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Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care

International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 2012; 16: 77–84 REVIEW ARTICLE
Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders,
obsessive – compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder
in primary care

BORWIN BANDELOW 1 , LEO SHER 2 , ROBERTAS BUNEVICIUS 3 , ERIC HOLLANDER 2 , SIEGFRIED KASPER 4 , JOSEPH ZOHAR 5 , HANS-J Ü RGEN M Ö LLER 6 , WFSBP TASK FORCE ON MENTAL DISORDERS IN PRIMARY CARE a AND WFSBP TASK FORCE ON ANXIETY DISORDERS , OCD AND PTSD b 1 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of G ö ttingen, G ö ttingen, Germany, 2 Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefi ore Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA, 3 Institute of Psychophysiology and Rehabilitation, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Palanga, Lithuania, 4 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 5 Division of Psychiatry, Chaim-Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel, and 6 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany Abstract
Objective. Anxiety disorders are frequently under-diagnosed conditions in primary care, although they can be managed
effectively by general practitioners.
Methods. This paper is a short and practical summary of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive – compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the treatment in primary care. The recommendations were developed by a task force of 30 international experts in the fi eld and are based on randomized controlled studies. Results. First-line pharmacological treatments for these disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (for all disor-ders), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (for some) and pregabalin (for generalized anxiety disorder only). A combination of medication and cognitive behavior/exposure therapy was shown to be a clinically desired treatment strategy. Conclusions. This short version of an evidence-based guideline may improve treatment of anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD in primary care. Key Words: Anxiety disorders , guidelines , panic disorder , generalized anxiety disorder , social anxiety disorder , pharmacological

Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 Introduction
diagnostic guidelines for the mental disorders in primary care. This publication is a complementary Anxiety disorders are frequently under-diagnosed tool – a brief and user friendly diagnostic guideline, conditions in primary care, although they can be developed for general practitioners. It is a short managed effectively by general practitioners. The and practical summary of the WFSBP guidelines World Health Organization (WHO) and American Psychiatric Association (APA) developed specifi c disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder a Chair: Robertas Bunevicius (Lithuania), Co-Chair: Siegfried Kasper (Austria), Secretary: Florence Thibaut (France), Members: Wioletta Baranska-Rybak (Poland), Wieclaw J. Cubala (Poland), David Fiellin (USA), Henry R. Kranzler (USA), Alison Moore (USA), Elmars Rankans (Latvia), Jill Rasmussen (UK), Richard Saitz (USA), Djea Saravane (France), Thomas E. Schlaepfer (Germany), Leo Sher (USA), S.W. Tang (Hong Kong), Leonas Valius (Lithuania), David Wong (Hong Kong), Larisa M Zhitnikova (Russia), Joseph Zohar (Israel).
b Chair: Joseph Zohar (Israel); Co-Chairs: Eric Hollander (USA), Siegfried Kasper (Austria), Hans-Jurgen Moller (Germany); Secretary: Borwin Bandelow (Germany); Members: C. Allgulander, J. Ayuso-Gutierrez, D. Baldwin, R. Bunevicius, G. Cassano, N. Fineberg, L. Gabriels, I. Hindmarch, H. Kaiya, D.F. Klein, M. Lader, Y. Lecrubier, J.P. Lepine, M.R. Liebowitz, J.J. Lopez-Ibor, D. Marazitti, E.C. Miguel, K.S. Oh, M. Preter, R. Rupprecht, M. Sato, V. Starcevic, D.J. Stein, M. van Ameringen, J. Vega.
Correspondence: Borwin Bandelow, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of G ö ttingen, von-Siebold-Str. 5, D-37075 G (Received 12 August 2011 ; accepted 5 January 2012 ) ISSN 1365-1501 print/ISSN 1471-1788 online 2012 Informa HealthcareDOI: 10.3109/13651501.2012.667114 (PTSD) [1], aiming at providing information about Treatment is indicated in the majority of patients how to use modern medications for managing anx- who fulfi ll the WHO International Classifi cation of iety disorders in a busy primary care setting. Diseases (ICD-10) or APA Diagnostic and Statistical Although the lifetime prevalence of anxiety dis- Manual (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an anxiety disor- orders has remained stable over the last decade – der, OCD or PTSD (Table II). The treatment plan about 29% – the rate of treatment increased, along is based on the patient ’ s preference, severity of ill- with the increased awareness about anxiety disor- ness, co-morbidity, concomitant medical illnesses, ders, and the desire to improve quality of life. complications like substance abuse or suicide risk, Patients with anxiety disorders are frequent users the history of previous treatments, cost issues and of emergency and primary medical services and are availability of types of treatment in a given area. at a high risk for suicide attempts and substance Treatment options include drug treatment and psy- chological therapy. Before drug treatment is initiated, The current conceptualization of anxiety disor- it is strongly recommended that the mechanisms ders includes an interaction of a specifi c neurobio- underlying psychic and somatic anxiety be explained logical vulnerability (genetic, childhood adversity) to the patient (brochures that explain the typical fea- and environmental factors (stress, trauma). Anxiety tures of the patient’s condition, treatment options, disorders are associated with dysfunction of sero- and adverse drug effects might be useful). Compli- tonin, norepinephrine and other neurotransmitter ance with drug treatment can be improved when the advantages and disadvantages of the drugs are explained carefully. Treatment should continue for at least 6 Treatment
months after remission has occurred, in order to reduce the risk of relapse, and may be stopped only The WFSBP Task Force conducted a computer- if all, or almost all, symptoms disappear. based literature research in order to identify all rel-evant studies showing superiority to placebo and superiority or equivalent effi cacy compared with Drug treatment: available compounds established comparator treatments. The studies had to fulfi ll certain quality requirements. The categories Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), of evidence are shown in Table I and are based on a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors systematic analysis of 510 randomized controlled (SNRIs), and pregabalin are recommended as fi rst- studies. Recommendation grades are based on a line drugs due to their favorable risk-benefi t ratio, synthesis of evidence and the risks of a drug (for with some differentiation regarding the various anx- example, benzodiazepines have category of evidence A, but only a recommendation grade of 2, due to SSRIs . SSRIs are indicated for the anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. Although treatment with SSRIs is Table I. Categories of evidence and recommendation grades (Table III gives the categories of evidence for all recommended drugs). For a detailed defi nition of the evidence and recommendation Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 Limited positive evidence from controlled studies Evidence from uncontrolled studies or case reports/expert opinion Based on the opinion of experts in the fi eld or clinical experience Category A evidence and good risk-benefi t ratio Category A evidence and moderate risk-benefi t ratio WFSBP guidelines for primary care Table II. Short description of anxiety disorders as defi ned by ICD-10 [2] and DSM-IV-TR [3]. Panic disorder (PD)
Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks. Panic attacks are discrete periods of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied
by at least four somatic and psychic symptoms (palpitations, sweating, trembling, dyspnoea, choking sensations, chest pain, nausea, abdominal distress, dizziness, feeling of unreality, fear of dying, etc.). A panic attack reaches a peak within 10 min and lasts 30 – 45 min on average. Usually, the patient is afraid that he has a serious medical condition such as myocardial infarction.
About two-thirds of all patients with panic disorder suffer from agoraphobia, which is defi ned as fear in places or situations from which
escape might be diffi cult or in which help may not be available in the event of having an unexpected panic attack. These situations include being in a crowd or standing in a line, being outside the home alone, or traveling in a bus, train or automobile. These situations are avoided or endured with marked distress.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
The main features of generalized anxiety disorder are excessive anxiety and worry. The patients suffer from somatic anxiety symptoms
as well as from restlessness, irritability, diffi culty concentrating, muscle tension, sleep disturbances and being easily fatigued. Patient may express constant worry that the patient or a relative will shortly become ill or have an accident.
Specifi c phobia
Specifi c phobia is characterized by excessive or unreasonable fear of single objects or situations (e.g., fl ying, heights, animals, seeing
Social phobia (social anxiety disorder; SAD)
This disorder is characterized by marked, persistent, and unreasonable fear of being observed or evaluated negatively by others in social
performance or interaction situations and is associated with somatic and cognitive symptoms. The feared situations are avoided or else are endured with intense anxiety or distress. These situations include fear of speaking in public, speaking to unfamiliar people or being exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
OCD is characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions, or both, that cause impairment in terms of distress, time, or interference
with functioning. Concerns involving contamination, harm, hoarding, and sexual, somatic and religious preoccupations are the most common obsessions. Compulsions include washing, checking, repeating, ordering, counting, hoarding and touching (rare).
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
PTSD develops after a terrifying ordeal that involved physical harm or the threat of physical harm. The person who develops PTSD
may have been the one who was harmed, the harm may have happened to a loved one, or the person may have witnessed a harmful event that happened to loved ones or strangers. The condition is characterized by recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, nightmares, a sense of reliving the experience with illusions, hallucinations, or dissociative fl ashback episodes, intense psychological or physiological distress at exposure to cues that resemble the traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, inability to recall important aspects of the trauma, loss of interest, estrangement from others, sleep disturbances, irritability, diffi culty concentrating, hypervigilance, and exaggerated startle response. The full symptom picture must be present for more than usually well tolerated, restlessness, jitteriness, an increase calcium channels in central nervous system tissues. in anxiety symptoms, insomnia or headache in the fi rst Such binding reduces calcium infl ux at nerve termi- days or weeks of treatment may jeopardize compliance nals and modulates the release of neurotransmitters. with treatment. Lowering the starting dose of SSRIs The main side effects include dizziness and somno- may reduce this overstimulation. Other side effects lence. The onset of effi cacy occurs in the fi rst days include nausea (and therefore the recommendation is of treatment, which is an advantage over treatment to take it after a meal), headache, fatigue and dizziness. Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 The anxiolytic effect may start with a delay of 2 – 4 weeks (in some cases up to 6 or 8 weeks). Long term side TCAs. The effi cacy of TCAs in panic disorder and effects include sexual dysfunctions and weight gain. generalized anxiety disorder is well proven, mainly for imipramine and clomipramine. However, TCAs have SNRIs. The anti-anxiety effect of SNRIs may have a not been investigated systematically in social anxiety latency of 2 – 4 weeks. Like SSRIs, at the beginning of disorder. Compliance may be reduced by adverse treatment, side effects like nausea, restlessness, insom- effects such as sedation, prolonged reaction time, dry nia or headache may pose a threat to compliance with mouth, constipation and weight gain. Pharmacoki- treatment. Also, sexual dysfunctions, discontinuation netic interactions can limit their use in patients taking syndromes, increased blood pressure, and other concomitant medication. However, the major consid- adverse events have been reported. There is no suffi - eration is their potential lethality in case of overdose, cient evidence to support the use of SNRIs in OCD. due to their potential cardiac and CNS toxicity. Hence, TCAs should be avoided in patients at risk of suicide. Pregabalin . The calcium channel modulator pregaba- Moreover, in general, the frequency of adverse events lin has been found to be effective in GAD is higher for TCAs than for newer antidepressants, anxiolytic effects of the drug are attributed to its such as the SSRIs or SNRIs. Thus, the latter drugs binding at the α - δ -subunit protein of voltage-gated should be tried fi rst before TCAs are used. Table III. Recommendations for drug treatment of anxiety disorders and OCD. Daily dose in mg (in brackets: categories of evidence and recommendation grade: see Table I. Noradrenergic and specifi c serotoninergic Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 Abbreviations: see text. Not all drugs are currently approved in all countries for these indications; refer to local prescribing information. Benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic effect starts within combination with serotonergic medications during minutes after oral or parenteral application. In the fi rst weeks of treatment to suppress increased general, they have a good record of safety. Due to anxiety. In general, benzodiazepines should be used CNS depression, benzodiazepine treatment may be with a regular dosing regimen. Only in the treat- associated with sedation, dizziness, and prolonged ment of short-term distress (e.g., air travel or dental reaction time. Accordingly, cognitive functions and phobia), p.r.n. (when necessary) use may be justi- driving skills are affected. After a couple of weeks fi ed. One should be aware that benzodiazepines or months of continuous treatment with benzodia- were not found to be effective in acute stress disor- zepines, low-dose dependency may occur in a sub- der and in conditions with depression comorbidity, stantial number of patients. Patients with a history of benzodiazepine, alcohol or other psychoactive substance abuse should generally be excluded from Antihistamines . The antihistamine hydroxyzine is treatment, or be closely monitored in specialized effective in generalized anxiety dis order. Because of care settings. Benzodiazepines may also be used in sedating effects, the antihistamine should only be WFSBP guidelines for primary care used when other medications have not been success- ful or not tolerated. Side effects include sedation, All patients with anxiety disorders require supportive anticholinergic effects at high doses, blurred vision, therapy. Psychological and pharmacological treat- confusion, delirium and others. When sedating effects ments are often concomitant therapies, rather than are wanted, the antihistamine would be a better alternative therapies. Exposure therapy (e.g., gradual exposure in vivo, “ fl ooding ” ) and response preven-tion were found to be very effective in specifi c pho- Atypical antipsychotics. In a number of studies, atyp- bia, agoraphobia, social phobia and OCD. However, ical antipsychotics such as quetiapine have been techniques like exposure and response prevention used as monotherapy in GAD or as add-on treat- have high rates of therapy refusal and attrition due ment for non-responsive cases of anxiety disorders, to unpleasant experience during sessions and related OCD and PTSD. Side effects of atypical antipsy- anticipatory anxiety. As a rule, patients should be chotics include sedation, orthostatic hypotension, transferred to experienced psychotherapists for for- sexual dysfunctions, metabolic syndrome, extrapy- mal psychotherapy; however, physicians in primary ramidal effects and others. However, in most coun- care also can help their patients with supportive talks, tries atypical antipsychotics are not licensed for by providing psychoeducational advice, and by these disorders. Therefore, treatment with these encouraging them not to avoid feared situations. medications should probably be reserved only to a Choosing between medications and CBT is deter- mined by a number of factors, particularly the patient ’ s preference, treatment options at hand, adverse drug effects, onset of effi cacy, comorbidity (e.g., with depression), fi nancial considerations, time availability and commitment of the patient, accessi- Approximately 75% of patients respond to the initial bility of psychiatric and psychological treatment low dose of antidepressants (with the exception of resources, and qualifi cation and experience of the OCD). In some patients, such as the elderly, treat- ment should be started with half the recommended dose or less in order to minimize initial adverse drug events. In particular, patients with panic disorder may be sensitive to serotonergic stimulation and Special treatment recommendations for the
may easily discontinue treatment because of initial different anxiety disorders
jitteriness and nervousness. For tricyclic antidepres- The treatment recommendations for the different sants (TCAs), it is recommended to initiate the drug anxiety disorders are summarized in Table III. Some at a low dose and increase the dose every 3 – 5 days. antianxiety drugs are effective in all anxiety disor- The antidepressant dose should be increased to the ders, whereas some drugs have only been studied in highest recommended therapeutic level if the initial specifi c anxiety disorders and thus should be reserved treatment with a low or medium dose fails. For OCD, medium to high doses are recommended. If pharmacokinetic data support once daily dosing, Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 taking medications in a single dose may increase Panic disorder and agoraphobia . In acute panic attacks, compliance. In patients with hepatic impairment, a reassurance of the patient may be suffi cient in most dosage adjustment or use of medications with pri- cases. In severe attacks, short-acting benzodiazepines marily renal clearance (e.g., pregabalin) may be may be needed (e.g., melting tablets). SSRIs and venlafaxine are the fi rst-line treatments for panic dis- If the patient does not respond to treatment in order. After remission, treatment should continue for an adequate dose after 4 – 6 weeks (8 – 12 weeks in at least several months in order to prevent relapses. OCD or PTSD), medication should be changed or SSRIs, venlafaxine, TCAs, benzodiazepines and a referral to a psychiatrist should be considered. other drugs have shown long-term effi cacy in these For patients who do not improve with standard studies. Regarding SSRIs and SNRIs, the same doses treatments, a number of alternative options exist, are usually prescribed in the maintenance treatment including the addition of antipsychotics to the antidepressant medication in OCD (for details A combination of CBT and medication treatment has been shown to have the best treatment outcomes. In patients unresponsive to medications, the addi- Exposure therapy is used to treat agoraphobia, and tion of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may be CBT was developed for treating spontaneous panic attacks. Exercise seems to have some effect in panic disorder; however, this effect seems to be less pro- Only a minority (10 – 20%) of persons subject to severe traumatic events develop PTSD. The current recommendation in the fi rst month is summarized Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) . The fi rst-line treatments for GAD are SSRIs, SNRIs and pregaba- response to an abnormal situation ” ), Don’t Psycholo- lin. Other treatment options include buspirone and ’ t facilitate emotional reaction via group hydroxyzine. Benzodiazepines should only be used therapy, or stressful debriefi ng), and Don’t Pharma- for long-term treatment when other drugs or CBT cologize (there is no evidence that prophylactic med- ication treatment may prevent the development of As a psychological treatment strategy, CBT and PTSD). CBT is indicated only several months after associated techniques have been used in generalized exposure to trauma and for individuals who have anxiety disorder. CBT is based on cognitive models developed PTSD. “ Debriefi ng ” (a therapeutic con- stressing the role of worrying, cognitions, and avoid- versation with an individual who has just experienced a traumatic event in order to prevent PTSD) and benzodiazepines in the fi rst few hours after exposure Social anxiety disorder (SAD) . First-line treatments is contraindicated, as they might interfere with the include SSRIs and venlafaxine. Benzodiazepines have not been studies extensively in SAD, and there is no evidence for the use of tricyclic antidepressants Treatment under special conditions in SAD. The irreversible monoamineoxidase inhibi-tor phenelzine may be an option in treatment- Pregnancy. The risks of drug treatment during preg- unresponsive cases. SAD is generally a chronic nancy must be weighed against the risk of withhold- disorder and requires long-term treatment. ing treatment for an anxiety disorder. According to Among psychological therapies, exposure therapy the majority of studies, the use of SSRIs and TCAs and CBT have been shown to be effective. in pregnancy imposes no increased risk for malfor-mations. It is recommended to avoid paroxetine Specifi c phobia . Usually, patients with specifi c phobia alprazolam use among pregnant women or women do not consult medical professionals, especially if they can cope with their phobia by avoiding the spe-cifi c feared situations or objects. Exposure therapy is Breast-feeding. SSRIs and TCAs are excreted into effective to treat specifi c phobia. Psychopharmaco- breast milk, and low concentrations have been found logical drugs are not recognized as a standard treat- in infants ’ serum. Plasma levels of the SSRIs parox- ment in simple cases of specifi c phobia. In severe etine and sertraline in breast-fed infants are usually undetectable. In mothers receiving SSRIs and TCAs (with the exception of doxepine), it seems unwar- Obsessive – compulsive disorder (OCD) . First-line treat- ranted to recommend that breast-feeding should be ments are the SSRIs and the TCA clomipramine. It discontinued. During maternal treatment with ben- is recommended to use the medium to upper dose zodiazepines, infants should be observed for signs of Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 range (although the evidence regarding a dose- sedation, lethargy, poor suckling, and weight loss, response relationship for SSRIs and clomipramine and if high doses have to be used and long-term in OCD is mixed). OCD requires long-term treat- administration is required, breast feeding should makes you well, keeps you well ” ). If patients do not respond, consultation with a psychiatrist might be Treating children and adolescents. Regarding the phar- considered. In severe OCD cases, where all other macological treatment of anxiety disorders, experi- available therapeutic approaches have been tried ence in children and adolescents suggests that SSRIs without success, deep brain stimulation may be a should be the fi rst-line treatment. However, there have been warnings against their use due to concerns about increased risk of suicidal ideation and behav- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . First-line treat- ior. Careful monitoring is advisable, due to possible ments include the SSRIs and venlafaxine. PTSD is diagnostic uncertainty and the presence of co- often a chronic disorder and needs long-term treat- ment for at least 12 – 24 months. Long-term effi cacy was proven for the SSRIs fl uoxetine and sertraline Treating the elderly. Factors that should be regarded in the treatment of the elderly include an increased WFSBP guidelines for primary care sensitivity for anticholinergic properties, an increased treatment of a patient should be planned in the light risk for orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes dur- of clinical features presented by the patient and the ing treatment with TCAs, and possible paradoxical diagnostic and treatment options available. reactions to benzodiazepines, which include depres-sion, with or without suicidal tendencies, phobias, aggressiveness, or violent behavior. Thus, treatment Key points
with TCAs or benzodiazepines is less favorable, while • This short version of an evidence-based guide- line may improve treatment of anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD in primary care Treatment of patients with severe somatic disease . Patients • First-line pharmacological treatments for these with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and endocrine disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibi- disease may have adequate and reasonable anxiety tors (for all disorders), serotonin-norepinephrine reactions associated with their somatic disease state. reuptake inhibitors (for some) and pregabalin They may also suffer from comorbid primary anxiety disorders. Such anxiety disorders are believed to • A combination of medication and cognitive compound the management and the prognosis of behavior/exposure therapy was shown to be a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction, diabetes mel- • The recommendations are based on randomized litus or brain injury. Anxiety symptoms may also be controlled studies, which do not always refl ect a consequence of medical conditions, such as hyper- TCAs are best avoided in patients with cardiac disease. By contrast, the SSRIs have modest effects Acknowledgements
on cardiovascular function (although higher doses of citalopram and escitalopram have been associated with QT prolongation) and may have potentially benefi cial effects on platelet aggregation. Venlafaxine Statement of Interest
is usually well tolerated, but blood pressure should be monitored in patients with hypertension. The development of these guidelines was not sup-ported by any pharmaceutical company. Borwin Ban- delow has received grants/research support, consulting When should a patient be referred to
fees and honoraria within the last 3 years from Astra- specialist care?
Zeneca, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, Glaxo-SmithKline, Jazz, Merck, Lilly, Lundbeck, Ono Pharma, Otsuka, When a patient has been unresponsive after two tri- Pfi zer and Servier. Robertas Bunevicius has received als with fi rst-line medications, when the anxiety dis- grants/research support, consulting fees and honoraria order is complicated by alcohol or substance abuse, within the last 3 years from Lundbeck, AstraZeneca, when the disorder substantially interferes with social Teva. Eric Hollander has received grant/research sup- and occupational functioning of a patient or when port, consulting fees and honoraria within the last Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12 secondary depression or suicidality occur, the patient years from Abbott BMS, Janssen, Nastech, and Neu- ropharm. Joseph Zohar has received grants/research support, consulting fees and honoraria within the last 3 years from Glaxo-Smith Kline, Lundbeck, Pfi zer, Conclusion
Servier, Teva and Wyeth. Siegfried Kasper received Patients with anxiety disorders, obsessive grants/research support, consulting fees and honoraria sive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder may within the last three years from AstraZeneca, Bristol- be effectively treated in primary care. With adequate Myers Squibb, CSC, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Jans- treatment, the quality of life of patients with these sen Pharmaceutica, Lundbeck, MSD, Novartis, disorders may substantially be improved. A combina- Organon, Pierre Fabre, Pfi zer, Schwabe, Sepracor, tion of CBT and medication treatment was shown grant/research support, consulting fees and honoraria These principles of practice are considered guide- within the last years from AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers lines only. Adherence to them will not ensure a suc- Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Cilag, cessful outcome in every case. The recommendations Lundbeck, MSD, Novartis, Organon, Otsuka, Pfi zer, are based on randomized controlled studies, which Schwabe, Sepracor, Servier, and Wyeth. Leo Sher: do not always refl ect clinical reality. The individual References
[2] WHO. World Health Organisation. Tenth Revision of the International Classifi cation of Diseases, Chapter V (F): Men- [1] Bandelow B, Zohar J, Hollander E, Kasper S, Moller HJ, tal and Behavioural Disorders (including disorders of psycho- logical development). Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharma- Guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1991. cological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and [3] APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. post-traumatic stress disorders – fi rst revision. World J Biol 4th ed. Text revision (DSM-IV-TR ® ). Washington, DC: Int J Psych Clin Pract Downloaded from by HINARI on 05/17/12


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