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Executive Office of Health and Human Services
250 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02108-4619
DEVAL L. PATRICK
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
TIMOTHY P. MURRAY
JUDYANN BIGBY, MD
STATE HEALTH OFFICIALS ANNOUNCE SECOND HUMAN CASE OF WNV IN
MIDDLESEX COUNTY; RAISE WNV THREAT LEVEL IN CAMBRIDGE
EEE threat level raised to Critical in Georgetown and Halifax after EEE diagnosis in animals
– The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) today announced that a
second human case of West Nile virus (WNV) has been confirmed in Middlesex County. The
patient, a Cambridge man in his 70s, is currently hospitalized. The first human case of WNV this
year was confirmed in another Middlesex County resident on August 15. In addition to the
elevated threat level in Cambridge, the nearby communities of Arlington, Belmont, Boston,
Brookline, Somerville and Watertown have been raised to a “High” WNV threat level.
“Today’s announcement is a compelling indicator that the threat of mosquito-borne illness is
widespread, and people should continue taking simple, common-sense steps to protect
themselves and their families against mosquito bites,” said DPH Commissioner John Auerbach.
“Use insect repellant, cover exposed skin, and avoid outdoor activities at dusk and after nightfall
when mosquitoes are their most active.”
“Both Middlesex County cases have been identified as Cambridge residents,” said Claude Jacob,
the city’s Chief Public Health Officer and director of the Cambridge Public Health Department.
“Our department has been working with city and community partners to inform residents about
the increased risk of West Nile virus this summer. We’re also working with the East Middlesex
Mosquito Control Project and city departments to reduce mosquito breeding grounds.”
Health officials also announced today that a diagnosis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) has
been confirmed in a horse stabled in Georgetown and in an alpaca stabled in Halifax. As a result,
the EEE threat level has been raised to “Critical” in Georgetown, and to “High” in the nearby
communities of Boxford, Groveland, Newbury, Rowley, and West Newbury. The EEE threat
level has been raised to “Critical” in Halifax and to “High” in neighboring East Bridgewater,
Hanson, Pembroke, and Plympton. Consistent with EEE threat level guidelines, DPH strongly
WNV and EEE Threat Levels Raised, page 2 of 3
recommends that evening outdoor events are curtailed in all these communities for the
remainder of the mosquito season.
WNV infected mosquitoes have been found in 67 communities from nine counties so far during
2012. There were six cases of WNV in Massachusetts residents and one in a horse last year.
While WNV can infect people of all ages, people over the age of 50 are at higher risk for severe
disease. WNV is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Most
people infected with WNV will have no symptoms. When present, WNV symptoms tend to
include fever and flu-like illness. In rare cases, more severe illness can occur.
There were two cases of EEE in August of last year acquired in Massachusetts, including a fatal case in a Bristol County man. EEE activity in both 2010 and 2011 raised public concern and prompted DPH to work with a panel of experts to evaluate and enhance the state’s surveillance and response program. EEE is spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. EEE is a serious disease in all ages and can even cause death.
People have an important role to play in protecting themselves and their loved ones from
illnesses caused by mosquitoes:
Avoid Mosquito Bites
Apply Insect Repellent when Outdoors.
Use a repellent with DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-
toluamide), permethrin, picaridin (KBR 3023), oil of lemon eucalyptus [p-methane 3, 8-diol (PMD)] or IR3535 according to the instructions on the product label. DEET products should not be used on infants under two months of age and should be used in concentrations of 30% or less on older children. Oil of lemon eucalyptus should not be used on children under three years of age.
Be Aware of Peak Mosquito Hours.
The hours from dusk to dawn are peak biting times
for many mosquitoes. Consider rescheduling outdoor activities that occur during evening or early morning.
Clothing Can Help Reduce Mosquito Bites.
Wearing long-sleeves, long pants and
socks when outdoors will help keep mosquitoes away from your skin.
Mosquito-Proof Your Home
Drain Standing Water. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water.
number of places around your home for mosquitoes to breed by either draining or discarding items that hold water. Check rain gutters and drains. Empty any unused flowerpots and wading pools, and change water in birdbaths frequently.
Install or Repair Screens.
Keep mosquitoes outside by having tightly-fitting screens on
WNV and EEE Threat Levels Raised, page 3 of 3
Protect Your Animals
Animal owners should reduce potential mosquito breeding sites on their property by eliminating
standing water from containers such as buckets, tires, and wading pools – especially after heavy
rains. Water troughs provide excellent mosquito breeding habitats and should be flushed out at
least once a week during the summer months to reduce mosquitoes near paddock areas. Horse
owners should keep horses in indoor stalls at night to reduce their risk of exposure to
mosquitoes. Owners should also speak with their veterinarian about mosquito repellents
approved for use in animals and vaccinations to prevent WNV and EEE. If an animal is
diagnosed with WNV or EEE, owners are required to report to DAR, Division of Animal Health
by calling 617-626-1795 and to the Department of Public Health (DPH) by calling 617-983-
More information, including all WNV and EEE positive results from 2012, can be found on the
Arbovirus Surveillance Information web page aor by calling the DPH
Epidemiology Program at 617-983-6800. The findings of the DPH Eastern Equine Encephalitis
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1 Einleitung _____________________________________________________________ 3 2 Datenmaterial __________________________________________________________ 3 3 Die neuen Wirkstoffe des Jahres 2004 ______________________________________ 4 Übersicht der Wirkstoffe__________________________________________________ 4 Die Bedeutung der Wirkstoffe im Jahr 2005____