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Chapter 7 Other Drugs, Other Addictions
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Inhaling substances such as aerosol sprays, gasoline, and other volatile substances tochange one’s consciousness has been popular in certain areas and among younger agegroups where psychoactive drugs are not readily available. Athletes abuse drugs and othernontraditional substances for competitive advantage as well as for their psychoactiveeffects. Various other drugs, including the so-called smart drugs are used and abused.
Some people become involved in compulsive nondrug behaviors for many of the samereasons they abuse psychoactive drugs—to change their mood, forget problems, get arush, and self-medicate. These behaviors include compulsive gambling and shopping,eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, binge-eating disorder), sexual addiction, and Internetaddiction.
CHAPTER 7 OUTLINE
I. INTRODUCTION
F. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
B. ENVIRONMENT
C. COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS
OTHER DRUGS
G. OTHER PERFORMANCE-
VII. COMPULSIVE GAMBLING
II. INHALANTS
ENHANCING DRUGS &
TECHNIQUES

A. HISTORY
A. HISTORY (see chapter 1)
B. EPIDEMIOLOGY
C. METHODS OF INHALATION
B. EPIDEMIOLOGY
D. VOLATILE SOLVENTS
C. CHARACTERISTICS
D. VIDEO POKER MACHINES
E. TREATMENT
VIII. COMPULSIVE SHOPPING
IX. EATING DISORDERS
E. VOLATILE NITRITES
A. EPIDEMIOLOGY
H. THE RECREATIONAL/
F. ANESTHETICS
B. ANOREXIA NERVOSA
MOOD-ALTERING USE OF
DRUGS BY ATHLETES
G. DEPENDENCE
H. PREVENTION
C. BULIMIA NERVOSA
III. SPORTS & DRUGS
I. TESTING
A. INTRODUCTION
J. ETHICAL ISSUES
B. HISTORY
IV. MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS
A. UNUSUAL SUBSTANCES
D. BINGE-EATING DISORDER
(INCLUDING COMPULSIVE
C. THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
OVEREATING)
B. HERBAL PREPARATIONS &
D. ANABOLIC STEROIDS &
SMART DRUGS/DRINKS
X. SEXUAL ADDICTION
OTHER PERFORMANCE-
A. DEFINITION
ENHANCING (ergogenic)
B. EFFECTS & SIDE EFFECTS
XI. INTERNET ADDICTION
OTHER ADDICTIONS
A. DESCRIPTION
E. STIMULANTS
V. COMPULSIVE
B. CYBERSEXUAL ADDICTION
BEHAVIORS
C. COMPUTER RELATIONSHIP
VI. HEREDITY, ENVIRON-
ADDICTION
MENT, & COMPULSIVE
D. INTERNET COMPULSIONS
BEHAVIORS
A. HEREDITY
XII. CONCLUSIONS
CHAPTER 7 GUIDED REVIEW
I. INTRODUCTION
It is unusual that a person will have only one ___________. (p. 267)
OTHER DRUGS
__________ have been around for thousands of years; their use has
expanded dramatically in the last 200 years. (p. 267) Sports drugs are used to heal injuries, increase _______________, or There are unusual substances that are difficult to classify: _________ preparations, smart drugs/drinks, and nootropics. (p. 267) III. INHALANTS
Inhalants are used for their _____________, intoxicating, and less
often slight psychedelic effects. (p. 267) _________ ___________ (hydrocarbons) are found in glues, gasoline, and nail polish remover among others. (p. 267) Some __________, sprayed to produce a foggy mist, are inhaled for their gaseous _____________. (pp. 267–268) Besides volatile hydrocarbons, other abusable volatile organic compounds are esters, ketones, _________, and glycols. (p. 268) Volatile nitrites are used as blood vessel dilators (_____________), for heart problems, as room fresheners, and as a party drug. (p.
268) ____________ were developed to block pain or induce unconsciousness during surgical/medical procedures. (p. 268) Inhalants are different from other psychoactive drugs in that they are _______ acting and have ________ effects. (p. 268) Inhalants are absorbed through the lungs and into the _____________, which carries them to the brain. (p. 268) Inhalant intoxicating effects occur within ____–____ seconds and last about 30 minutes to 1 hour after exposure has ceased. (p. 268) Inhalants are _______, readily available, and widespread; more than 1,500 __________ ____________ can be inhaled. (p. 268) Inhalants have more _________ effects on body tissues than most People who abuse inhalants can display strange, erratic, and ______________ behavior and poor __________. (pp. 267–268) A. HISTORY (see Chapter 1)
Our modern version of inhalant abuse began in the late 1700s with the
discovery of _________ _______, chloroform, and ________. (p.
After World War II the abuse of _______ and __________ paints rose dramatically particularly in the U.S. Midwest and Japan. (p. 269) B. EPIDEMIOLOGY
Inhalants are responsible for about 700 to _________ deaths each
Internationally inhalant abuse primarily affects the young, street ___________, and recent migrants. (p. 269) The inhalant of choice in many countries is _________ because of its C. METHODS OF INHALATION
“__________” is breathing in the inhalant through the nose directly
“Sniffing” puts the vapor into the ______ in contrast with “snorting” that puts solids, like cocaine, in contact with the ___________ “__________” is putting a solvent-soaked rag, sock, or other material over or in one’s mouth or nose and inhaling. (p. 270) “_________” is a term for any inhalant abuser no matter which route “__________” means placing the inhalant or inhalant-soaked material in a plastic bag and inhaling by nose, mouth, or both.
“___________” means spraying the inhalant directly into the nose or “__________ and __________” is the use of a pin (“cracking” device) to puncture a can of nitrous oxide or other inhalant while a balloonis placed over the end of the can. The vapors are then inhaled. (p.
270) Direct spraying puts a dangerous amount of __________ into the lungs and can _________ tissue as the substances quickly D. VOLATILE SOLVENTS
These are mostly carbon- and hydrocarbon-based compounds that
are volatile (______ ___ _____) at room temperature. (p. 270) Inhaling these substances produces a temporary ___________, mood elevation, and __________ inhibitions. (p. 270) Soon the ___________ effects begin including dizziness, slurred speech, unsteady gait, and drowsiness. (p. 270) High dosage has a greater effect on the central nervous system (CNS); illusions and ________________ may develop. (p. 270) __________ abuse is characterized by lack of coordination, inability to concentrate, weakness, disorientation, and loss of weight. (p. 271) Injuries to the _________, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and particularly the ________ may result from heavy exposure. (p. 271) The most abused solvent is ___________ because it is found in so many substances, e.g., glues, drying agents, and solvents. (p.
271) In one study ______ of chronic abusers of toluene in spray paint had _________________ (TCE) is a common solvent used in typewriter correction fluids, paints, and spot removers. (p. 271) TCE, like toluene and acetone, causes overall _____________ effects Alkanes, a class of hydrocarbons that includes methane, __________, and butane, are gases at room temperature. (p. 272) The effects of gasoline sniffing include insomnia, tremors, anorexia, When ___________ gas is inhaled, symptoms can include hallucinations, convulsions, and the irreversible effects of ______ poisoning, e.g., brain, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and lungdamage). (p. 272) Ethanol, methanol, and isopropanol are the most commonly abused External signs of solvent abuse are headaches, __________ ______ on the body and clothes, red, glassy, or watery eyes and dilatedpupils, inflamed nose, slow, thick, or _________ ________, staggering gait, and disorientation. (p. 272) Health warning signs include pains in the chest and stomach, fatigue, nausea, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, irritability,___________, seizure, and ________. (p. 272) E. VOLATILE NITRITES
The family of nitrites includes amyl, _________, isobutyl, isopropyl,
isoamyl, and most recently cyclohexyl nitrites. (p. 272) Restrictions exist on all but ____________ nitrite. (p. 272) These inhalants _________ blood vessels, so the heart and brain (as well as other tissues) receive more blood and cause a rush.
Effects start in ___–___ seconds and last for about 30 seconds to 1 There is a feeling of fullness in the head, a ________, mild euphoria, Nitrites, thought to enhance _________ activity, are sought after especially by some male gays for their euphoric and physiologicaleffects. (p. 273) F. ANESTHETICS
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is used at parties because of its dramatic rapid
onset and equally rapid _____________ of effects. (p. 273) Nitrous oxide is most commonly sold in small pressurized metal or plastic canisters that charge ___________ ________ bottles (e.g., Large commercial tanks are also diverted from __________ or Most often a source container is used to inflate a __________ and users then inhale the nitrous oxide. (p. 273) The desired effects include ____________, giddiness, and disorientation accompanied by silly laughter; pulsating ________ in the ears, and occasional visual hallucinations. (p. 273) Nitrous oxide can also cause confusion, ___________, impaired motor skills, fainting, and a sense that one is about to pass out.
(p. 274) The maximum effect lasts only ___ or___ minutes though experienced users seem to feel physical effects somewhat longer than noviceusers. (p. 274) Long-term exposure can cause central and peripheral nerve cell and brain cell damage due to lack of sufficient ___________. (p. 274) N2O is not classified as a controlled substance but possession with intent to use for recreational purposes is a _____________in G. DEPENDENCE
The liability for physical and psychological dependence and _____________ to inhalants is less than for other depressants.
Younger children get into long-term abuse of inhalants more than adults perhaps due to the _____________ and low cost. (p. 274) Treating the compulsion is difficult because most users are immature and because continued use can cause ___________ impairments that hinder comprehension and recovery. (p. 274) H. PREVENTION
Law enforcement officers, health care workers, teachers, and parents
need to be trained to recognize ________ and __________ of III. SPORTS & DRUGS
A. INTRODUCTION
There are ________ main categories of drugs used in sports:
_____________ drugs (e.g., analgesics, muscle relaxants, anti- ___________-___________ drugs (ergogenic drugs) such as steroids, growth hormones, and stimulants; ______________ and mood-altering drugs, both legal and illegal (e.g., cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, tobacco). (p. 275) Some athletes perceive drugs as the quick way to put on muscle, to __________ stamina, to get up for a game, to relieve _______, or B. HISTORY
By the ________, cyclists, swimmers, and other athletes used opium,
caffeine, nitroglycerin, sugar cubes soaked in ________ , and even low doses of strychnine to improve performance. (p. 276) Boxers drank water laced with __________ between rounds. (p. 276) During the Cold War, in the 1952 Olympics, the Soviet weightlifting team used _________ to garner medals. (p. 276) Performance-enhancing drugs were thought to be the only way that ___________ athletes could maintain their competitive edge in By ________ steroids were available and abuse by athletes had Many coaches assumed an attitude of ________ at any cost. (p. 276) Over the past 30 years, __________ and ________ pressures to win have encouraged athletes to try drugs to gain an advantage. (p.
277) C. THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
These are drugs used for specific medical problems, in accordance
with standards of good _________ _________. (p. 278) Therapeutic drugs include: ___________ (painkillers) and anesthetics, muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatories, and asthma medications.
(p. 278) __________ anesthetics desensitize nerve endings on the skin (alcohol and menthol or local anesthetics, e.g., procaine). (p. 278) There are ___________ analgesics, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen for mild-to-moderate pain or _________ (opioid) analgesics for moderate-to-severe pain. (p. 278) The most common opioids used in sports are hydrocodone (__________, the most prescribed), meperidine (Demerol), morphine, codeine, and propoxyphene (Darvon). (p. 278) For athletes, the biggest danger from these drugs results from their ability to block pain without ___________ the damage. (p. 278) The problem is that tissue dependence can develop making it easier for the user to slip into ___________ use. (p. 278) Muscle relaxants are drugs that __________ neural activity within Anti-inflammatory drugs control inflammation and lessen _______. (p.
Anti-inflammatory drugs come in two classes: _________ (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), typically aspirin, ibuprofinindomethacin phenylbutazone, or sulindac, and _____________, such as cortisone and Prednisone. (p. 278) With corticosteroids, ______ _________ are a significant problem. (p.
Asthma affects ________ of the general population and is aggravated by heavy exercise or performance anxiety. (p. 279) The incidence of EIA (_________-_________ _________) is 11–23% D. ANABOLIC STEROIDS & OTHER PERFORMANCE-
ENHANCING (ergogenic) DRUGS
Most of these drugs, substances, and techniques are ___________ by various sports-governing bodies, e.g., IOC and NCAA. (p. 279) The most abused performance-enhancing drugs today are ___________-___________ steroids (AASs). (p. 279) AASs are derived from the male hormone ___________ or are These drugs increase body weight, lean _________ ________, and AASs can increase _______________ and confidence, traits that are Many young people use AASs strictly to enhance personal Steroid users may take from ________ times the clinically prescribed Some athletes practice steroid _________ by using three or more kinds of steroids and by alternating cycles of use and nonuse. (p.
280) _________ steroids means taking the drugs for a 4–18 week period during intensive training and then stopping the drugs for a periodof several weeks. (p. 280) Long-term use results in suppression of the body’s own natural Long-term male steroid users develop ___________ characteristics (e.g., swelling breasts), decreased size of sexual organs, and animpairment of sexual functioning. (p. 280) Long-term use by women results in _____________ effects; increased facial hair, decreased breast size, lowered voice. (p.
280) As steroid use continues, emotional balance starts to swing from confidence to _______________, to emotional instability, to _______, and back to depression or to psychosis. (p. 280) “Roid rage” is more likely to occur in steroid users who already have a ___________ to anger or who take excessive amounts. (p. 281) Distinct withdrawal symptoms are strong signs of ____________ and Serious users spend ______ to ______ per week on anabolic steroids and other strength drugs, so a single cycle can cost thousands ofdollars. (p. 281) E. STIMULANTS
CNS stimulants often start out as performance boosters but the basic
pharmacology of most stimulants often makes use ______- Much of the increase in performance comes from the focusing effects of amphetamines and the increase in _______________. (pp.
___________ to amphetamines develops quite rapidly and as it develops, the beneficial effects diminish. (p. 282) Negative effects include ___________, restlessness, and impaired Physically, heavy use can bring on heart and blood pressure problems, ___________, and malnutrition. (p. 282) Caffeine ___________ endurance slightly during extended exercise and increases muscle contraction. (p. 282) Ephedra (___ ________), a mild stimulant, is a traditional Chinese herb that comes from the ephedra bush. (p. 282) The active ingredients of ephedra are ___________ (a bronchodilator) and, to a lesser extent, _________________ (a nasal Ephedra and ephedrine are found in hundreds of legal over-the- counter _________ and asthma medications, energy drinks/bars, energy pills, and especially diet medications. (p. 282) The nicotine in cigarettes is a mild stimulant but does little for performance except perhaps for increasing __________. (p. 283) ___________ tobacco was a mainstay of baseball but as more and more players speak out against chewing tobacco, it is becomingless common among baseball players. (p. 183) F. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH)
Studies have found that HGH reduces _____ by altering lipolytic
HGH also increases __________ mass, skin thickness, and Gigantism, ____________ (abnormal bone growth), and metabolic and endocrine disorders from abuse of HGH have been widelyreported. (p. 283) Abuse of HGH is also associated with _______________ __________ decreased _______ desire, and impotence and it decreases G. OTHER PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS & TECHNIQUES
Androstenedione is a natural hormone that is a direct precursor in the
_______ __________ block nerve cell activity in the brain that calms and steadies the body, often used in riflery and diving. (p. 284) EPO (erythropoietin) is a blood __________ booster used to increase Sweating, edema, and high blood viscosity magnify the potential danger of ______ _______ that can be fatal. (pp. 284–285) Blood doping, while not a drug, does increase endurance by ____________ extra blood in order to boost oxygen-carrying red Blood doping is used in ___________ sports, usually cycling, long- distance running, and cross-country skiing. (p. 285) Creatine is a ____________ ____________ created naturally in the body and also found in fish and meat. (p. 285) Creatine reportedly delays muscle __________, stores energy for short bursts, extends workout time, and helps muscles_________ faster. (p. 285) Creatine is sold over the counter and is not yet _________ by any Athletes use __________ to lose weight rapidly, which is important in sports where people compete in certain weight classes. (p. 285) Diuretics are also used to avoid ___________ of illegal drugs during testing by increasing urination. (p. 285) _____ (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) is a supplement sold as a fat burner, anabolic agent, sleep aid, muscle definer, and psychedelic. (p.
285) Athletes trying to make their weight will use diuretics, ___________, exercise, fasting, self-induced vomiting, and excess __________ Besides dieting and exercise, ___________ are also used to control Bulimia (eating and purging) and __________ (starvation eating) can be the result of the desire to stay thin or make a weight. (p. 286) NOTE: For a further list of miscellaneous performance-enhancing H. THE RECREATIONAL/MOOD-ALTERING USE OF DRUGS BY
ATHLETES
The advantages and problems with recreational mood-altering drugs are the same as those with use by ____________. (p. 287) Marijuana in general __________ not helps performance. (pp. 287– Since marijuana is extremely fat-soluble and lasts so ________ in the body, impairment can persist for a day or two after casual use andlonger after cessation of chronic use. (p. 288) Currently the ________ bans all marijuana use more for ethical and moral reasons than for performance reasons. (p. 288) I. TESTING
In an effort to reduce the use of illicit drugs in sports, various
_______-__________ programs have been instituted by sports organizations and even individual colleges. (p. 288) J. ETHICAL ISSUES
169. Drugs undermine the assumption of ______ ___________ on
IV. MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS
A. UNUSUAL SUBSTANCES
Note: See pages 288 and 289 for a list of unusual substances.
B. HERBAL PREPARATIONS & SMART DRUGS/DRINKS
_______ _______ (SDs) are the drugs nutrients, vitamins, extracts,
and herbal potions that proponents claim will boost intelligence,improve memory, sharpen attention, increase concentration,__________ the body, and energize the user. (p. 290) Investigation of New Age smart drugs has led to the proposal for a new classification of these drugs as ___________ (acting on the OTHER ADDICTIONS
V. COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS
The hallmark of impulse control disorders as listed in the DSM-IV-TR
is a failure to resist an impulse that is _________ to the individual or others but often starts out as ____________. (p. 290) The hallmark of obsessive-compulsive disorders is repetitive activities whose goal is to reduce __________ and ______ to provide Addictive behaviors alter ________ chemistry in much the same was The reasons that people engage in compulsive behavior are the _______ reasons that they engage in compulsive ________ use.
VI. HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT, & COMPULSIVE
BEHAVIORS
Compulsive behaviors can be triggered by _________ predisposition, by _____________ stresses, and by the comfort or escape provided by the repetitive behavior itself. (p. 292) A. HEREDITY
Studies indicate that a marker gene associated with ___________
also has a strong association with several addictive compulsivebehaviors. (p. 292) The release of extra ___________, caused by compulsive behaviors overstimulates the reward/ reinforcement center (p. 292) B. ENVIRONMENT
Examples of _______________ ____________ are an abundance of
gambling outlets, fast food restaurants, sexual situations in themedia, as well as easy access to the Internet and ease ofobtaining credit. (p. 293) A history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse also suggests the importance of environmental _______________ and C. COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS
Engaging in a compulsive activity can also lead to greater
___________ acting out if there is a brain reward response. (p.
VII. COMPULSIVE GAMBLING
The problems that result from pathological and problem gambling are
____ _________ as any drug-based addiction. (p. 294) A. HISTORY
In the last 40 years gambling has become a respectable pastime and
Critics contend that, except for a few states with funded programs (e.g., Oregon, Louisiana), governments ___________ gambling but do not address the problem of gambling ___________. (p.
B. EPIDEMIOLOGY
Male compulsive gamblers outnumber female compulsive gamblers
C. CHARACTERISTICS
_____________ (compulsive) gamblers are obsessed with gambling,
getting the money to gamble, and staying in action. (p. 296) One style of gambler is the __________-__________ compulsive gambler, always in action, frenetic, and excited. (p. 296) Another type that is growing in numbers is the ________-__________ compulsive gambler, often drawn to slot machines. (p. 296) The key for all gamblers is to stay ___ ________ as long as possible; For both action and escape gamblers, there was a ______ _____ that Compulsive gamblers remember their ______ and minimize their A losing streak is inevitable due to the laws of _________. (p. 297) Compulsive gamblers try to recoup their losses and they begin Even when losing, gamblers still rely on gambling for their Compulsive gamblers often lose jobs, max out credit cards, borrow from friends and family, and even turn to ___________ activities like embezzlement and drug dealing. (p. 298) Gamblers can experience elated moods when they win and mania, ___________, panic attacks, and __________ thoughts or actual D. VIDEO POKER MACHINES
Video poker is especially addicting due to the ___________ of
winning or losing, an ability to increase both time and money, theability to lose oneself in the game, and the ____________of a skill Because of these qualities, video poker has been called the “________ _________” of gambling due to its addictive potential.
In states with video poker machines, _____ to ____ of people entering treatment listed video poker as their game of choice. (p. 299) ___________ _____________ (GA) is a 12-step program for E. TREATMENT
NOTE: see Chapter 9 for information about gambling treatment.
VIII. COMPULSIVE SHOPPING
Compulsive shoppers describe the relief from _____________ and
the subsequent high when buying as being similar to the highfrom __________. (p. 300) Both result in a subsequent _______ accompanied by more depression and guilt than felt before buying. (p. 300) ___________ is a major reason some become compulsive shoppers.
IX. EATING DISORDERS
___________ nervosa is an addiction to weight loss, fasting, and
___________ nervosa is binge eating often followed by purges using self-induced vomiting, fasting, or excessive exercise. (p. 301) ________-________ disorder is basically defined as “bulimia without vomiting, laxatives, or other compensatory activities.” (p. 301) Like other addictions, eating disorders involve a sense of ______________ when dealing with food or eating. (p. 301) With eating disorders, there is a high incidence of __________ disorders, especially depression, anxiety, __________ abuse, and A. EPIDEMIOLOGY
Anorexia and bulimia are overwhelmingly _________ disorders in part
because women have been socialized to regard their self-worthas closely tied up with their physical appearance. (p. 302) B. ANOREXIA NERVOSA
Anorexia is weight _________. (p. 302)
Anorexics will maintain weight through dieting, fasting, the use of ______________ and diet pills, and excessive exercise. (p. 302) Anorexics have a distorted ___________ of their body’s shape, believing they are overweight when they are actually emaciated.
(p. 302) _______________ strains all the body systems especially the heart, ________-________ among anorexic patients have been estimated at 4–20% over the life of the disease with risks increasing as weightloss approaches 60% of normal. (p. 303) It usually takes ___–___ weeks for full nutritional recovery. (p. 303) Prozac, other _____________, and MAO inhibitors have been tried to treat the underlying ___________ of eating disorders. (p. 303) C. BULIMIA NERVOSA
Bulimia nervosa is characterized by eating large amounts of food in
one sitting (__________) followed by inappropriate methods of People with bulimia often are ___________ of their behavior, so they do it secretly and consume food rapidly. (p. 304) Problems include _________ complications, ________ problems, electrolyte imbalances and a greater liability for alcohol or drugabuse. (p. 304) D. BINGE-EATING DISORDER (including compulsive overeating)
Binge-eating disorder is marked by recurrent episodes of binge eating
__________ vomiting or other compensatory activities. (p. 306) People with a binge-eating disorder feel that they cannot __________ the amount eaten, the pace of eating, or the kind of food eaten.
(p. 306) They will only stop only when it becomes painfully _____________.
Both physiological and ______________ causes underlie the Diet pills (especially amphetamines and amphetamine congeners) are only recommended for ________-_______ use. (p. 308) X. SEXUAL ADDICTION
A. DEFINITION
Sexual addiction can include masturbation and ____________ (the
most frequent behaviors) along with serial affairs, phone sex, orvisits to topless bars and strip shows. (p. 308) Collateral addictions include _______ addiction and relationship B. EFFECTS & SIDE EFFECTS
Compulsive sexual behavior is a way to cope with _________, stress, solitude, or low ______-_______. (p. 308) XI. INTERNET ADDICTION
A. DESCRIPTION
Some people experience a stimulant-like ________ when online while
others speak of being ____________ by their quiet isolation (similar to action and escape type __________). (p. 310) B. CYBERSEXUAL ADDICTION
Some Internet users log onto _______ sites compulsively and use
chat rooms and message boards to find sexual partners. (p. 310) C. COMPUTER RELATIONSHIP ADDICTION
Problems begin when the online relationships draw the Net surfer
away from his or her real-life _______________. (p. 310) D. INTERNET COMPULSIONS
Internet compulsions involve online ___________, game playing, and
XII. CONCLUSIONS
As useful as seeing the similarities between substance abuse and
behavioral addictions can be, there is danger in _____________ the concept of addiction thereby obscuring the distinctivecharacteristics of a specific addiction. (p. 311) CHAPTER 7 KEY WORDS & PHRASES
Any substance that is vaporized, misted, or gaseous that isinhaled and absorbed through the lungs.
These are petroleum distillates that are abused as inhalants.
A liquid that is dispersed in the form of a fine mist.
Synthetic drugs (butyl, amyl, and isobutyl nitrite) that are usedas inhalants.
A substance that causes the loss of the ability to feel pain orother sensory input, e.g., ether, halothane, and nitrous oxide.
Breathing in the inhalant through the nose directly from thecontainer. In contrast, “snorting” puts solids, like cocaine, incontact with the mucosa of the nasal passages.
Putting a solvent-soaked rag, sock, or other material over or inone’s mouth or nose and inhaling.
Slang for an inhalant user or abuser.
Putting an inhalant, such as airplane glue, in a plastic baggieand inhaling the fumes.
Spraying an inhalant directly into the nose or mouth.
The use of a pin or other “cracking” device to puncture a can of nitrous oxide or other inhalant. A balloon is placed over the endof the can. The vapors are then inhaled.
A description for the instant effects of volatile solvents.
Compounds that turn to vapor or gas at room temperature.
A liquid hydrocarbon solvent that is used as an intoxicatinginhalant. It is found in many household products and glues.
A commonly used organic solvent found in typewriter corrections fluids, paints, and spot removers.
A class of gaseous hydrocarbons that includes methane,butane, and propane.
Ethyl alcohol found in beer, wine, and distilled liquors that canbe vaporized and inhaled. Methyl and isopropyl alcohol canalso be inhaled.
The dilation of blood vessels caused by volatile nitrites causesa rush of blood to the head. They are used in sexual activity.
An anesthetic that was originally used and abused in thenineteenth century for its intoxicating effect; also called“laughing gas.” A volatile liquid, ether was the first anesthetic. It wasdiscovered in 1730 and called “anodyne.” Small metal canisters containing nitrous oxide (laughing gas).
They are sold as whipped cream propellants.
The accurate appraisal of one’s surroundings which is oftendisrupted during inhalant use, detoxification, and initialabstinence.
Any drug that increases performance and strength in athleticsor bodybuilding.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids build muscles and strength andinduce male characteristics. They are similar to testosterone.
A painkiller that works by changing the perception of the painrather than truly deadening the nerves as an anesthetic would.
Trade names for prescription opioid analgesics.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are used to controlinflammation and lessen pain, e.g., Motrin and Advil.
A class of drugs related to cortisol, a natural hormone thathelps control allergic reactions and relieves inflammation andpain. These are different from anabolic steroids.
Short for “exercise-induced asthma” that affects 11–23% ofathletes.
Using two or more steroids at one time to increaseeffectiveness.
Using different steroids over set periods of time to minimizeside effects and maximize desired muscle-enhancing effects.
Slang term for impulsive anger and impulsive aggressivenessthat occur from long-term use of steroids.
Ma huang: the natural source of the stimulant ephedrine.
An isomer of ephedrine that is used in the illicit manufacture ofmethamphetamines. It is found in many over-the-counterproducts.
Human growth hormone is produced by the body. It stimulatesbody growth and muscle size and is used illicitly in sports. Itcan be synthesized.
A term for abnormal bone growth caused by HGH.
A natural hormone found in all animals and some plants. It is aprecursor of testosterone. It is used to enhance recovery andgrowth from a workout.
Dehydroepiandrosterone: a hormone supplement used bysome athletes to try and increase testosterone levels.
A class of drugs (e.g., atenolol) that calms the body’s heartrate, respiration, and tension by blocking epinephrine(adrenaline).
Erythropoietin: a synthetic hormone that stimulates theproduction of oxygen-laden red blood cells.
Transfusing extra blood before an endurance sporting event toincrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of the circulatorysystem.
A nutritional supplement synthesized in the body or extractedfrom fish and meat. It helps someone who is working out torecover faster.
Drugs that decrease water in the body by increasing theurination. They are often used to make one’s competing weightis sports.
Gamma hydroxybutyrate: a synthetic version of a naturalmetabolite of GABA. It is used as a sleep inducer. It is popularamong bodybuilders and is used as a party drug.
Drugs nutrients, drinks, vitamins, extracts, and herbal potions that proponents think will boost intelligence, memory, anddetoxify the body.
An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed byweight control techniques including vomiting, excessiveexercise, and laxatives.
An eating disorder marked by a refusal to eat and a fear ofmaintaining a minimum normal weight.
An anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing obsessive thoughts than can only be resolved by acting out a compulsivebehavior, such as repetitive hand washing.
A disorder where there is a failure to resist an impulse that is harmful to the individual or to others but often starts out aspleasurable.
Refers to a big win of dollars all at once that sets up a cravingto continue to gamble.
Continuing to gamble in order to recoup previous losses.
Gamblers Anonymous: a 12-step program of peers offeringhelp to problem/compulsive/pathological gamblers.
The comedown from a high after impulse control behaviors likecompulsive gambling. Depression and anhedonia are common.
Bulimia without vomiting, laxatives, or other compensations.
Having more than one diagnosable disorder. Also called “co-occurring disorders” (COD).
An SSRI antidepressant used to treat some eating disorders.
Also called “romance addiction,” the compulsion to fall in loveand be in love.
A desire to have a compulsive relationship with either one A compulsive disorder, also called “cyberaddiction,” marked by compulsive involvement in chat groups, game playing, sexualrelationships, and other Internet activity.
CHAPTER 7 PRACTICE TEST
Multiple Choice
7. Which is NOT one of the three main types of 1. Which statement is NOT true for inhalants? a. Inhalants are cheap, readily available, b. In law enforcement, inhalant abuse has a low status among drug abuseproblems.
a. Many young people use AASs strictly to d. There are distinct withdrawal symptoms 9. Which of the following is a popular nutritional 3. Which is a reason people use inhalants? 10. Which of the following would NOT be an 4. The most abused solvent inhalant is 5. Which is a warning sign of organic solvent 11. To the compulsive gambler, “to chase” b. to continue to gamble in order to recoup c. to drink and gamble at the same time.
6. Which is NOT true of nitrous oxide (laughing gas)?a. When inhaled, it has a rapid onset and 12. Which of the following is NOT an eating b. It is classified as a controlled substance.
c. To possess nitrous oxide with the intent 13. Which statement is most true regarding 17. Nitrous oxide use can cause hallucinations.
anorexics?a. They know how thin they are but want to 18. The liability for physical dependence and addiction to inhalants is less than for other b. They don’t know how thin they are and c. Peer approval of their thin look will slow 19. The use of drugs in sports by athletes is a control disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders is whether the behavior is used primarily to reduce anxiety without deriving pleasure from the activity or whether initially the behavior starts out as pleasurable.
21. The proliferation of fast-food restaurants is an example of an environmental factor that 15. Concerning Internet addiction, which of the following is NOT true?a. Some individuals experience a 22. Compulsive gambling can be as problematic b. Some Internet users log onto sex sites 23. There is no evidence to suggest that there c. Almost all Internet addiction is about sex may be a genetic (hereditary) predisposition are not that attractive to the Internetaddict.
24. Depression is a major reason some people relationships draw the Net surfer fromhis or her real-life relationships.
25. The danger of generalizing the concept of True or False
characteristics of a specific addiction thatneed to be addressed in treatment.
16. Inhalant abuse is a very modern form of drug abuse since it started only with theinvention of aerosol cans.
CHAPTER 7 -- ANSWERS TO PRACTICE TEST
1. c. Inhalants are slow acting. (p. 268) 6. b. It is classified as a controlled substance. (p. 274) 8. b. Long-term steroid use by men causes excessive masculinizing effects. (pp. 279–281) 10. a. compulsive praying (pp. 290–291) 11. b. to continue to gamble in order to recoup previous losses (pp. 295, 297) 12. d. compulsive eating disorder (p. 301) 13. b. They don’t know how thin they are and want to get thinner. (p. 302) 15. c. Almost all Internet addiction is about sex sites on the Net; games and chat rooms are not that attractive to the Internet addict. (p. 310)

Source: http://student-serv.mvcc.edu/Udaa_ver5/guide/pdf/chapter07.pdf

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PARK RULES PARK RULES GENERAL Refers to the overall structure and application of rules, regulations, provisions, and guidelines (Park Rules) promulgated by the Board of Directors of the Uptown Development (UDA) for the government and administration of the Waterwall Park (Park). ADMINISTRATION OF RULES Refers to the authority, structure and interpretation of Park Rules. 1.1.1 POLICY OF THE UD

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