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When George Washington’s administration Food and Drug Administration often have current
or past ties to the pharmaceutical companies that
in 1791, government assembled a group of private
manufacture those drugs. In December 2011, a
citizens to report on the situation. According to an
joint FDA advisory committee met to consider the
account from the time, one of the group’s first
benefits and risks of Yaz and Yasmin, popular oral
decisions was to keep its meetings private, so there
contraceptives. A majority of committee members
could be “more frank and full communication” of
voted “yes” that the benefits outweigh the risks,
“sentiments and intentions.” Thus began the gov-
even though recent studies had shown that Yaz and
ernment’s long-standing, and at times controver-
Yasmin were likely to cause blood clots. What the
sial, reliance on outside advisers to discuss the
government did not reveal was that four committee
most pressing issues of the day in private.
members who voted “yes” had past financial
Fast forward to 2012, when 70,000 individu-
arrangements with Bayer—the manufacturer of Yaz
als served on advisory panels throughout the fed-
and Yasmin—or with other pharmaceutical com-
eral government, and total government spending
panies that had a stake in the committee’s decision.
on advisory committees exceeded $350 million.
Committees that advise the Secretary of Energy
These advisory committees—which have been
are often filled with energy industry representatives.
support policies that
called the “fifth arm of government” — are now
These advisory committees, known as The National
required by law to operate with a basic degree of
Coal Council and National Petroleum Council, are
can benefit their
transparency. What’s more, President Obama—in
dominated by representatives from the coal, oil, and
an effort to reduce the “undue influence of special
natural gas industries, including executives from the
interests” — has directed federal agencies to
American Coal Council, BP, Exxon Mobil, and
remove lobbyists from their advisory committees.
Shell. Not surprisingly, these committees have advo-
But these rules have hardly ended the govern-
cated for the increased use of coal, oil, and natural
ment’s sometimes-less-than-transparent relation-
ship with advisers representing corporate interests.
To make matters worse, agency regulations
Many advisory board members support policies
and court decisions have allowed some advisory
that can benefit their private-sector employers or
committees and subcommittees to operate in
industries. They also get an inside look at the gov-
secret. In addition, some committee members who
ernment’s needs and advise their employers about
are supposed to be providing their unbiased exper-
tise to the government have been excused from
The Defense Policy Board and Defense Science
complying with federal conflict-of-interest rules.
Board—powerful committees that advise senior
Pentagon officials on a wide range of policy
remove or modify conflict of interest and
issues—have been occupied over the years by mem-
Freedom of Information Act exemption and waiv-
bers who also served as executives and board mem-
er provisions for advisory board members and
bers for top defense contractors. Recent members
ensure that unclassified portions of board meeting
include Pentagon officials who went through the
minutes are publicly available. They should also
“revolving door” to the defense industry, such as
enact an Executive Branch-wide law requiring
Edward A. Adler, a former official at the Defense
federal advisory committee members to recuse or
Advanced Research Projects Agency and director at
disqualify themselves from any discussion on mat-
Boeing; Judith A. Miller, a former Department of
ters where they or their private employer or client
Defense general counsel and director at Bechtel;
have a significant financial interest. This disclo-
and John M. Keane, a former Army vice chief of
sure or recusal statement, including name, title
staff and director at General Dynamics.
and employer, should be filed with the Office of
Outside researchers who evaluate drugs for the
Government Ethics and made publicly available.
Michael Smallberg is an investigator at the Project for Government Oversight.
Money in Democracy Part 3, Policy Makers: Committed to Public Values or Corporate Agendas?
A Publication of the
• 781-894-1179 • email@example.com
Alliance for Democracy
Early Release TABLE 2. Drug therapy for treatment and chronic maintenance therapy of AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents Preferred therapy, duration of therapy, Opportunistic infection chronic maintenance Alternative therapy Other options/issues Preferred treatment for moderate to severe Alternative therapy for moderate to severe Indica
BIOMEDICAL CHROMATOGRAPHY Biomed. Chromatogr. 14 : 219–226 (2000) Determination of Ibuprofen in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography: validation andR. Canaparo1*, E. Muntoni1, G. P. Zara1, C. Della Pepa1, E. Berno1, M. Costa2 and M. Eandi11Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy2Department of Electronics, Polythecn