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Soma wind gen manual battery charging 6.

Version 6.1—Battery Charging Applications
Manufactured by SOMA POWER PTY LTD
18/13 Gibbens Road West Gosford NSW 2250
PH +61 2 43231113 FAX +61 2 32321115 EMAIL

This manual provides technical descriptions, specifications and installation procedures
for the SOMA wind generators.
The SOMA W ind Generator is a battery charging wind generator to supply power for light
duty electrical requirements in remote areas. It is designed to be the main source of
power to the energy efficient home covering such loads as lighting, radio, television,
water pump,washing machine, kitchen blenders, power tools and refrigeration. The
maintenance free features of the SOMA 1000 also make it an ideal source of power to
telecommunications and scientific equipment located in inaccessable areas.
SOMA wind generators have been designed to be used either as a complementary power
supply in conjunction with one or more photovoltaic panels; or in particularly windy areas,
as a stand-alone power supply system.
It should take two people no more than two days to complete the installation of the SOMA
1000. Recommendations put forward in this manual should be adhered to as closely as
possible. An improper site selection or poor installation can seriosly affect the perform-
ance of the system.
Upon recieving your SOMA you will have the following components that must be
assembled together.
1. blade
5. propellor bolts 6. nose cone (SOMA 1000 only)
7. controller
The rotor blades are constructed using a hollow moulded fibre glass technique that is
inique to Soma. High tensile carbon fibre glass fibres combined with marine grade resins
create a modulus for a blade that is both strong and light. Polypropylene tape provides
long term erosion protection for the leading edges of the blades.
The blade is in one piece which is pre-balanced and fits into location over the boss of the
rotor hub. Four bolts are used to secure the blade to the rotor hub.

SOMA 1000
The SOMA alternator, which is the main component of the power head is a brushless,
directly-driven, alternating current generator which utilizes a rotating permanent magnet
The alternator is designed to produce a power curve that is optimally suited to the two
bladed rotor. The copper windings are impregnated with resin to protect them from
corrosion. The rotor shaft is stainless steel with sealed ball bearings (bearing number
6205). The rotor hub is galvanised steel.
The rotor hub of the alternator contains the powerful permanent magnets which rotate
around the 14 pole stator. The alternator produces 3 phase alternating current (AC) which
is converted to direct current (DC) by the Soma Controller which is located near the
The swivel assembly rotates and allows the wind generator to face the wind. It also
provides the mechanism by which the rotor can tilt back out of the wind to prevent
overspeeding. Housed within the swivel assembly are the brushes and slip rings which
carry the power to the cable leading to the batteries. It is made of galvanised steel.
The swivel assembly fits over the top of a 65mm NB galvanised pipe tower and is secured
with 2 bolts. Sealed ball bearings enable free rotation. (Bearing numbers 6206 and 6007).
The tail pipe is secured inside the stator boss and the tail vane is bolted to the pipe.
The controller is located near the batteries which can be located up to 750 metres away
from the wind generator depending on system voltage and cable size. The controller is a
charge regulator which protects the batteries from being overcharged by the wind
generator. It contains a voltage sensing mosfet switching device which switches current
across to a dump load when ever battery voltage reaches a pre-set point. The controller
also contains the rectifier which converts the 3 phase A.C. voltage generated by the
SOMA into D.C. voltage suitable for charging the battery. An amp meter indicates the
amount of DC current that is charging the battery at any time.
The SOMA 1000 utilizes the proven "tilt-up" feathering method to limit rotor speeds in
winds in excess of 15ms (metres per second), or 54 kph. It is necessary to limit rotor
speed in strong winds to reduce the loads on the wind generator and the tower and to
prevent blade wear from overspeeding.
The centre of effort of the rotor is above the pivot point of the stator, and wind pressure
causes the whole assembly to tilt up. This has the effect of reducing the rotor area
presented to the wind, and results in a limitation of the power and rotational speeds
achieved by the rotor. The stronger the wind, the further back the rotor tilts. As the wind
decreases, gravitational effect pulls the rotor back into normal operating position. A
stainless steel hydraulic dampener governs the speed at which the feathering action takes
place. This reduces undesirable gyrational action.


These towers, available from Soma Power, come in 4 heights: 6.5m, 13m and 19.5m.
The tower consists of 6.5 metre lengths of galvanised pipe supported by guy wires.
Generally 2 lengths of pipe are used to provide a 13 metre tower. However, 6.5 metre
towers are high enough in very exposed areas such as on a mountain top while a 19.5
metre tower may be required if there are a lot of obstacles nearby affecting the wind. The
tower requires concrete foundations and it pivots at the base to enable it to be raised and
lowered for ease of installation of the windgenerator and for maintenance. A jockey pole
or gin pole is used for leverage to raise the tower and a winch is secured to one of the
guy wire foundations to winch the tower up and down.
Tower kitsets are available from your SOMA agent which include all of the components
necessary except for the lengths of galvanised pipe and the concrete.
The galvanised pipe can also be supplied by Soma Power, but high shipping costs
usually mean it is easier and more cost effective for a local steel supplier to supply and
pre-drill the poles for you.
Drilling details for the poles are supplied in the tower manual to assist local supply.
tower tilts down to the ground
bi-directional brake winch
hot dip galvanised
supplied in kit form with or without
19.5m TOWER
no climbing
no towing
anti corrosion
simplifies installation &
natural power systems
A comprehensive installation manual is provided with each tower kit. Follow these instructions for laying out the footings. For the 19.5m tower, 1.7m3 of concrete is required, while for the 13m tower, use at least 1.2m3. While the concrete is
wet, the foundation brackets are
placed in position. Allow at least 48 hours for the concrete to strengthen before raising the tower. ASSEMBLY
Lay out the pipes and guy ropes on the ground in position. Feed the cable up through the centre of the mast, then join the mast sections provided. Bolt the mast and gin pole to the base plate and shackle all the guy ropes to the mast and base loops. Use the length of the guy ropes. Raise the tower using the winch and set the guy lengths as required. Adjust the turnbuckles to tighten the guys and make the tower vertical and straight. WIND GENERATOR
Tower kits include everything required except for the poles and concrete. Poles can be supplied by Soma Power, but due to shipping costs, these are normally supplied by your local agent. Specifications for the poles are in the tower kit manual. MAINTENANCE


The performance of your wind generator depends on four factors:
1) The amount of air turbulence at the site.
2) The average wind speeds at the site.
3) The distance from the tower to the storage batteries.
4) The height of the tower.
The most likely cause of air turbulence is local obstructions such as trees, buildings and
hills. W hen a smooth airstream encounters a nearby obstruction, it is broken up into gusts
of variable strength and direction. As these gusts hit the wind generator it will be
continually accelerating, decelerating and turning, causing variations in the stresses on
different parts of the blade, shafts, bearings and tower.
To avoid these destructive effects, it is essential to erect the wind generator at least 5-10
metres above any obstruction that is within a radius of 100 metres.
The average windspeed will determine the amount of power the wind generator supplies to
the battery bank. The power available in the wind depends on one very important
characteristic. POWER GOES UP BY THE CUBE OF THE WIND SPEED. This means that
a 10 m/s wind has 8 times more power than a 5 m/s wind. Or a site with an average
winspeed of 6 m/s has 73% more power than a marginal 5 m/s site.
SOMA wind generators have been designed to extract as much power as possible from
light and moderate windspeeds. However, it is generally accepted that where the average
annual windspeed is under 4 to 5 metres per second, harnessing the power is not viable.
The wind speed nearly always increases with height. The amount that the wind increases
above the ground depends on the surface roughness, whether grass plains, tall crops and
hedges, or bush, forest and woodlands. The windspeed at 10 metres above head high
scrub and bushes would be at least 1.5 times the wind speed at 3 metres above the scrub.
Considering the cubic relationship between windspeed and wind power, the power at 10
metres is 3.5 times the power at 3 metres.
Considerable gains in energy output can be obtained from a wind generator by siting it in
the best possible location. Often the extra costs involved, such as the price of an extra tall
tower or the cost of extra copper cable to reach a nearby hilltop are more than
compensated for by the increased output.
Consideration must be given to the length of cable running from the wind generator to the
batteries. At higher amperages in higher windspeeds there will be more losses due to the
resistance of the copper wire. The factors affecting these losses are:
1. length of transmission line
2. size of wire used
3. amperage output of wind generator
The greater the distance to the batteries the larger the size of copper cable required.
The following table gives maximum transmission length for different cable sizes. It is usually better to select a site that is further away, if that site has more wind. The copper losses are very minimal at low to medium power output levels and the increased outputs in higher winds will outweigh the losses. It is often advisable to install a 110 volt wind generator and then use a transformer beside the batteries to reduce voltage to the required battery volts. This will enable optimum siting of the wind generator while reducing the cost of the cable. Soma transformers are available from Soma Power. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
With the tower tilted down to the ground as per the instructions in the tower manual, lay the power head down next to the top of the tower. Make the electrical connections at the base of the power head by connecting the 3 wires ex-iting the top of the tower, to the powerhead terminal strip. Any of the 3 wires can connect to any terminal on the terminal strip. Phasing is not important. The other end of these wires should ne terminated later at the transformer if installed, otherwise directly to the control panel. Push the connection up inside the tower mast and slide the power head down on to the top of the mast until it won’t go any further which is about 140mm. Tighten the grub bolts which grip the mast, using Loctite on the threads. Note that the cable inside the mast must be wrapped around the 10mm bolt which is just below the top of the mast. This carries the weight of the cable so there is no tension on the terminal strip. Insert and bolt the tail pipe into the rear of the powerhead. To assist insertion, the housing that the tail pipe inserts into is split and can be opened up by knocking a flat bladed screw-driver into the split to open it more. Use the M10x80 bolt and nut to fasten the tail pipe. Use Loctite on the nut. Once fastened, there should not be any movement possible of the tail pipe. If it is a slightly loose fit, then it may be necessary to smear silicon sealant on the tail pipe end before insertion into the powerhead. Bolt the tail vane to the tail pipe using the 6mm bolts provided. Only tighten the nuts until the tail pipe material just begins to clamp on the tail fin. Excess tightening can crease and weaken the ply tail fin. Use LOCTITE on the nuts. Bolt the blade to the alternator. Use 4 stainless steel M10 x 50mm bolts with the spring
washer and 2 flat washers provided. USE LOCTITE.
Fasten the nose cone (SOMA1000 only). There are 4 screws provided to fasten the nose
cone to the blade. USE LOCTITE.

The wind generator is now ready for operation. But, before raising it and allowing it to turn, the
control panel must be installed.

A detailed description of the operation of the regulator inside the controller follows later in this
The controller should be located in an accessible, dry location within 5 metres of the battery bank.
The dump resistors on top will get hot to the touch and should be located at least 1 metre below
any horizontal surface such as a ceiling or cabinet top. Sideways clearance to left and right
should be 300mm from any other object. It should not be fastened to a flammable surface such as
wood. (Use fire proof board between the controller and a flammable wall). The enclosure should
be adequately ventilated to allow the heat from the dump resistors to escape. W here a seperate
dump resistor box is supplied, the same installation requirements apply to it.
If more than 1 controller is installed in the same location, the clearances and ventilation will need
to be increased adequately to allow for the extra heat dissipation.
It is very important that the wind generator is not allowed to spin before the wiring is complete,
otherwise it will have no load and could overspeed.
See wiring drawing on following page for detailed wiring instructions.
The wire from the controller to the batteries should be flexible and should be colour coded RED
and BLACK (negative) to avoid confusion in hooking the wire to the battery bank.
recommended wire size for installations where the controller is less than 5 metres from the
batteries is 16mm. Longer distances than this will require larger wire size.
The wind generator is now ready for operation. But, before you allow it to start generating, please
read the remainder of this manual to familiarise yourself with the operation of the controller and
other aspects of the system.
The SOMA CONTROLLER is comprised internally of the rectifier and the regulator. BRAKE SWITCH
Can be installed on site by installer, or EARTHING
The body of the Soma Wind Turbine must be earthed to help
protect it from lightning damage. This can be done by earthing the
metal tower at it’s base using a 1200mm earth stake and 16mm2
earth wire. The battery negative or positive can also be earthed
according to local requirements. For 110 / 120V battery systems, the controller and dump resistor case should be earthed. FUSE AMPS

The purpose of the regulator is to prevent the wind generator from overcharging the battery.
As a battery is charged it absorbs electric power. Provided that the battery is correctly sized
and is in good condition it will absorb power at a high rate (50amps at 24 volts, for example).
When the battery is approaching full and the voltage has risen (29 to 30 volts in 24 volt
system), the battery will no longer absorb all of the power being fed into it. The excess power
heats up the battery and hydrogen sulphide gas is produced. This is an undesirable situation
for both the longevity of the battrey and safety.
The regulator senses battery voltage and diverts excess current away from the battery to
prevent it from overcharging.
The FLOAT VOLTAGE is set by the knob on the front of the regulator. If the battery voltage is
lower than the float voltage, then the regulator remains off and all of the incoming power
goes directly to the battery.
As the battery charges up, its voltage increases. When the voltage reaches the float voltage
level, the regulator turns on and begins to divert power to the dump load.
Provided there is enough power coming from the wind generator, the regulator will send the
battery the exact amount of power it needs to maintain its float voltage.
As the battery becomes fully charged, almost all of the incoming power is diverted and only
the small amount of power needed to maintain the float voltage is allowed to flow into the
The regulator was installed with the control knob turned fully clockwise. This is the highest
voltage setting.
By calibrating the position of the knob we will determine the voltage at which the float level is
Connect a voltmeter to the battery terminals, turn off all appliances and let the wind
generator charge up the battery.
Keep an eye on the voltmeter while the battery voltage steadily rises. W hen the desired float
voltage is reached, slowly turn the knob anti-clockwise until the red LED float charge
indicator begins to glow. The regulator is now set and the voltage will not rise above this
point. Observe the battery voltage for a few minutes longer to ensure that the battery voltage
does not rise above the desired float voltage.


The correct float voltage for lead acid batteries varies with temperature. A 24 volt battery
bank should generally have a float voltage of between 27.5 and 29 volts. In cold weather, use
the higher figure. The correct float voltage should be obtained from the battery manufacturer.
Approximately once a month, the batteries should have an EQUALIZING CHARGE. This, in
effect, is a controlled overcharging of the batteries. The purpose is to stir up the elctrolyte in
the batteries to prevent stratification. (Stratification is the result of the heavier chemicals in
the electrolyte settling at the bottom of the battery and the lighter chemicals rising to the
surface. The bubbling that is created by 'overcharging' the batteries in effect stirs up the
The equalizing voltage on a 24 volt system can be as high as 30.5 volts. Consult your battery
manufacturer! Equalizing may take several hours. A specific gravity of over 1250 indicates
that the batteries are well equalized.

The minimum recommended battery storage for the SOMA 1000 is 500 amp hours at 24 volts
or 250 amp hours at 48 volts.

It is possible to stop the wind generator from turning in the wind by placing a short circuit across
the alternator output. This should only be done in light wind speeds to stop the wind generator for
servicing, etc. The electrical brake will not stop the wind generator in very strong winds. Any
attempt tostop it with the electrical brake in strong winds may result in burning out the alternator
windings. If the wind generator has not slowed to less than 20 RPM in less than 1 minute of
applying the brake, then it is too windy to attempt to stop the machine and the brake must be
released. An electrical brake can be factory fitted as an optional extra.
Once the wind generator has stopped the brake will prevent it from starting again even in strong
The body of the wind turbine must be earthed for lightning protection. This can be done by earthing
the base of a metal tower to a nearby earthstake. Use 16mm2 cable between the two. If a wooden
tower is used, the short metal stub at the top of the tower which is used for mounting the turbine
must be connected to an earth wire which is connected to an earth stake at the bottom of the
When the wiring has been completed, the wind generator can be commissioned.
With the electrical brake on, winch up the tower and wind generator into its working position. W hen
the tower is secured in its upright position, release the electrical brake. If there is enough wind the
rotor should start spinning and amperage should be registering on the amp meter.
The rotor should spin freely and should not shake or vibrate. If any abnormalities are observed, the
brake should be re-applied and the unit lowered so that the problem can be analyzed and fixed.
Under normal circumstances, the SOMA W ind Generator can now be left unattended to generate
power. W hen the batteries are fully charged, the regulator will divert current to the dump load.
The SOMA W ing Generator has been designed to be very rugged and durable. As such, the
maintenance required is minimal. Along with several visual checks, the only maintenance required
is to grease the tilt back bushing and the hydraulic dampener bolts once a year.
1. Engage electrical brake on a light wind day and lower tower.
2. Physically inspect all bolts on the tower and wind generator to ensure that they are secure.
3. Check that the wind generator turns freely and tilts back freely.
4. Check that the blade is in good condition and that it has not been hit or damaged by flying
objects. Replace the protective leading edge tape if necessary. 5. If stiff, the 20mm dia. tilt back bolt will need to be removed and re-coated with DuPont Teflon White Lithium Greasein the spray can. Available from Repco in Australia. 6. Grease the hydraulic dampener bolts. 7. The hydraulic dampener should be topped up with 20/50 engine oil if it has lost oil. Be sure that it is not overfilled. The dampener may need to be removed from the machine to do this, as the dampener needs to be filled while in a vertical position. This depends on whether your tower tilts down horizontally. Fill through the top bushing screw hole and fully depress the plunger after filling to squeeze out the excess. Allow the plunger to return to its normal position, then replace the screw. Use loctite on the mounting bolts when replacing the dampener. Ensure that the guy wires and rigging screws are securely tightened. Grease the wire ropes to protect against corrosion if close to a coastal or salty environment. DOS AND DON'TS

Please observe the following rules for the operation of your wind generator. They are
very important and to disregard them may result in the failure of the wind generator.
DO ensure that the site you have selected is free from obstacles that cause
DO use copper cable of sufficient diameter for the distance to the batteries.
DO ensure that the controller is situated close to the batteries and is in a dry
place. Especially make sure there is sufficient ventilation and clearance from flam mable materials to prevent a possible fire risk. DO NOT allow the wind generator to operate while the controller is disconnected
DO NOT climb or lower tower without engaging the electric brake.
DO NOT allow the wind generator to operate while it is disconnected from the
DO grease the tilt back bolt once a year using Du Pont Teflon White Lithium
Grease in the spray can. Available at Repco in Australia. DO NOT use old or undersized batteries.


Soma Power warrants your Soma1000 / Soma400 to be free of
defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service,
for a period of two (2) years.
This warranty is available from the date of original purchase. All
parts will be replaced or repaired free of charge within this period.
This does not include damage due to neglect of annual maintenance.
Freight charges and the cost of any repairs resulting from damages
occurring during transport will be borne by the owner.
The provision of this warranty shall not apply if the unit has been
subject to misuse, poor installation, neglect, acts of Nature,
accidental damage or has been used for a purpose for which it is not
designed. The warranty does cover the machine in winds up to 50
metres per second, but does not cover the machine from the effects
of flying debris or birds.
Any alterations or repairs by unauthorised parties will void your
To ensure fast handling of any warranty claims, please complete the
warranty form below and return it within 30 days from date of
Address of Purchaser:. . Location of W ind Generator (if not at above address) . Date of Purchase:. Point of Purchase:. Soma Model & Serial Number:.


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