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in never-users.
In rare cases, benign liver tumors, and even more rarely, malignant liver tumors have been reported in users of COCs. In isolated cases, these tumors have led to life-threatening intra-abdominal hemorrhages. A hepatic tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis when severe upper abdominal pain, liver enlargement or signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage occur in women taking COCs.
Women with hypertriglyceridaemia, or a family history thereof, may be at an increased risk of pancreatitis when using COCs.
Although small increases in blood pressure have been reported in many women taking COCs, clinically relevant increases are rare. However, if a sustained clinically significant hypertension develops during the use of a COC then it is prudent for the physician to withdraw the COC and treat the hypertension. Where considered appropriate, COC use may be resumed if normotensive values can be achieved with antihypertensive therapy.
The following conditions have been reported to occur or deteriorate with both pregnancy and COC use, but the evidence of an association with COC use is inconclusive: jaundice and/or pruritus related to cholestasis; gallstone formation; porphyria; systemic lupus erythematosus; hemolytic uremic syndrome; Sydenham’s chorea; herpes gestationis; otosclerosis-related hearing loss.
In women with hereditary angioedema exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms
Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of COC use
until markers of liver function return to normal. Recurrence of cholestatic jaundice which
occurred first during pregnancy or previous use of sex steroids necessitates the discontinuation of
Although COCs may have an effect on peripheral insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, there is no evidence for a need to alter the therapeutic regimen in diabetics using low-dose COCs (containing <0.05 mg ethinylestradiol ). However, diabetic women should be carefully observed while taking COCs.
Worsening of endogenous depression, of epilepsy, of Crohn's disease and of ulcerative colitis has been reported during COC use.
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have been associated with COC use.
Chloasma may occasionally occur, especially in women with a history of chloasma gravidarum. Women with a tendency to chloasma should avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet radiation whilst taking COCs.
Estrogens may cause fluid retention, and therefore patients with cardiac or renal dysfunction should be carefully observed. Patients with terminal renal insufficiency should be closely observed, since the level of circulating estrogens may be increased after administration of Qlair.
This medicinal product contains not more than 50 mg lactose per tablet. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption who are on a lactose-free diet should take this amount into consideration.
A complete medical history (including family history) and physical examination should be taken prior to the initiation or reinstitution of COC use and pregnancy must be ruled out. Blood pressure should be measured and a physical examination should be performed, guided by the contra-indications (see section 4.3) and warnings (see section 4.4). The woman should also be instructed to carefully read the user booklet and to adhere to the advice given. The frequency and nature of examinations should be based on established practice guidelines and be adapted to the individual woman.
Women should be advised that oral contraceptives do not protect against HIV infections (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases.
The efficacy of COCs may be reduced in the event of e.g. missed active tablets, gastro-intestinal
disturbances (section ADVICE IN CASE OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL DISTURBANCES
during active tablet taking or concomitant medication (section INTERACTIONS OF OTHER
MEDICINAL PRODUCTS WITH QLAIR
With all COCs, irregular bleeding (spotting or breakthrough bleeding) may occur, especially during the first months of use. Therefore, the evaluation of any irregular bleeding is only meaningful after an adaptation interval of about 3 cycles.
Based on patient diaries from a comparative clinical trial, the percentage of women per cycle experiencing intracyclic bleeding was 10 – 18 % for women using Qlair.
Users of Qlair may experience amenorrhea although not being pregnant. Based on patient diaries, amenorrhea occurs in approximately 15% of cycles.
If Qlair has been taken according to the directions described in Section 4.2, it is unlikely that the woman is pregnant. If Qlair has not been taken according to these directions prior to the first missed withdrawal bleed or if the withdrawal bleeding is missed in two consecutive cycles, pregnancy must be ruled out before Qlair use is continued.
If bleeding irregularities persist or occur after previously regular cycles, then non-hormonal causes should be considered and adequate diagnostic measures are indicated to exclude malignancy or pregnancy. These may include curettage.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Effects of other medicaments on Qlair
Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. The following interactions have been reported.
Individual enzyme-inducers or inhibitors (CYP3A4)
Dienogest is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4.
Substances with enzyme-inducing properties
Interactions can occur with drugs (e.g. phenytoin, barbiturates, primidone, carbamazepine, rifampicin, and possibly also oxcarbazepine, topiramate, felbamate, griseofulvin and products containing St. John’s wort) that induce microsomal enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 enzymes) which can result in increased clearance of sex hormones. HIV protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g. nevirapine), and combinations of them, have also been reported to potentially affect hepatic metabolism.
Maximal enzyme induction is generally not seen for 2-3 weeks but may then be sustained for at least 4 weeks after the cessation of drug therapy.
In a clinical study the strong CYP 3A4 inducer rifampicin led to significant decreases in steady state concentrations and systemic exposures of dienogest and estradiol. The AUC (0-24h) of dienogest and estradiol at steady state, were decreased by 83% and 44%, respectively.
Women on short-term treatment (up to one week) with any of the above-mentioned classes of medicinal products or individual active substances besides rifampicin should temporarily use a barrier method in addition to the COC, i.e. during the time of concomitant medicinal product administration and for 14 days after their discontinuation.
For women on rifampicin a barrier method should be used in addition to the COC during the time of rifampicin administration and for 28 days after its discontinuation.
In women on chronic treatment with hepatic enzyme-inducing active substances, another reliable, non-hormonal, method of contraception is recommended.
Interference with Enterohepatic Circulation
Some clinical reports suggest that enterohepatic circulation of estrogens may decrease when certain antibiotic agents are given which may reduce estradiol concentrations (e.g. penicillins, tetracyclines).
Substances with enzyme-inhibiting properties
Dienogest is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4.
Known CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitors like azole antifungals, cimetidine, verapamil, macrolides, diltiazem, antidepressants and grapefruit juice may increase plasma levels of dienogest.
In a clinical study investigating the effect of CYP3A4 inhibitors (ketoconazole, erythromycin), steady state dienogest and estradiol plasma levels were increased. Co-administration with the strong CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor ketoconazole resulted in a 186% and 57% increase of AUC(0-24h) at steady state for dienogest and estradiol, respectively. Concomitant administration of the moderate inhibitor erythromycin increased the AUC (0-24h) of dienogest and estradiol at steady state by 62% and 33%, respectively. The clinical relevance of these interactions is unknown.
Contraceptive failures have also been reported with antibiotics, such as penicillins and tetracyclines. The mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated.
Effects of Qlair on other medicaments
Oral contraceptives may affect the metabolism of certain other drugs (e.g. lamotrigine) and may result in either increased or decreased plasma and tissue concentrations.
Pharmacokinetics of nifedipine were not affected by concomitant administration of 2 mg dienogest + 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol thus confirming results of in vitro studies indicating that inhibition of CYP enzymes by Qlair is unlikely at the therapeutic dose.
Other forms of interaction
The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, including biochemical parameters of liver, thyroid, adrenal and renal function, plasma levels of (carrier) proteins, e.g. corticosteroid binding globulin and lipid/lipoprotein fractions, parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Changes generally remain within the normal laboratory range.
Pregnancy and lactation
Qlair is not indicated during pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs during use of Qlair, further intake should be stopped. However, extensive epidemiological studies with EE-containing COCs have revealed neither an increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who used COCs prior to pregnancy, nor a teratogenic effect when COCs were taken inadvertently during early pregnancy. Animal studies do not indicate a risk for reproductive toxicity.
Lactation may be influenced by COCs as they may reduce the quantity and change the composition of breast milk. Therefore, the use of COCs should generally not be recommended until the nursing mother has completely weaned her child. Small amounts of the contraceptive steroids and/or their metabolites may be excreted with the milk but there is no evidence that this adversely affects infant health.
The most serious undesirable effects associated with the use of COCs are listed in section WARNINGS
Table 1, below reports adverse reactions (ARs) by MedDRA system organ classes (MedDRA SOCs). The frequencies are based on clinical trial data. The adverse reactions were recorded in 3 phase III clinical studies (N=2266 women at risk for pregnancy) and considered at least possibly causally related to Qlair use.
Table 1, adverse reactions, phase III clinical trials, N= 2266 women (100.0%)
Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome Tinea versicolor Urinary tract infection Vaginitis bacterial Vulvovaginal mycotic infection
Dysphoria Libido increased Nervousness Restlessness Sleep disorder Stress
aminotransferase increased Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver
Chloasma Dermatitis Hirsutism Hypertrichosis Neurodermatitis Pigmentation disorder Seborrhoea Skin disorder g
a including tension headache b including migraine with aura and migraine without aura c including abdominal distension d including pruritus generalized and rash pruritic e including rash macular f including dermatitis allergic and urticaria
lymphatic system disorders General disorders
* all ADRs listed in the category ‚rare’ occurred only in 1 to 2 volunteers resulting in < 0.1%
Treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding in women without organic pathology who desire oral contraception
Table 2, below reports adverse reactions (ARs) by MedDRA system organ classes (MedDRA SOCs). The frequencies are based on clinical trial data. The adverse reactions were recorded in 2 phase III clinical studies (N=264 women suffering from heavy and / or prolonged bleeding without organic pathology who desire oral contraception) and considered at least possibly causally related to Qlair use.
Table 2, adverse reactions, phase III clinical trials, N= 264 women (100.0%)
g including skin tightness h including breast pain, nipple disorder and nipple pain i including menstruation irregular
System Organ Class
1/100 to 1/10)
1/1,000 to <1/100)
Hot flush Hypertension Phlebitis superficialis Vein pain
malignant and unspecified (incl, cysts and polyps) Renal and urinary
j including vaginal candidiasis k including affect lability and crying l including tension headache and sinus headache m including migraine with aura n including abdominal distension and abdominal pain lower o including alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased and gamma-glutamyltransferase increased
System Organ Class
1/100 to 1/10)
1/1,000 to <1/100)
Ovarian cyst Pelvic pain Premenstrual syndrome Vulvovaginal dryness
p including breast pain and breast tenderness q including genital discharge r including withdrawal bleeding irregular s including genital hemorrhage and uterine hemorrhage t including blood pressure increased and blood pressure decreased
In addition to the above mentioned adverse reactions, Erythema nodosum, Erythema multiforme, Breast discharge and Hypersensitivity have occurred under treatment with EE containing COCs. Although these symptoms were not reported during the clinical studies performed with Qlair, the possibility that they also occur under treatment cannot be ruled out.
In women with hereditary angioedema exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema.
There have been no reports of serious deleterious effects from overdose. Symptoms that may occur in case of taking an overdose of active tablets are: nausea, vomiting and, in young girls, slight vaginal bleeding. There are no antidotes and further treatment should be symptomatic.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: progestogens and estrogens, sequential preparations
In clinical trials performed with Qlaira in the European Union and in the USA/Canada the following Pearl indices were calculated:
Method failure: 0.42 (upper limit 95% CI 0.77)
User + method failure: 0.79 (upper limit 95% CI 1.23)
Method failure: 0.51 (upper limit 95% CI 0.97)
User + method failure: 1.01 (upper limit 95% CI 1.59)
The contraceptive effect of COCs is based on the interaction of various factors, the most important of which are seen as the inhibition of ovulation, changes in the cervical secretion, and changes in the endometrium.
Qlaira is dosed using an estrogen step-down and a progestin step-up regimen that can be used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding in the absence of an organic pathology, symptoms sometimes referred to as dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB).
Two multicenter, double blind randomised studies of similar design were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qlaira in women with symptoms of DUB who desired oral contraception. In total, 269 women were randomised on Qlaira and 152 patients on placebo.
After 6 months of treatment the median menstrual blood loss (MBL) was decreased by 88% from 142 mL to 17 mL in the Qlaira group compared to 24% from 154 mL to 117 mL in the placebo group.
After 6 months of treatment, the proportion of women who were completely cured from any DUB symptom was 29% in the Qlaira group compared to 2% in the placebo group.
The estrogen in Qlaira is estradiol valerate, an ester of the natural human 17ß-estradiol (1 mg estradiol valerate corresponds to 0.76 mg 17 ß-estradiol). This estrogen differs from the estrogens ethinylestradiol or its prodrug mestranol used in other COCs by the lack of an ethinyl group in 17alpha position.
Dienogest is a nortestosterone derivative with no androgenic but rather an antiandrogenic activity of approximately one third of that of cyproterone acetate. Dienogest binds to the progesterone receptor of the human uterus with only 10% of the relative affinity of progesterone. Despite its low affinity to the progesterone receptor, dienogest has a strong progestogenic effect in vivo. Dienogest has no significant androgenic, mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid activity in vivo.
Endometrial histology was investigated in a subgroup of women (n=218) in one clinical study after 20 cycles of treatment. There were no abnormal results.
Orally administered dienogest is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. Maximal serum concentrations of 90.5 ng/ml are reached at about 1 hour after oral administration of the Qlair tablet containing 2 mg estradiol valerate + 3 mg dienogest. Bioavailability is about 91 %. The pharmacokinetics of dienogest are dose-proportional within the dose range of 1 – 8 mg.
Concomitant food intake has no clinically relevant effect on the rate and extent of dienogest absorption.
A relatively high fraction of 10% of circulating dienogest is present in the free form, with approx. 90% being bound non-specifically to albumin. Dienogest does not bind to the specific transport proteins SHBG and CBG. There is therefore no possibility of testosterone being displaced from its SHBG-binding or cortisol from its CBG-binding. Any influence on physiological transport processes for endogenous steroids is consequently unlikely. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vd,ss) of dienogest is 46 l after the intravenous administration of 85 µg 3H-dienogest.
Dienogest is nearly completely metabolized by the known pathways of steroid metabolism (hydroxylation, conjugation) with the formation of endocrinologically mostly inactive metabolites. The metabolites are excreted very quickly so that in plasma unchanged dienogest is the dominating fraction.
The total clearance following the intravenous administration of 3H-dienogest was calculated as 5.1 l/h.
The plasma half-life of dienogest is approximately 11 hours. Dienogest is excreted in the form of metabolites which are excreted at a urinary to fecal ratio of about 3:1 after oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Following oral administration, 42% of the dose is eliminated within the first 24 h and 63% within 6 days by renal excretion. A combined 86% of the dose is excreted by urine and feces after 6 days.
Pharmacokinetics of dienogest are not influenced by SHBG levels. Steady state is reached after 3 days of the same dosage of 3 mg dienogest in combination with 2 mg estradiol valerate. Trough, maximum and average dienogest serum concentrations at steady state are 11.8 ng/ml, 82.9 ng/ml and 33.7 ng/ml, respectively. The mean accumulation ratio for AUC (0-24h) was determined to be 1.24.
After oral administration estradiol valerate is completely absorbed. Cleavage to estradiol and valeric acid takes place during absorption by the intestinal mucosa or in the course of the first liver passage. This gives rise to estradiol and its metabolites estrone and estriol. Maximal serum estradiol concentrations of 70.6 pg/ml are reached between 1.5 and 12 hours after single ingestion of the tablet containing 3 mg estradiol valerate on Day 1.
The valeric acid undergoes very fast metabolism. After oral administration, approximately 3% of the dose is directly bioavailable as estradiol. Estradiol undergoes an extensive first-pass effect and a considerable part of the dose administered is already metabolized in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Together with the presystemic metabolism in the liver, about 95 % of the orally administered dose becomes metabolized before entering the systemic circulation. The main metabolites are estrone, estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide.
In serum 38 % of estradiol is bound to SHBG, 60 % to albumin and 2-3 % circulate in free form. Estradiol can slightly induce the serum concentrations of SHBG in a dose-dependent manner. On day 21 of the treatment cycle, SHBG was approximately 148% of the baseline, and decreased to about 141% of the baseline by day 28 (end of placebo phase). An apparent volume of distribution of approximately 1.2 l/kg was determined after iv. administration.
The plasma half-life of circulating estradiol is about 90 min. After oral administration, however, the situation differs. Because of the large circulating pool of estrogen sulfates and glucuronides , as well as enterohepatic recirculation, the terminal half-life of estradiol after oral administration represents a composite parameter which is dependent on all of these processes and is in the range of about 13-20 h. Estradiol and its metabolites are mainly excreted in urine, with about 10% being excreted in the stool.
Pharmacokinetics of estradiol are influenced by SHBG levels. In young women, the measured estradiol plasma levels are a composite of the endogenous estradiol and the estradiol generated from Qlair. During the treatment phase of 2 mg estradiol valerate + 3 mg dienogest, maximum and average estradiol serum concentrations at steady state are 66.0 pg/ml, and 51.6 pg/ml, respectively. Throughout the 28 day cycle, stable minimum estradiol concentrations were maintained and ranged from 28.7 pg/ml to 64.7 pg/ml.
Pharmacokinetics of Qlair was not investigated in patients with impaired renal or liver function.
Preclinical safety data
Preclinical data reveal no special risks for humans based on conventional studies of repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and toxicity to reproduction. However, it should be borne in mind that sex steroids can promote the growth of certain hormone-dependent tissues and tumors.
List of excipients
(E171) Iron oxide red (E172) and/or Iron oxide yellow (E172)
Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Nature and contents of container
Transparent PVC/Aluminium blister in a cardboard calendar pack
Pack sizes: 1 x 28 film-coated tablets 3 x 28 film-coated tablets 6 x 28 film-coated tablets Each calendar pack (28 film-coated tablets) contains in the following order: 2 dark yellow tablets and 5 medium red tablets and 17 light yellow tablets and 2 dark red tablets and 2 white tablets Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Special precautions for disposal
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Bayer Weimar GmbH und Co. KG, Weimar, Germany.
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D. Interference testing REFERENCES AccuTest™ THC Test Cassette The AccuTest™ THC test strip performance at cut1. Urine testing for drugs of abuse, NIDA Research not affected when pH and Specific Gravity ranges of urine 2. Steven B. Karch, Drugs of abuse hand book, CRC specimen are at 4.5 to 9.0 and 1.005 to 1.035. FOR THE QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OFTHCL AND The follow
Resochin Tabletten / Resochin junior TablettenAnwendung in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeitheit, Verwirrtheitszustände, Schläfrigkeit,nicht angewendet werden, weil es die Pla-– passagere Akkomodationsstörungen,– Herz-Kreislauf-ReaktionenBehandlung ist eine Schwangerschaftauszuschließen. Während der Behand-lung und für drei Monate danach ist einwirksamer Konzeptionsschutz einzuhal-R