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Dust effect on the performance of wind turbine airfoils

Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 1113-1117
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.28129 Published Online October 2011 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep)
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets
of Iran in 2009

Rouhullah Dehghani¹, Seyed Gholamabbas Moosavi², Hadi Esalmi *, Malihe Mohammadi1,
Zahra Jalali1, Nargess Zamini1

1Department of Environment Health, Kashan Medical Sciences University, Kashan, Iran; 2Department of General Health of Kashan
Medical Sciences University, Kashan Medical Sciences University, Kashan, Iran.
Email: *hadieslami1986@yahoo.com
Received July 11th, 2011; revised August 15th, 2011; accepted September 23rd, 2011.

ABSTRACT

Considering the potential pesticide side effects on environment, their short and long term untoward effects on living
creatures
, their excessive usage for producing more agricultural products, and also their application to destroy pests of
any sort
, the present study was carried out to investigate the used amount of common pesticides in Iran markets. A
questionnaire was designed. Referring to pesticide selling shops and plants preservations organizations in Tehran and
Isfahan
, the sufficient data was collected and then categorized regarding the applications and the total amount of used
pesticides in a year. The results demonstrated that there were
60 sorts of used pesticides in Iran. They included Or-
ganochlorine
(10%), Organophosphorus (28.4%), Pyrethroids derivatives (10%), Carbamate derivatives (10%), and
others
(41.6%). The commonest pesticide used in a year was Organophosphorus and the least one was Organochlorine.
The obtained data pointed out that the most common pesticide was Organophosphorus. Given that Organophosphorine
compounds are poisonous in living creatures and cause short and long term side effects. It is recommended that re-
sponsible authorities provide the necessary information for the aimed groups in terms of the allowable using amount of
pesticides, the protection strategies and the pesticides hazards on users.

Keywords
: Pesticide, Organophosphorus, Organochlorine, Carbamate, Pyrethroids, Market, Iran
1. Introduction
pesticides are used in agriculture sector in the world. 50% of them penetrate to soil, water and other sources The increasing population necessitates more agricultural and also to the bodies of living creatures [7]. Relevant products and foodstuffs that consequently need more poisoning in many countries, especially in developing pesticide usage to destroy any pests [1,2]. The pesticide countries is considered the second causes of mortalities compounds include Organophosphorus, Organochlorine, Carbamate and Pyrethroid derivatives [3]. They have Pesticides cause untoward effects on man in two ways. some side effects on living creatures; e.g. Organophos- Firstly, they have direct effects on the health of persons phorus inhibits cholinesterase activity and it makes CNS who use them; and secondly, their remnants accumulate functional disturbances. Organochlorine accumulates in in foodstuffs which also produce side effects on man [10]. living creature bodies and also in food chain. Carbamate The side effects include short term ones like abdominal derivatives cause genetic mutations and CNS functional cramps, vertigo, headaches, diplopia, nausea, ocular dis- turbances and dermatopathies. Long term adverse effects These pesticides are used widely to improve agricul- include increased likelihood of respiratory failures, re- tural production and also to prevent arthropod-borne dis- calling disturbance, depression, nervous defects, prostate eases. But they are used improperly due to the lake of cancer, leukemia and infertility. These problems are con- appropriate knowledge about their applications and un- sidered the major health problems in the world [10-12]. toward effects. The excessive usage is harmful to eco- The various investigations conducted on farmers in system and they contaminate soil, surface and under- terms of their health status demonstrated that pesticides ground water resources [5,6]. The relevant fulfilled re- may increase the likelihood of Parkinson disease [13,14]. searches have shown that each year 2.5 million tons of Copyright 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009 WHO estimate that 3 million of farmers suffer from se- lated. After that tables were plotted and results were vere poisoning caused by pesticides is in developing countries. 18000 of them die and 21% of foodstuffs have 3. Results
pesticide contamination [7]. There are 2000 - 3000 hos- pital admissions each year in USA due to acute pesticide Totally, 48 pesticides selling shops and 2 plants preser- poisoning which 50% children. Another study revealed vation organizations were questioned. The investigations that 10% - 20% of farmers who worked in fields suffered showed that there were 60 sorts of pesticides in various from poisoning [15]. In a study fulfilled by Aghilinejad agriculture and health sectors. They included organo- et al (2008), regarding the influence of pesticides on the phosphorus (28.45), organochlorine (10%), Pyrethroids health of farmers in 5 provinces of Iran demonstrated (10%), Carbamat(10%) and other derivatives(41.6%) that 50% of farmers were illiterate and they had been (Table 1). Out of total amount of used Pesticides in a
working for 16 - 28 years. Moreover, the data showed year, 43.65 Insecticides, 12.9% Acaricides, 17.7% Her- that Organophosphorus usage was higher (95%) in Raf- bicides, 12.9% Fungicides, 1.6% Molluscicides and sanjan and Savojbolagh than in other parts of Iran. 68% of studies farmers used no protection devices and only The total amount of used pesticides in liquid from in a 5% were aware of the information pointed on the label of year was 206135 liters out of which59.435 was Organo- pesticide containers. 55% of farmers discarded the con- phosphorus, 0.11% Organochlorine, 22.45% Pyrethroid, tainers in environment with no special care [16]. 1.26% crbamat derivatives and 16.75% other compounds. With taking into account the potential hazards caused The total amont of used solid pesticides was 19390 kg by Pesticides and the excessive usage, the current study out of which 18.1% were Organophosphorus, 1.4% Or- was fulfilled to investigate the total amount of used pes- ganochlorine, 9.28% Pyrethroid, 7.48% Cabamate de- ticides in Iran in 2009. The obtained results can be used rivative’s and 63.74% 0ther sorts. Totally, the highest by health care providers, agriculture organizations, and amount of used pesticides belonged to Organophospho- those involved in applying the pesticide so that they will rus and the least one to Organochlorine (Table 2).
provide appropriate regulations for the safe usage of pes- Out of total amount of used pesticides regarding to the range of hazards, there were highly (9.3%), moderately (58.5%) and lowly (32.2%) hazardous pesticides. The 2. Materials and Methods
total amount of used pesticides based on Kilograms, This was a descriptive study to investigate the common there were 19.2% highly, 27.9% moderately and 52.9% pesticides sold in Iran markets. Firstly, a questionnaire lowly hazardous ones (Table 3).
was designed and in included some parameters like the 4. Discussion
sort of pesticides sold in Iran markets, the total used amount and their applications. The necessary information The obtained data revealed that the most common used was obtained with referring to the centers selling pesti- pesticide was Organophosphorus. In the study conducted cides and also to plants preservation organization in Te- by Bradman et al., (2011) on children inhibitanted near hran and Isfahan. Secondly, the pesticides were evalu- the fields where they world exposure to Organophos- ated and categorized concerning their ingredients, their phorus pesticides demonstrated that the children con- use base on agriculture, public health and animal farm, sumed foodstuffs containing pesticides. Therefore, in their applications and the total used amount. The ques- order to prevent the side effects related to pesticides, it is tionnaire was completed and the data was categorized. recommended that the persons exposing to foodstuffs Quantity of any groups pesticide sold out, were calcu- contaminated with pesticides wash them thoroughly with Table 1. The prevalence distribution of common pesticides sold in Iran markets based on their sorts and applications.
Copyright 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009 Table 2. The prevalence distribution of sold pesticides in Iran markets according to the used amount per a year.
Table 3. The prevalence distribution of used pesticides regarding EPA classification regarding their hazards.
sufficient water before eating [17]. In a study fulfill by cies were resistant to Permethrin and Cypermethrin [20]. Aghilinegad et al (2008), it was revealed that the most Limooi et al, studied the resistance level in German common used pesticide in Rafsanjan and Savojbolagh Cockroache strains to Pyrethroid derivatives and DDT, was Organophosphorus (95%) [16]. Another investiga- and the highest resistance levels belonged to Permethrin , tion performed by Mahmoodi et al (2006) on admitted Cypermethrin and Cyfluthrin; respectively. Also, Ger- patients to a hospital in Khoramabadi, Iran, showed that man cockroaches had resistance to DDT [21]. Another 77.1% and 22.9% of poisoning cases owed to Organo- research conducted concerning the resistance level in phosphorus and Organochlorine; respectively [18]. Hence American cockroaches to several pesticides in Kashan the findings were compatible with ours which showed hospital revealed that these Cockroaches had resistance the main cause of poisoning belonged to Organophos- to Pyrethroids, Permethrin and Cyfluthrin [22]. phorus. It seems that Organophosphorus be used mostly Therefore, considering long time resistance to pesti- due to its wide efficacy and low price in compared with cides, we should care about the efficacy of pesticides in other compounds [19]. Organophosphorus inhibits cho- each species and should carry out specific tests to deter- linesterase activity and cause CNS dysfunctions which mine the appropriate pesticide in order to prevent the are life threatening. The highest mortalities due to pesti- excessive usage. Given that the relevant poisoning to cides belonged to Organophosphorus pesticides [1]. pesticide in developing countries is 13 times higher than The present study demonstrated that the used amount that existed in developed countries; i.e. 85% of produced of Pyrethroid and Carbamate derivatives was lesser than pesticides are used in developing countries [10]. It is the amount of other compounds due to their high price, imperative that definite regulations be implemented re- the lack of awareness about their applications and the garding the pesticide applications and also placing farm- pest resistance, in spite of the fact that they have lesser ers under an obligation to follow this regulation for pre- harmful impact on environment and man in compares venting poisoning. Another strategy for decreasing pesti- with other compounds. In current study, the least pesti- cides excessive usage is integrated pest management cide usage belonged to Organochlorine, because the us- age belonged to was resistance in various species. As 5. Conclussions
mentioned before, one of the most important obstacles in pesticide application is resistance phenomenon. Considering the excessive pesticides usage, the responsi- One of the most important pests in environmental ble authorities should supervise the used amount of pes- health is Cockroaches. In the study conducted by Ladoni ticides. Moreover, continuous education programs should (1993) in Iran, the resistance level in German Cock- be held for pesticides producers and farmers. It is neces- roache strains existed in 5 different hospitals to several sary to broad cast special and technical advertisements in pesticides like Pyrethroid derivatives; e.g. Permethrin mass media in order to increase the public knowledge was investigated. The researchers found that some spe- concerning the pesticides on toward effects. Hence it is Copyright 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009 recommended that the complete educational series be [11] F. Konradsen, R. Pieris, M. Weerasinghe, V. Wander- provided for farmers in four sections: A- terms of how to hoek, M. Eddeleston and A. H. Dawson, “Community Uptake of Safe Storage Boxes to Reduce Self-Poisoning apply pesticides. B- to manage the short and long term from Pesticides in Rural Sri Lanka,” BMC Public Health, adverse effects .C- to use personal masks while applying pesticides in the fields. D- To discard the pesticides con- [12] P .Lebailly, V. Bouchart, I. Balidi, Y. Lecluse, N. Heutte, tainers carefully. Also the responsible authorities should A. Gislard, et al., “Exposure to Pesticide in Open-Field provide proper information about pesticides for someone Farming in France,The Annals of Occpational Hygiene, REFERENCES
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