Information about headaches, from the mildly unpleasant to the extremely painful. Transcript of radio broadcast: Vocabulary
This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. Headache
On SCIENCE IN THE NEWS: A guide to headaches Worldwide – Universal;
And I'm Bob Doughty. Today we tell about headaches,
the head pain that strikes almost everyone at some time.
Have you had a headache recently? If your answer is yes, you are like many millions of people worldwide who
experience pain in the head. The pain can be temporary,
mild and cured by a simple painkiller like aspirin. Or, it
Painkiller -
The National Headache Foundation says more than forty Undergo; experience; go
five million people in the United States suffer chronic
headaches. Such headaches cause severe pain that goes Chronic
Section B
Some headaches may prove difficult and require time to
treat. But many experts today are working toward cures
or major help for chronic headaches.
Prove Show; confirm;
Treat - take care of; care
The US Headache Consortium is a group with seven
member organizations. They are attempting to improve
Expert(s) - Specialist;
treatment of one kind of headache -- the migraine. Some
people experience this kind of pain as often as two weeks Major – Main; most
every month. The National Headache Foundation says
about seventy percent of migraine sufferers are women. Consortium – Group;
Some people describe the pain as similar to a repeated
Organization(s) –
beat. Others compare it to someone driving a sharp
object into the head. Migraine headaches cause Americans Attempt (ing) – try
to miss more than one hundred fifty million workdays each Migraine –A very strong,
year. A migraine can be mild. But it also can be so severe
that a person cannot live a normal life. Foundation –
Describe –Explain
Repeat(ed) – do again
One migraine sufferer lives in Ellicott City, Maryland. Compare – Balance;
Video producer Curtis Croley had head pain as a child. He does not know what kind of headaches they were. But when he suffered severe headaches as an adult, doctors Sharp –With an edge that
identified the problem as migraine.
Mild – gentle -
Severe –Harsh; acute; felt
Identify (ied) –
Recognize; make well
Section C
Today, Mister Croley says months can pass without a
headache. But then he will have three migraines within a month. If he takes the medicine his doctor ordered early
in his headache, it controls the pain. If not, the pain in his
head becomes extremely bad. Sometimes he has had to be
Pass - go by
treated with a combination of drugs in a hospital.
Medicine - drug
Order(ed) - Arrange;
Today, Mister Croley says months can pass without a headache. But then he will have three migraines within a Controls - Manage; be in
month. If he takes the medicine his doctor ordered early in his headache, it controls the pain. If not, the pain in his Extremely - Very; really
head becomes extremely bad. Sometimes he has had to be Combination –
treated with a combination of drugs in a hospital. Prevent – Stop; avoid
Ease - Relieve; reduce
Develop(ed) - build up
React - act in response to
Some people take medicine every day to prevent or ease
migraine headaches. Others use medicine to control pain already developed. Doctors treating migraine sufferers
often order medicines from a group of drugs known as Most migraines react at least partly to existing medicine.
And most people can use existing medicine without experiencing bad effects. Doctors sometimes use caffeine to treat migraine headaches. Interestingly, caffeine also can cause some migraines. VOICE ONE: Medical experts have long recognized the work of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. The Mayo Clinic says several foods are suspected of causing migraines. Cheese and alcoholic drinks are among them. Food additives like nitrates and monosodium glutamate also are suspected causes. Section D:
The Mayo Clinic tells patients to avoid strong smells that
have seemingly started migraines in the past. Some people
react badly to products like perfume, even if they have a pleasant smell.
The Clinic's experts say aerobic exercise can help
migraine sufferers. Aerobic exercise increases a person's Patient(s) people
heart rate. It can include walking, swimming or riding a bicycle. But a sudden start to hard exercise can cause Seemingly - Apparently;
The experts advise that people should plan to exercise, eat Pleasant – Enjoyable
Aerobic - Having or
Advice - Suggestion
The Mayo Clinic has advice about estrogen for women
Estrogen – Female
who suffer from migraines. The female body makes estrogen. Drugs like birth control pills contain a version
Birth control pills –
Such medicines may produce headaches or cause them to Version - Form; kind
worsen, the Clinic says. The same is true for estrogen
Worsen - get worse;
replacement drugs for women. Doctors sometimes order
estrogen replacement for women who no longer able to Replacement – substitute;
The Clinic also says hypnotherapy might help suppress
headaches. It says the method could reduce the number
and severity of a patient’s headaches. In hypnotherapy, Hypnotherapy – treating
willing people are placed in a condition that lets them receive suggestions. They look like they are sleeping. The suggestions they receive may be able to direct their whole
Suppress - hold back
Reduce - lessen
The Mayo Clinic says the hypnotizer can never control the
Direct - focus
person under hypnosis. It also says the hypnotized person Hypnotize (r) – put under
will remember what happened during the treatment. Emotion (al) – strong
More people suffer tension headaches than migraines. But Depression - sadness
most tension headaches are not as powerful. Atmosphere (ic) -
Events that start tension headaches may include emotional
pressure and the deeper than normal sadness called Episodic – Happening at
depression. Other tension headaches can start from
something as simple as tiredness. Common changes in Blame(d) – Accuse;
atmospheric conditions also can be responsible.
The Mayo Clinic says you may feel a tension headache as tightness in the skin around your eyes. Or, you may feel pressure around your head. Episodic tension headaches
strike from time to time. Chronic tension headaches happen more often. A tension headache can last from a half hour to a whole week. VOICE ONE: The Mayo Clinic says the pain may come very early in the day. Other signs can include pain in the neck or the lower part of the head. Scientists are not sure what causes
tension headaches. For years, researchers blamed muscle
tension from tightening in the face, neck and the skin on
top of the head. They believed emotional tension caused these movements. But that belief has been disputed. A test called an
electromyogram shows that muscle tension does not
increase in people with a tension headache. The test Vocabulary
records electrical currents caused by muscle activity. Such research has caused the International Headache Society to Dispute (d) - difference
re-name the tension headache. The group now calls it a Electromyogram – a test,
Serotonin A chemical
Some scientists now believe that tension headaches may result from changes among brain chemicals such as serotonin. The changes may start sending pain messages
to the brain. These changes may interfere with brain
Interfere - get in the way
Medicines for tension headache can be as simple as aspirin or other painkillers. But if your pain is too severe, you will need a doctor's advice. VOICE ONE: A web site called Family Doctor dot org provides information from the American Academy of Family Physicians. The group suggests steps to ease or end a tension headache. For example, it says putting heat or ice on your head or neck can help. So can standing under hot water while you are getting washed. The group also advises exercising often. Another idea is taking a holiday from work. But you had better ask your employer first. Ask anyone with a cluster headache, and they will tell you
that the pain is terrible. The Cleveland Clinic Headache Center in Ohio says the cluster headache can be many Cluster - Crowd together
Period (s) – Space of time
Reflex - Automatic
Cluster headaches usually strike young people. Smokers and persons who drink alcohol often get these headaches. Activate (ion) - Start
Men are about six times more likely than women to have Hypothalamus – an area
them. The Cleveland Clinic says this is especially true of younger men. Doctors say cluster headaches often strike Cluster headache patients describe the pain as burning. The pain is almost always felt on one side of the face. It can last for up to ninety minutes. Then it stops. But it often starts again later the same day. Eighty to ninety percent of cluster headache patients have pain over a
number of days to a whole year. Pain-free periods
separate these periods.
The Cleveland Clinic says the cause of cluster headaches is
in a brain area known as a trigeminal-autonomic reflex
pathway. When the nerve is made active, it starts pain
linked to cluster headaches. The nerve starts a process that
makes one eye watery and red.
Studies have shown that activation of the trigeminal nerve
may come from a part of the brain called the
hypothalamus. The Cleveland Clinic says injections of
the drug sumatriptan can help. Many other drugs also
could be used. For example, doctors say breathing oxygen also can help. Thankfully, modern medicine has ways to treat almost all This program was written by Jerilyn Watson and produced And I'm Barbara Klein. Read and listen to our programs at voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of

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Curriculum Vitae 1. Name in Full : Professor Sudha Mahajan Cowsik, FAMS 2. Date of Birth : 3. Present Designation and address: Professor, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal 4. Nationality: Indian 5. Citizenship: Indian 6. Qualifications : Academic career and professional attainments : Degree/ Diploma University/Institution Year BSc (Hons. Sch) Punja

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